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ARTS ^^'^ SCIENCES 

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BILDER- ATLAS 

( Iconographische Encyclopsdie ) 
REVISED AND ENLARGED BY EMINENT AMERICAN SPECIALISTS 



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PUBLISHED BY SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT WITH THE PROPRIETOR 

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THE 



ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA 



ARCHITECTURE 



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF 

DR. AUGUST OTTOMAR ESSENWEIN 

DiRBCTOR OP TMB GbrMANIC NATIONAL MUSBUM AT NURBMBBRG 

AND 

AMPLIFIED BY A CONTINUATION 
OF MODERN EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE AND BY AN ADDITION ON 

AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE. 

Edited by 
W. N. LOCKINGTON, Architect. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH 70 PLATES COMPRISING NEARLY 660 FIGURES. 



VOL. IV. 



PHILADELPHIA 

ICONOGRAPHIC PUBLISHING CO. 

i8S8 



Copyright, 1888, by tli« ICONOORAPHIC PUBLISHING CO. 



WMTf'uTT A 1 Hi>M«uH. LiwTvrs ConrAMV. Pkamkun rmirriKO Hoots. Oldacm * Co, 

I'H I LAD EI. PHI A. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



THE present volume of the Iconographic series, following in natural 
order those previously issued, is devoted to the consideration of 
Architecture as an Art The translation of Professor Essenwein's 
German text embraces all that precedes the Development of Modem 
English Architecture (p. 305), and also includes the Architecture of the 
American Aborigines (pp. 331-334), while the remaining text is an orig- 
inal contribution prepared expressly by the Editor for this volume. 

In the rendering there has been a strict adherence to the plan of the. 
author, though in some instances, aside from the annotations by the 
editor, the text has been thoroughly revised and duly augmented. To 
avoid the possibility of error, the author's descriptions of the multifarious 
structures mentioned have been carefully compared with those of other 
accepted authorities. 

It is believed that both the logical and the chronological arrangement 
of subjects will be appreciated by those who desire an accurate knowledge 
of the development of Architecture, and of the relations which the Art of 
one age sustains to that of another. Of special interest are the frequent 
and often elaborate dissertations illustrative of the political, intellectual, 
and religious status of diflFerent peoples at diflFerent times, and showing 
the influence that has been exerted on successive architectural forms by 
varying conditions. 

The illustrations which accompany the translated text comprise fifty- 
three double-page steel plates, embracing more than five hundred dis- 
tinct subjects. The beauty and accuracy of these engravings, even to the 
minutest detail, have rarely, if ever, been surpassed. 

Throughout all the older ages the temple, pagan or Christian, was 
the chief building, and by far the greater part of the monuments that 
have come down to us from former times are of this class. In the present 
age the temple has lost its pre-eminence: tne dwelling and the commer- 
cial building are far more prominent than the church. Arrangements for 
the comfort of individuals such as in former ages were worked out by each 



6 EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

family for its own purposes now receive the attention of thousands of 
thinkers, who, as architects, draughtsmen, contractors, manufacturers of 
scientific and artistic appliances, etc, exercise a certain amount of influ- 
ence upon the arrangement and appearance of the new buildings which 
arise on every side. 

As the scope of the original work did not include an extended account 
of Modem European Architecture, that subject has been amplified by a 
consideration of its more salient recent phases. The author has further- 
more taken into due consideration the subject of the development of 
Architecture in America, ecclesiastical, public, commercial, and domestic, 
and has selected from an extended list of noteworthy structures a series of 
characteristic examples, the description of which he has endeavored to sup- 
plement with critical remarks. The thirty-seven illustrations which have 
been prepared to accompany the original contribution to this volume have 
necessarily been confined to such representative structures as epitomize 
the special characteristics of each class. 

In the spelling of Greek proper names the method employed in the 
preceding volume has for reasons there given been adopted in this also, 
for which departure from long-established custom there needs no apology. 

W. N. LOCKINGTON. 
GCRMANTOWN, May, 1888. 



t 

I 
I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 



With special reference to the portion of this volume which is a trans- 
lation from the German, there is here appended a brief sketch of the 
scientific career of Dr. Essenwein by way of introducing his work to the 
English-speaking public: 

August Ottomar Essenwein, the Chief Director of the Germanic National 
Museum at Nuremberg, has an established reputation both as an architect and as a 
writer on art. He was born at Carlsruhe on the 2d of November, 1831, and received 
his early education in that city, passing through the Gymnasium and entering on the 
study of Architecture in the Polytechnic School. After reaching manhood he visited 
Berlin, Vienna, and Paris, availing himself freely of the treasures of their museums 
and coming into close contact with the most famous artists. Meanwhile, his pen 
was not idle, and, besides many contributions to art-journals, he published an essay 
on Brick Building in North Germany in the Middle Ages (Carlsruhe, 1855), which 
drew attention to a previously-neglected subject. Settling then at Vienna, he soon 
entered the government railway service. But Art, and especially Architecture, was 
his true vocation, and all his time which could be spared was diligently devoted 
either to the writing of essays on art-history or to plans for restorations and new 
buildings. His activity soon extended to industrial art, and he furnished hundreds 
of designs to tradesmen of all kinds. In 1864 his diligence was rewarded with an 
appointment as building- surveyor for the city of Gratz. Here he was also made pro- 
fessor of Architecture in the Technological Academy on its reorganization, in 1865 ; 
but in the next year he was called to the important post to which he has since devoted 
all his energies — the superintendence of the Germanic National Museum, at Nurem- 
berg. This institution, founded by Baron Aufsess in 1853 for collections of German 
art and antiquities, and for researches in natural history and literature, has attained 
conspicuous excellence. It occupies an old Carthusian monastery, which has been 
adapted and beautified by Essenwein himself Its picture-gallery contains master- 
pieces by Holbein, Durer, and other famous artists of South Germany. In the 
varied work connected with this noted museum the genius of Essenwein — many- 
sided, yet practical — has found a suitable field for its exercise. To the monthly 
periodical issued by the Museum he has contributed many valuable articles explain- 
ing and discussing the treasures of which he is custodian. He has also published 
his finely-illustrated work, The Monuments of Mediccvai Art in the City of Cracow 
(Nuremberg, 1867), and The Interior Decoration of the Church of St. Martin the 
Great in Cologne (Cologne, 1868). For the second edition of the Bilder-Atlas 
(1875) ^^ edited the treatise on Architecture, which is the basis of the present 
volume. His professional labors in that department have been chiefly on ecclesiastic 

7 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 



cal boildings, in which he has sought to present the results of his historical investiga- 
tions. His work heretofore has not been confined to Architecture in a strict sensCt 
but has embraced all the arts and industries that in the Middle Ages contributed to 
the enrichment of the most splendid churches of Europe. Numerous places through- 
out Germany and Austria exhibit his designs in churches, altars, windows, and orna- 
ments. Among the most renowned are the restoration of the Church of Our Lady 
in Nuremberg, the painting of the cathedral at Brunswick, and the interior decora- 
lion of the Church of St. Maiy in Cologne. 



CONTENTS. 



PACK 



INTRODUCTORY 19 

Definition, 19. — Analysis of Architectural Forms, 20. — Architectural Form an Expression of 
the Age, 20. — Ideality Expressed in Design, 20. — Art-principles, 21. — Standards of 
Form, 21. — DWelopment and Decay of Styles, 22. 

THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 23. 

1. Parallelism between Nature and Art: Fundamental Principle of Art, 23. — Character- 

istics in Art, 24 — TJie Beautiful in Art, 24. 

2. Laws of Constructive Art : Order, 25. — Symmetry, 26. — Geometrical Construction, 27, 

3. Materials of Construction^ 27. 

4. Construction, 28. 

5. Structural Details: Language of Forms, 30. — Laws of Proportion, 31. — Analogies of 

Form, 31. — Ornamentation, 31. — Decorative Forms, 32. — Color in Architecture, 32. — 
Conclusion, 33. 



PART I. ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE. 

I. The Egyptians 35 

The Priesthood, 36.— The Pyramids, 36.— -The Sphinx, 37.— Egyptian Dynasties, 37. — The 
Hyksos, 37. — Monuments of Thebes, 37. — Egyptian Temples, 38.— Culmination of 
Egyptian Culture, 38. — Great Temple at Karnak, 38. — Rock-temples of Nubia, 39. — 
Decadence of Egyptian Art, 39. — Egypt under Persian Rule, 40. — Egypt under Greek 
and Roman Rule, 40. — Character of Egyptian Architecture, 41. — Conclusion, 41. 

II. The Asiatic Races 42 

The Aborigines, 42. — Mongolians and Assyrians, 43. — Phoenicians, 43. — Primitive Type of 
Asiatic Architecture, 43 — Technical Skill, 43. — Monumental Remains, 44. Assyrian 
Architecture: Nineveh, 44. — Royal Palaces, 44. — Palaces at Nimrud, 45. — Palace-con- 
struction, 45. — Cupolas and Arches, 45. — Materials, 46. Babylonian Art : Temple of 
Bel, 46. — Babylonian Remains, 47. — Walls and Palaces, 47. — Architectonic Features, 
47. — Fall of Babylon, 48. — Palace of Ecbatana, 48. Persian Architecture : Palace and 
Tomb of Cyrus, 48. — Rock-tombs of Persepolis, 48. — Tomb of Darius, 48. — Royal 
Palaces at Persepolis, 49. — Construction, 49. — Origin of Architectural Forms, 49 — Por- 
tals, 50. — Walls, 50. — Conclusionj 50. 

III. The Pelasgian Races 51 

Pelasgian Works : City Walls of Tiryns and Mykenae, 52. — Gateways, 52. — Gate of the 
Lions, 52. — Other City Gates and Walls, 53. — Pelasgian Temples, 53. — Sepulchres, 54. 

9 



lo CONTENTS. 

fAam 
— Lydian Tombs, 54. — Rock-tomb of Midas, 55. — Treasury of Atreus, 55. — Royal Pal- 
aces, 55. — Lykian Rock-tombs, 57. Etruscan Architecture : Walls and Gates, 57. — 
Etruscan Tombs, 58. — Period of Etruscan Art-culture, 58. — Inception of Roman Art, 
59. — Etruscan and Roman Temples, 59. — Public Works, 60. — Conclusion, 60. 

IV. Classical Architecture 61 

I. Greek Architecture : Period of Hellenic Independence, — Transition from Pelasgic to Hel- 
lenic Art, 61. — Dorians and lonians, 61 — The Greek Temple, 61. — Timber-construction, 
62. — Stone-construction, 63. — Doric Temples, 63. — Characteristics of Temple-construc- 
tion, 63.— Doric Order, 64. — Ionic Order, 65. Works of the Sixth Century £. C, : 
Temple of Artemis, 66. — Temples of Ai)ollo and Zeus, 66. — Older Parthenon, 67. — 
Temple of Athena, 67. Works of the Fifth Century B. C. : Temple of Olympian 
Zeus, 67. — Temple of Poseidon, 68. — Architecture of Athens, 68. — New Parthenon, 68. 
I . — The I*ropyla»a, 69. — The Erechtheion, 69. — Other Temples, 69. Works of the Fourth 

! Century B. C* Temple of Apollo, 70. — Temple of Athena, 71. — Mausoleum of Hali- 

kjunuissos, 71. — Temple of Artemis, 71. — Cboragic Monuments, 71. — Transition of 
; I Grecian Art, 72. — Corinthian Order, 72. — Alexandria, 73. — Temples and Public Bnild- 

' I >>^» 73- — Vaulted Construction, 73. — Hephsestion's Tomb, 74. — Theatres, 74. — Stadia, 



\ 

I * 



I 

j 



i ' 



I 
I 

i 



74. — Tower of the Winds, 75. 

2. Roman Architecture : Early Period of Roman Art, 75. — Temple of Zeus at Athens, 76. 
— Temple of Jupiter Stator, 77. — Aqueducts, Bridges, and Arches, 77. — Temple of 
Hercules, 77. — Roman Tombs, 77. — Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 78. — Character- 
istics of I^ter Roman Art, 78. — Tuscan Order, 78. — Tabularium, 79. — Theatres, 79. — 
Temple of Venus Genitrix, 80. — ^Julian Course, 80. — Circus Maximus, 80. — Bridges, 80. 
— Spread of Grecian Art, 80. — Augustan Era, 81. — Temple of Fortuna Virilis, 81.— 
Other Temples of this Period, 81.— Circular Temple-structures, 81. — Pantheon, 81. — 
Architeclurr.l Activity of this Period, 82. — Basilicas, 82. — Basilica at Fano, 82. — Arches, 
%^. — Theatre Marcellus, 83. — Tomb of Augustus, 83. — Architecture under Later Empe- 
rors, 83. — Roman Cities, 83. — Dwelling-houses, %'^. — Works of Vespasian, 84. — Col- 
iseum, 84. — Works of Titus, 84. — ^Trajan's Works, 8$. — Forum and Basilica Ulpia, 85. 
— Arches and Columns, 8$. — Other Works of Trajan, 86. — Hadrian's Works, 86. — 
Influence of Egyptian on Roman Art, 86. — Temple of Venus and Roma, 87. — Other 
Works of Hadrian, 87. — Mausoleum of Hadrian, 88. — Works of Antoninus Pius, 88. — 
Works of Marcus Aurelius, 88. Works of the Third Century A.D.: Arch of Severus, 
' 89.— Baths of Caracalla, 89. — Other Works of the Third Century, 89.— Period of the 

Decline, 90. — Temple of the Sun at Rome, 90. — Temple of the Sun at Palmyra, 90. — 
Ruins of Baalbec, 90. — The Great Temple, 90. — Temple of the Sun, 91. — Temple of 
Virtus et Honos, 91. — Works of Diocletian, 91. — Baths of Diocletian, 91. — Pompey*s 
Pillar, 91. — Palace of Diocletian, 91. — Circus of Maxentius, 92. — Basilica of Peace, 
92. — Works of Constantine's Time, 92. 

\\ 3. Application of Color to Architecture : Egyptian, 93. — Assyrian and Babylonian, 93. — 

Phoenician, 93. — Grecian, 94. — Roman, 94. 



PART II. EARLY CHRISTIAN, MEDIAEVAL, AND 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. 

I. Early Christian Architecture 97 

Early Christian Churches, 97. — Basilicas, 97. — The Sessoriana, 97 — Basilic.i of St. Peter, 98. 
— Basilica of St. John Lateran,98. — Other Basilicas, 98. — Domical Churches, 98. — Church 
of Sta. Sophia, 98. — Churches of North Africa, 99. — Architecture of Central Syria, 99. 
— Vaulted Construction, 99. — Syrian Toml>s, 99. — Syrian Cities, 100. — Construction, 
100. Christian Churches of the Fourth Century : Tomb of St. Helena, too. — Tomb 
of Sta, Costanza, loi. — Sta. Maria Maggiore, loi. — S. Paolo fuori le Mura, loi. — S. 
Maria Rotondo at Nocera de Pagani, loi. — S. Lorenzo at Milan, loi. — Fall of Rome, 



CONTENTS. II 

PACK 

loi. Churches of the Fifth Century: Circular Churches, 102. — S. Stefano Rotondo at 
Rome, 103. — Syrian Churches, 103. — St. Simeon Styliies, 103. Structures of the Sixth 
Century : Works of Theodoric, 103. — Palace of Theodoric, 103. — Tomb of Theodoric, 
104. — Church S. Vitale, 104. — Works of Justinian, 104. — Church Sta. Sophia, 104. — 
Ornamentation, 106. 

II. Offshoots of Classic Art 106 

1. Sdsdnian Style: Historical, 106. — Khosrau II., 107. — Architectural Remains, 107. — Cha- 

racteristics of Sas&nian Architecture, 107. 

2. Architectural Art of the Franks and Other Germanic Races : Buildings of the Fifth and 

Sixth Centuries, 108. — Buildings of the Seventh and Eighth Centuries, 108. — Convent 
of Fontanellum, 109. — Decadence of Architectural Art, 109. — Architectural Revival under 
Charlemagne, 109. — Works of Charlemagne, 109. — Buildings of the Ninth Century, 
no. — Eginhard's Works, no. 

3. Byzantine Style : Domical Churches, in. — Church of Sta. Sophia, in. — Sta. Irene and 

Other Churches, 112. — Royal Palaces, 112. — Works of Basil, 112. — Agia Theotokos, 
113. — Byzantine Art in Venice, 113. — St. Mark's, 113. — Church of St. Front, 113. — 
Influence of Byzantine Art in Sicily, 114. — Byzantine Art in the Eastern Empire, 114. 

III. Architecture of Later Races ^ 115 

1. Indian Architecture : Ancient Remains, 115. — Literature and Chronology, 115. — Brahman- 

ical Cult, 116. — Cult of Buddha, 116. — Buddhistic Art, 116. — Triumphal Columns, 116. 
— Dhagobas or Topes, 116. — Agoka's Works, 116. — Tope of Sanchi, 117. — Other 
Groups of Topes, 117. — Conventual Structures, 117. — Chaitya and Vihara Grottos, 117. 
— Grotto of Karli. 118. — Ajuntah Chaityas, 118. — Ajuntah Viharas, 118. — Ellora Caves, 
119. — Temple of Viswakarma, 119. — Brahmanical Art, 119. — ^Grotto-temples, 119. — 
The Kailasa, 119. — Chalembaram Pagoda, 120. — ^Jain Art, 120. — Temple at Sadree, 
120. — Islamitic Influence, 12 1. —7 Burmese Pagodas, 121. — Boro-Budor Temple, 121. — 
Later Hindu Art, 121. — Choultry at Madura, 121. 

2. Chinese Architecture: Influence of Buddhistic Art, 122. — Chinese Architecture, 122. — 

Temples or Pagodas, 122. — Secular Buildings, 123. 

3. Saracenic Architecture — Seventh to Tenth Century : The Kaaba, 124. — Christian Churches 

Occupied by Mohammedans, 125. — Mohammedan Art in Syria: Palestine, 125. — Mosque 
of Omar, 125. — Mosque el-Aksa, 125. — Mosque of Amru, 125. — Church of St. John the 
Baptist at Damascus, 126. — Development of Architectural Forms, 126. — Stilting of the 
Arches, 126. — Pointed and Horseshoe Arches, 126. — Mohammedan Art in Turkey: 
Palaces, 127. — In Spain: Mosque at Cordova, 127. — In Africa: Mosque of Ibn Touloun, 
128. — Conquest of Sicily, 128. — City and Palace of Az Zahra, 129. Mohammedan Art 
from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century ^ 129. — In Egypt: Mosques, 130. — Mosque 
of Saladin, 130. — Mosque of Sultan Hassan, 130. — Mosque el-Moyed, 131. — Kait-Bey 
Mosque, 131. — In Sicily: Under Norman Rule, 131. — Influence of Saracenic Art in 
Sicily, 131. — Palaces, 131. — Palace Zisa, 131. — Palace Kuba, 132. — Palatine Chapel, 
132. — In Persia, 132. — Asia Minor and Syria: Mosques, 133. — Green Mosque at 
Nicaea, 133, — Great Mosque at Broussa, 133. — In Spain : Mosque of Seville, 134. — The 
Giralda, 134. — The Alcazar, 134. — The Alhambra, 135. — Court of the Blessing, 135. — 
Court of the Lions, 135. — Hall of the Abencerrages, 136. — The Generalife, 136. — 
Characteristics of Moorish Architecture, 136. — Moorish Ait in Africa, 137. — Moham- 
medan Art in India: The Kutab-Minar, 137. — Persian-Mohammedan Art : The Mydan- 
i-Shah, 138. — The Chihil-Sut6n, 139. — The Medresseh, 139. — Caravansaries, 139. — In- 
dian-Mohammedan Architecture : J^mm&-Masjid, 140. — Moti-Masjid, 140. — The T&j- 
Mahal, 140. — In European Turkey : Mosques, 142. — Fountain of Sultan Achmet, 142. — 
Mural Decoration, 142. 

4. Russian Architecture : Russian Civilization, 143. — Architecture of the Eleventh Century, 

143. — Twelfth Century, 144. — Thirteenth Century, 144. — Conquest of the Mongols, 144. 



i 12 CONTENTS. 

i 



PAGB 

— Architecture of the Fifteenth Century, 144. — Church of the Assumption, 144. — Archi- 
tecture of the Sixteenth Century, 145. — Cathedral Vassili Blashennoi, 14$. — Architec- 
ture of the Seventeenth Century, 145. 

IV. RoMANEsquK Architecture 146 

A. German Romannque cf the Tenth Century : Works of Otho the Great in Saxony, 148. — 

Architecture on the Rhine, 1 49.-7 Architecture of Southern Germany, 150. 

B. German Romanesque of the Eleventh Century : Development of Architecture at this 

Period, 151. — New Elements of Construction, 151. — Architecture of North-west Ger- 
many, 152.— Church of St. Michael, 152. — Architecture on the Rhine, 154. — Cathedral 
of Mayence, 155. — Hirschau Convent, 157. — Further Development of Architecture, 157. 
— Vaultinjj, 157. — In Southern Germany, 158. — In Austria, 159. — In Bohemia, Poland, 
and Hungary, 159. 

C. German Romanesque of the Twelfth Century : Rhenish Provinces, 159. — Convent- 

church at Laath, 160. — In Southern Germany, 161. — In Saxony, 162. — In North-east 
Germanv, 162. 

D. Italian Romanesque , Tenth to Twelfth Century: Upper and Middle Italy, 164. — 

Campanili, 166. 

E. French Romanesque^ TeHth to Twelfth Century: Abbey of Guny, 167. — Church of Cluny, 

168. — Church of Notre Dame du Port, 168. — In Normandy, 169. 

/". English Romanesque: Characteristics of English Romanesque, 170. 

G. Spanish Romanesque : Vaulting, 170. — Shrine of S. Jago, 1 7 1. — First Appearance of 
the Gothic in Spain, 171. — The Crusades, 172.— Influence of the Church on Architectural 
Development, 173. 

H. French Architecture from the Close of the 7\velfth Century: Transition to the Gothic: 
Constructional Development, 173. — Groined Vaulting, 174. — Transition to Gothic, 174. 
— Pointed Arch, 174. — Pointed Vaulting, 174. — Diagonal Ribs, 175. — Church of St. 
Germain des Pr^, 176. — Church of Notre Dame. at Ch&lons, 176. — Noyon Cathedral, 
177. — Church of Notre Dame at Paris, 177. — Laon Cathedral, 178. — Soissons Cathedral, 
179. — Noyon Cathedral, 179. — Cathedral of Langres, 179. — Notre Dame at Dijon, 180. — 
Notre Dame at Paris, 180. — Church at Vezelay, 181. German Transition to the Gothic, 
181. — Cathedral of Bamberg, 183. — Cathedral of Magdeburg, 183. — Cloisters, 183. — 
Convent of Maulbronn, 184.— Dwelling-houses, 184. — Ornamentation, 184. — Column- 
base and Cornice, 185. — Development of Forms, 185. 

V. Gothic Architecture 186 

1. French Gothic, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries : Development of the Gothic, 187. — 

Effect of the Innovation, 187. — St. feticnne at Auxerre, 188. — Church at Rieux, 188. — 
Cathedral of Notre Dame at Coutances, 189. — Notre Dame at Le Mans, 189. — Cathedral 
at Bourges, 189. — Cathedral of Rouen, 189. — Cathedral of Rheims, 190. — Cathedral of 
Amiens, 190. — Architectural Activity, 191. — Convents, 191. — Private and Public Works, 
191. — Sainte Chapelle at Paris, 191. — Cathedral of Tours, 192. — Conventual Buildings, 
192. — Church of St. Denis, 192. — Cathedral of Bcauvais, 192. — Improvement in Forms, 
193. — Cathedral of Bayeux, 193. — Friars' Churches, 193. — Church of the Jacobins, 
194. — Structural Modifications, 194. — Cathedral at Paris, 194. — Cathedral at S^ez, 194. — 
Cathedral at Alby. 195. — Cathedral at Carcassonne, 196. — St. Ouen at Rouen, 197. — 
Palaces: The Ix>uvre, 197. — Hfttel St. Paul, 197. — Papal Palace at Avignon, 197. — 
Chftteau of Pierrcfonds, 198. 

2. English Gothic, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Century: Early English Gothic, 198.— Canterbury 

Cathedral, 198. — Temple Church at London, 199. — Worcester Cathedral, 199. — Salis- 
bury Cathedral, 199. — Minster at Beverly, 200. — lancet Arches, 200. — Lincoln Cathe- 
dral, 201. — Lichfield Cathedral, 201. — Westminster Abbey, 202. — Exeter and York 
Cathedrals. 203. — Melrose Abl)ey, 203. — Timber-construction, 203. — Characteristics of 
English Gothic, 203. — Perpendicular, 204. — Fan-vaulting, 204. — Castles, 205. 



CONTENTS. 13 

PAGE 

3. German Gothic, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Century : Church of Our Lady at Treves, 205. — 

Temple of the Holy Grail, 206. — Chapel at Treves, 206. — Cistercian Church at Marien* 
stadt, 206. — Premonstratensian Church of All Saints, 206. — Church of St. Elizabeth at 
Marburg, 207. — Spread of Gothic in Germany, 207. — Dominican Church at Esslingen, 
207. — Cathedral at Metz, 209. — Minster of Freiberg, 209. — Cathedral of Cologne, 209. 
— Magdeburg Cathedral, 210.— Church of Schulpforte, 211. — Cathedral of Meissen, 
211. — Old Church at Ratisbon, 212. — New Church at Ratisbon, 212. — Later German 
Gothic, 213. — Development of Form-system, 214. — German Idealism, 214. — Fanciful- 
ness of Forms, 215. — Facade of Strasburg Cathedral, 216. — St. Stephen's at Vienna, 
216. — Cathedral of Prague, 217. — St. Lawrence at Nuremberg, 218. — Church of St. 
Lambert at Miinster, 219. — Minster at Ulm, 219. — Antwerp Cathedral, 219. — Brick- 
construclion, 220. — Brick Churches, 221. — Secular Structures of the Thirteenth Cen- 
tury, 222. — Defensive Works, 222. — Town-halls, 223. — Dwellings, 223. — Secular Struc- 
tures of the Fourteenth Century, 224. — Secular Structures of the Fifteenth Century, 
225. 

4. French Gothic, Fifteenth Century : Church-architecture, 226. — Secular Architecture, 226. 

— Ch&teau of Poitiers, 226. 

5. Spanish Gothic : Barcelona Cathedral, 228. — Secular Buildings, 229. 

6. Italian Gothic : Course of Development, 229. — Church-architecture, 230. — ^Transitional 

Style, 230— San Antonio of Padua, 231. — Siena Cathedral, 231. — Florence Cathedral, 
232. — Duomo at Milan, 232. — S. Petronio at Bologna, 233. — Certosa di Pavia, 233. — 
Como Cathedral, 233. — Gothic in Sicily, 234. — Decorative Works of Art, 234. — Sec- 
ular Buildings, 234. — Palaces and Castles, 234. — Public Buildings, 235. — Venetian 
Palaces, 235. — Palazzo Ducale, 235. — Fountains, 235. 

VI. Renaissance Architecture 236 

1. Italian Renaissance : Inception of the New Style, 237. — ^Works of Brunelleschi, 237. — 

Florence Cathedral, 237.— -The Dome, 238.— Abbey of Fiesole, 238.— Palazzo Pitti, 
239. — Palazzo Quaratesi, 239. — Brunelleschi School of Architecture, 239. — Works of 
Alberii, 239. — Influence of the Florentine School, 240. — Sistine Chapel, 240. — Certosa 
di Pavia, 240. — Sta. Maria in Vado, 240. — Bramante, 241. — Ideal in Church-architec- 
ture, 242 — Palaces, 242. — Churches, 243. — Structures of the Sixteenth Century, 243. — 
Peruzzi, 244. — Sanmicheli, 244. — Raphael, 244. — Sangallo, 245. — Romano, 245. — San- 
sovino, 246. — Baccio d'Agnolo, 246. — Antonio di Sangallo, 246. — Michelangelo, 246. 
— Vignola, 247. — Alessi, 247. — Ammanati, 247. — Church of II Gesii, 248. — Andrea 
Palladio, 248. 

2. Spanish Renaissance, 250. 

3. French Renaissance: Churches, 252. — Structures of the Sixteenth Century, 252. — Ch&tean 

Bury, 252.— Chateau Blois, 252. — Tomb of Louis XII., 253.— Chateau Chambord, 253. 
—Chateau Madrid, 254.— Church of St. Eustache, 254.— H6tcl de Ville, 254.— H6tel 
Ecoville, 254. — Louvre and Tuileries, 255. 

4. German Renaissance : Restricted Acceptance of the Renaissance, 257. — Earliest Renais- 

sance Forms, 258. — Sculpture, 258. — Painting, 258. — Spread of the Renaissance, 260. 
—Villa Belvedere, 261. — Tucher Villa, 261.— The Reformation, 262.— Effect of the 
Reformation, 263. — Palace-construction, 263. — Otto Heinrichsbau, 264. — Decadence of 
German Renaissance, 265. — The Lusthaus, 266. — Works of the Seventeenth Century, 
267. — Friedrichsbau, 267. — Arsenal at Dantzic, 267. — The Pellerhaus, 268. — Church 
of St. Mary, 268. — Town-hall of Bremen, 268. — Castle of Aschaffenburg, 268. — House 
of Leibnitz, 268. 

5. English and Scandinavian Renaissance : Longleat House, 269. — Wollaton House, 269. 

— Castle NykiSbing, 269. — Castle Rosenborg, 269. — Castle Frederiksborg, 269. — Copen- 
hagen Exchange, 270. — Castle of Kronborg, 270. — Heriot Hospital, 270. Late Renais- 
sance : Baroque Style, 270. — Classic Revival, 271. — Waldstein Palace, 272. — Inigo 
Jones, 272. — Fran(;ois Mansard, 273. — Guarini of Modena, 273. — Bernini, 273. — Bor- 
romini, 274. — Jules Hardouin, Mansard, 274. — The Louvre, 275. — Christopher Wren, 



14 CONTENTS. 

VkSM 

275. — St. PauI's London, 275. — Carlo Foutana, 275. — Fischer of Erlach, 276.-^Lucas 
▼on Ilildchrand, 277. — Colin Campbell, 277. — The Zwinger, 277. — Galilei, 278. — 
Fuga, 278. — Vanvitelli, 279. — City of Nancy, 279. — Rococo, 279. — Queue Style, 280. — 
Dwelling-houses, 281. — Theatres, 282. — Herlin University, 283. 

6. Mural DtiortUion : Kumanesque, 284. — Gothic, 284. 



PART III. MODERN ARCHITECTURE. 

1. EuroptuH Architecture : Church of La Madeleine, 287. — Triumphal Axches, 287. — 

Vend6me Column, 287. — Bank of England, 288. — Weiubrenner, 288. — Church of St. 
Isaac, 288. — Si. Pancras Church, 288. — Schinkel. 289. — V'on Klenze, 289. — Medi- 
ac\*al Tendencies, 289. — Romanesque Revival, 290. — Church of St. Michael, 290. — 
Heinrich MUbsch, 290. — Munich School, 290. — Secular Structures, 290. — New Pina- 
kothek, 291. — Carlsruhe School, 291. — Revived Gothic, 292. — Heideloff, 292. — Zwimer, 
293. — Revived Roman, 293. — Schinkel School, 293. — Berlin Style, 294. — Hanoverian 
School, 295. — Vienna School, 295. — ^**OId Christian" Style, 296. — Maximilianic Era, 
297. — Biirklein, 297. — Renaissance Revival, 298. — Semper, 298. — Architectural Resto- 
rmtion^, 301. — Later Gothic School, 302. — Gothic School of Cologne, 302. — Sum- 
mary, 304. 

2. Drothpment of Modem English Architecture : Sir Christopher Wren, 305. — Later Archi- 

tects, 305. — Batty- Langley Gothic, 306. — Grecian Revival, 306. — St. George's Hall, 
306. — Exchange Buildings, Liverpool, 306. — Royal Exchange, London, 306. — " Stuc- 
co" Era, 307. — Gothic Revival, 308. — Transitional and Mixed Styles, 308. — Mullioned 
Windows, 309. — Victorian Gothic, 309. — *« Queen Anne** Style, 311. — R. Norman 
Shaw, 311. — ^Japanese Art, 311. — Ecclesiastical Buildings, 311. — Cathedral Restora- 
tions, 312. — Sir George Gilbert Scott, 312. — George Edmund Street, 312. — New 
Bishoprics, 312. — Cathedral of St. Albans, 313. — Truro Cathedral, 313. — Public Build- 
ings, 314. — University Museum, Oxford, 314. — Keble College, 314. — New Law Courts, 
London, 314. — Albert Memorial, 315. — Wallace Memorial, 315. — Horticultural Society 
Gardens, 315. — Royal Albert Hall, 315. — South Kensington Museum, 316. — Colonial 
OfBces, 316. — Town-halls, 317. — Educational Buildings, 317. — Natural History Mu 
seum, 318. — Gub-houses, 318. — Charitable Institutions, 319. — St. Thomas's Hospital 
319. — London Street Improvements, 319. — Holbom Viaduct, 320. — Commercial Build 
ing». 320. — The Store, 320. — Hotels, 321. — Railway-stations, 321. — Apartment-houses 
321. — Dwelling-houses, 322. — English Architecture in India, 322. — Financial Build 
ings, Calcutta, 322. 

3. French Architecture: The Louvre, 323. — "Gares,*' 323.— New Hfitel de Ville, 324. — 

Mairies, 324. — Eiffel Tower, 324. — Churches, 324. — Theatres, 325. — Grand Opera- 
house, 325.— Monte Carlo Theatre, 325. — Eden Theatre, 326. — Palace of the Tro- 
cadero, 326. — l)cole des Beaux-Arts, 326. — Parisian Dwelling-houses, 326. — Seaside 
and Suburban Houses, 326. 

4. Architecture 0/ Belgium, Holland, etc. : Palais de Justice, Brussels, 326. — Antwerp Bourse, 

329. — New Art-museum, Amsterdam, 329. — Vienna Rathhaus, 329. — Hungarian House 
of Parliament, 330. — New Fondaco dei Turchi, 330. — Florence Duomo, 330. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE. 
I. Architecture of the American Aborigines 331 

Mound-builders, 331. — Aboriginal Peoples, 331. — Architectural Remains, 332. — Palenque, 
332. — Ruins of Miila, 332. — Teocallis, 333. — Buildings of Tenochtitlan, 333. — Huitzom- 
pan, ^^y — King's Palace, ^^Z- — Buildings of the Incas, 334. — Temples of the Peru- 
vians, 334. 



CONTENTS. 15 

PACE 

II. Architecture of the European Races in America 335 

1. Mexican Architecture : Church of San Francisco, Tula, 335. — Merida Cathedral, 336. — 

Cathedral of Mexico, 336. — Church of Chihuahua, 337. — Parochial Church at Lagos, 
337. — Belfries, 337. — Cathedral of Puebla, 337. — Church of San Francisco, Mexico, 
338. — Sagrario Meiropolitano, Mexico, 338. — Cathedral of Leon, 338. — Works of Tolsa, 
338. — San Teresa la Antigua, 339. — Public Buildings, 339. — Ayuntamiento, 339. — 
The Mineria, 339.— Mercados, 339. — Portales, 340. 

2. South American Architecture: Rio Janeiro, 340. — Bahia, 340. — Buenos Ayres, 340. — 

Lima, 340. — Cuzco, 340. — Church of the Jesuits, Cuzco, 340. — Arequipa, 341. — Cathe- 
dral of Santiago, Chili, 341. — Dwelling-houses, 341. 

III. Architecture of the United States and Canada 342 

1. Colonial Period : Earliest Structures, 342. — Eighteenth Century, 342. — Gambrel Roof, 342. 

— Colonial Dwelling-house, 342. — Colonial Architects, 343. — Early Ecclesiastical Struc- 
tures, 344. — Cathedral of St. Louis, New Orleans, 344. — Progress of Colonial Architec- 
ture, 344. — Dwelling-houses, 34$. — Public Buildings, 345. — Independence Hall, Phil- 
adelphia, 345. — National Capitol, 346. — White House, Washington, 346. — State-house, 
Boston, 346. — Churches, 346. — St. Michael's Church, Charleston, 346. — Christ Church, 
Philadelphia, 346. — Old South Church, Boston, 347. 

2, The Nineteenth Century: Revivals of Styles, 347. — Decadence of Imitation, 347. — 

Modem Progress, 348. — Characteristics of Modern Architecture, 348. — Classes of 
Modern Buildings, 349. — National Style, 349. — Classic Revival, 350. — American Ver- 
nacular, 351. — Vernacular Construction, 351. — Renaissance, 352. — Gothic, 353. — ^Vic- 
torian Gothic, 353. — Present Movement, 354. — *' Queen Anne," 354. — Brick and Terra- 
cotta, 354. — Iron and Stone, 355. — Timber-construction, 355. — Mill-construction, 355. 
— "Free Classic," 355. — Romanesque, 356. — Japanese, 356. — Architects, 357. — New 
Movement in Architecture, 357. Church-arc hiiecturCt 357. — St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
New York City, 358.— Trinity Church, New York City, 359.— All Saints* Cathedral, 
Albany, 360. — Garden City Cathedral, 360. — Holy Communion Church, Philadelphia, 
361. — Tabernacle Church, Philadelphia, 361. — Church of St. James the Greater, Phil- 
adelphia, 361. — St. Stephen's Memorial Church, Lynn, 361. — Cathedral of Notre 
Dame, Ottawa, 361. — Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Boston, 362. — "New" 
Old South Church, Boston, 362. — Trinity Church, Boston, 362. — Mormon Tabernacle, 
362. — Synagogues, 363. Public Buildings : Government Buildings, 363. — The Capitol, 
363. — Treasury and Patent-Office, 363. — Pension Bureau, 364. — Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing, 364. — Parliament Houses, Ottawa, 364. — New Ch&teau St. Louis, Quebec, 
364. — Custom-houses, 364. — New Custom-house, St. John's, N. B., 365. — Mints, 365. — 
Post-offices, 365. State and Municipal Buildings : State Capitol, Albany, 366. — State 
Capitol, Hartford, 366. — City-hall, New York City, 367. — New City-hall, Philadelphia, 
367. — City-hall, Albany, 368. — Allegheny County Court-house, Pittsburg, 368. — City- 
hall, Chicago, 369. — New City-hall, San Francisco, 369. Libraries : Billings Library, 
Burlington, Vt., 369. — Library at Wobum, 369. — Lenox Library, New York City, 370. 
— Ridgway Library, Philadelphia, 370. — Public-school Library, Dayton, 370. — Public 
Library, Boston, 370. American Theatres. Academy of Music, Philadelphia, 371. — 
Casino, New York City, 371. — Metropolitan Opera-house, New York City, 371. Mu' 
seums and Art-gallcries : Art-museum, Cincinnati, 371. — School and Museum of Fine 
Arts, St. Louis, 372. — Art Institute, Chicago, 372. — Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 372. 
— Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, 372. — Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 372. — 
National Academy of De?ij;n, New York City, 373. — Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
New York City, 373. — Museum of Natural History, New York City, 373. Club- 
houses : Union League Club-house, New York City, 373. — Union League Club-house, 
Philadelphia, 373. — Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 373. Hospitals and Asylums: 
Hudson River State Hospital for the Insane, 374. — Hartford Orphan Asylum, 374. — 
Napa Lunatic Asylum, Cal., 375. Penitentiaries and Jails, 375. Educational Institu- 
tions: Harvard College, 375. — University of Penn«:ylvania, 375. — Stone Hall, Wellesley 
College, 375. — Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 376. — Columbia College, 



[6 CONTENTS. 

New York Cily, 376. — UniveBily of Toronto, 376. — Girard College, Philadelphia, 376, 
—Public Schools, 376. C'mm/rnai Strutlurts : Stores and Warehouses, 377.— Iron 
Fronis, 377.— Banks and Office Block". 379.— National Bank of the Republic, Phil- 
adelphia, 379. — Insurance Company of Nonh America, Philadelphia, 379. — Haseltine 
ButUling, PhiUdelphia, 379.— Bulliit Building, Philadelphia, 379, — Drexel Building, 
Phibdclphia, 380.— Independence National Bank, Philadelphia, 380.— Keystone Na- 
tional Bank, Philadelphia. 380.— Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, Phil- 
adelphia, 380— Columbia Bank, New York City, 381.— Ast or National Bank, New York 
City, 381.— Manhattan Bank, New York Cily, 381.— United Bank, New York Cily, 
381.— Milli Building, New York City, 38a.— Tribune Building, New York City, 381, 
— Posl and Mortimer Building, New York City, 382.— Pullman Palace-car Company 
Office ISuildini;. Chicago, 383.— Railway-stations, 383— Waterworks, 3S4. Exikangn : 
Produce Exchange, New York City, 3S4.— Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, 385.— 
Cotton Exchange, Galveston, 3S5. — Exhibition Buildings, 3S5, — Music and Exposition 
Hall, St. Loui*. 386. Dux/lings : Old Colonial, 387.— House-planning, 387.— Regularity 
of Plan, 388.— Modem Plan, 388— The Fireplace, 388.— The Hall, 388.— Country- 
dwellings, 389. — Seaside Cottages, 390. — City -dwellings, 390. — Apartment-houses, 394. 
— The Berkshire, 395. — Central Park Apartment- house, 395- — Tenement-houses, 396. 
Hettb: C"ily Hotels, 397.— Suburban and Country Hotels, 398.— Ponce de Leon 
Hotel, St. Augustine, 398- — The Alcaiar, 398. — Saratoga Hotels. 399. — Memorial 
Monuments, 399. — Banholdi Monument, 400. — Conclusion, 400. 

Glossaky 401 

List of Illustrations 419 

Index of Architects, Artists, and Sculptors 4*5 

General Index 429 



PART I. 



ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE. 



ARCHITECTURE. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

IN common parlance a distinction is made between Architecture and 
Building. While the purpose of the latter is to subserve only the 

material needs of life, the fonner aims to gladden the eye and to 
awaken the emotion and imagination of the spectator. 

Definition. — Art in its stricter sense seems really to be included in 
Architecture; for while by the Arts we mean to imply all that man can 
•do — all that he consciously creates — ^we use the term ** Art" to include 
only those processes by which he endeavors to give expression to his 
emotions and ideas and to awaken the emotions and ideas of others. 
For this reason the term ''Architecture" has been applied to artistic 
building, in distinction from the constructive art of Engineering. Just 
as the ideal and material tendencies develop hand in hand in civilization 
•as a whole, so in the ordinary course of things must Architecture and 
Engineering be considered as distinct yet closely-linked departments. 

But as in the development of civilization it is seldom that one of 
these tendencies reaches its fullest realization, since all the phenomena 
of life are the result of the reciprocal action of both, so in Architecture 
the ideal rarely predominates, because all its creations need the co- 
operation of a multitude of material factors each of which exercises 
its influence over the resultant form. On the other hand, every structure 
called into being by the art of building possesses an external form that 
has been imparted to it designedly, and is the outcome of that ideal 
tendency which can never be entirely suppressed. 

The separation of the more material, constructive part of the vast 
•domain of the building art, under the name of "Engineering," from 
the more ideal part, which we assign to Architecture, is therefore based 
more upon custom than upon theory, but, since the division has been made, 
there is no reason why we should depart from it. It is not only possible, 
but it is also proper, to treat of that department of the art of building 
with which the present volume is concerned from an entirely ideal stand- 
point, leaving to other hands the task of considering the subject in its 
purely material aspect. A complete separation is, of course, impossible, 
since in every individual structure both tendencies exist and by their inter- 
weaving give character to the whole. 

19 



20 ARCHITECTURE. 

It has often been said that Architecture is the most faithful mirror of 
its period. This is true, but it is true because the material and the ideal 
side of culture, in complete combination, speak in the creations of Archi- 
tecture. As the spirit of the age may be known by its architecture, so is 
it also voiced by alL other works that the hand and the intellect of man 
have conjointly created. All this is inscribed in grander characters, more 
readily deciphered by untrained eyes, upon the huge masses moulded by 
Architecture than it is upon the lesser products of art, the crowded and 
often indistinct lines of which can be traced only by the trained eye of 
the connoisseur. The connection with the culture of the age is the same 
in all cases. 

Analysis of Architectural Fortus, — All works owe their existence to 
external requirements and circumstances; their shape, to the formative 
genius of man. This formative genius and all the works created by it 
may therefore incite us to their study in equal proportions, but especially 
in the two following directions: 

(i) Methods of construction and workmanship — namely, Technique 
and the necessary implements. The study of these belongs to Technol- 
ogy, which teaches us how to proceed in order to call this or that design 
into being, what materials to choose, and how the implements must be 
shaped that we may give to those materials the desired appearance. 

(2) The external appearance itself, as impressed upon the materials by 
human handiwork, and as causing them to fulfil both material needs and 
ideal demands. This study of form is called Tectonics^ and treats alike 
of objects large and small, since its fundamental rules are the same what- 
ever the dimensions of the object treated. 

To our special province falls the consideration of Tectonics in its 
relation to objects which in comparison with the human body are of great 
bulk, and in which the materials are used in such quantities that the com- 
bined efforts of many handicrafts or of mechanical appliances are needed 
to fashion them. 

Architectural Form an Expression of the Age. — Our next step is to 
deduce our theor>' of Architecture from the ideas advanced above, and 
then to ascertain how far this theory holds good in the course of historical 
development; for almost every nation as well as almost every age, partly 
from external exigencies, but principally in consequence of a different con- 
ception of the ideal element, has developed a distinct series of forms, in 
which its own mental status is most truly mirrored, and which is the 
most definite expression of its entire civilization. 

Thus to the tutored eye all works of art, and especially those of Archi- 
tecture, mirror the life and the intuitions of a people. Their buildings 
are milestones in their histor>'; all their works of art are examples of the 
entire development of their culture, and in accordance with the difference 
of peoples and times the style of their art-creations varies. 

Ideality Expressed in Design. — When we review the civilizations of 
the various peoples that have wandered over this terrestrial globe, we 



INTRODUCTORY. 21 

cannot deny that some have solved far more completely than others the 
problem of the ideal which presents itself to mankind. Thus there are 
apparent in the architecture of many nations a progress toward idealit>', 
a comprehension of the intellectual aspects of Architecture, and an 
aptitude to give them expression which other nations have not attained 
in so high a degree. 

We may say, therefore, of a people or of an age that their productions 
are as a whole beautiful, because the resultant forms rest upon the basis of 
true principles; while we may assert that those of another people or of 
another age are tasteless, that their art was undeveloped, or that it took 
a wrong direction. This does not depend upon the choice or power of the 
artists, but is based upon the perceptions and culture of the people or 
the age to which those artists belong. This culture and this mental 
nature form an atmosphere ffbm which each individual artist can but 
slightly free himself, since he is himself a product of it and exists 
within it 

What the artist's eye sees daily during his development and education, 
what his ear perpetually hears, the ideas imbibed in his earliest childhood, 
all he has learned at school or in the workshop or has acquired from the 
thoughts and sayings of his companions, — all these and a thousand other 
things so work in him that they determine the direction of his genius, so 
limiting his perceptive powers that even the greatest among artists 
remains a child of his period and an exponent of his people. 

In order, therefore, to judge aright of the performances of any nation 
in the domain of Architecture, we must conscientiously view it from this 
standpoint; we must ask, '' How did it deal with the problem of existence ? 
How intense was its desire to rise above the material into the intellectual ? 
What were its ideals, and how did they find expression in its Architecture?'' 
We must furthermore inquire to what extent the standard of each nation 
and age was just, how far it presented us with a series of forms at once 
rational, correct, and worthy of imitation. 

Art-principles. — There is no such thing as an intrinsically and 
absolutely beautiful form: what is beautiful in one case is not so in 
another; and yet there are general rules determining beauty of form. 
It is not chance, caprice, or personal taste that here constitutes law, but 
general principles, which, whether the artist knows them or not, lie at 
the root of all design in the realms of art; and as these rules are more 
or less followed or ignored, so more or less perfect or imperfect works of 
art are the result. 

Standards of Form. — The productions of those ages and peoples which 
as a rule we can accept as models help us to form a standard even in 
individual cases. With these monuments as criteria, and supported by 
their authority, we can decide point by point whether this or that is 
beautiful or deformed, or we can assert that we must construct an object 
in a specific manner in order that it may be beautiful. Certainly this is 
not the only method we can employ: logical reasoning is as sure an 



22 ARCHITECTURE. 

atilhont\\ But this theon* is difficult to grasp, and is of later develop- 
ment than the other. 

Dr^H'iOf^mu-mf ami Decay of StyUs. — Before works of art existed there 
v^re no rules of beaut>\ Art-perceptions have among all peoples devel- 
oped step by step with art itself, and it was not until a whole series of 
works of art existed that men deduced niles from them, and even then 
only in the higher branches. In the lower, men worked on unconcerned, 
the working rules unknown ; and certainly this was no disadvantage, for 
one might almost assert that in the higher spheres of art the first faint 
s>*mptoms of decline date from the moment when the principles had 
been clearly evol\-cd and brought into a system that should thenceforward 
be the basis of the art of design. It is in the nature of things that when 
the fulness of growth has been reached decay must commence, and even 
90 it lies in the nature of things that man must reach his highest develop- 
ment before he concerns himself with the establishment of principles. 
Through the recognition and establishment of laws a system of set forms 
takes the place of the original development of forms, and this rigid sys- 
tem^ which recognixes tlie form itself as something self-determined, is 
above all the prime cause which, at first slowly, but afterward with 
quickly-increasing rapidit\', brings on its decay. 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 



THERE are two methods by which a system may be formulated. One 
of these requires the comparative study of extant examples, which 
we must conscientiously analyze. As the naturalist by dissection 
investigates the laws according to which Nature has constructed all 
living and organic bodies from their primitive atoms, so must the art- 
critic proceed by the mental dismemberment of works of art to discover 
the laws according to which they were fashioned. He will learn to sep- 
arate the accidental from that which, since it is repeated consecutively, 
may be considered regular, and that which he thus finds to be constant 
he will consider to be a rule according to which a new work might be 
created in a similar spirit The second method is to predicate a funda- 
mental philosophical principle and out of it by argument and deduction 
to evolve a system and formulate rules. 

The goal can be best reached only by a union of both methods. 
The naturalist knows that all that he investigates, all that he dissects 
and reconstructs, is no product of chance or caprice. Every work of 
Nature proves the perfection of its Creator. Though apparently acci- 
dental structures exist, these are not really the result of chance, but are 
deviations caused by the influence of external circumstances, and may be 
investigated, accounted for, and reduced to law. We cannot thus con- 
clude concerning human handiwork, but must first prove whether true 
perception or blind chance guided the worker. 

I. Parallelism between Nature and Art. 

Fundamental Principle of Art — When we compare with one another 
different entire series of the monuments of those peoples and periods of 
which we can truly say that they stand nearest to the ideal of culture, 
and are consequently the most perfect extant, we always find a funda- 
mental principle which expresses the great natural law that no part owes 
its existence entirely to chance, but that every detail stands in direct 
relation to the general purpose and to the form of art in which that 
purpose is embodied. 

Infinitely varied as are the creations of Nature, each carries on within 
itself all the functions of organic life and has all the organs which are 
essential to it under the conditions in which it is placed, but none which 
are superfluous. In like manner, a perfect work of art, both in its general 
design and in its details, has those parts and forms which are necessary 

23 



24 ARCHITECTURE. 

for the fulfilment of its purpose, and all these parts and forms so arranged 
as to be most in keeping with that purpose. But, like Nature's products, 
spning from the hands of an infallible Creator, the '* truly perfect'* work 
of art has no organ which is purposeless, no fonn which is not in con- 
formity to the general design.* Each work of Nature has a character of 
its own, and so too is character the first requisite of beauty in any work 
of art. 

Characteristics in Art. — Again, as each organic species can exist only 
imder certain circumstances, and as each organism shows its own individ- 
ual peculiarities to a limited extent only, so entire series of buildings 
which serve the same purpose and arise under the influence of similar 
outward conditions come under our observation, and resemble one another 
almost as much as the individuals which form a species in the animal 
kingdom. Local and climatic influences determine for a related species 
functions somewhat difierent, organs somewhat modified, and some slight 
variation of outward form, and in a similar way local influences show 
themselves in structures of the same class, even when the purpose of all 
the works in the whole series is identical. 

If we apply the term '* character'' to that total fitness for a given 
purpose which is common to all the works of a series, we must assign the 
name of ** originality " to the equally full correspondence which exists 
be ween the outer appearance and the special problems presented by 
individual works. 

The Beautiful in Art. — Even as the myriads of species, genera, and 
families that we encounter in the entire realm of Nature are all different, 
and yet all perfect and beautiful because throughout this diversity is 
exhibited the great natural law of full agreement between requirements 
and outward appearance,' so likewise in the domain of Architecture 
numberless monuments fashioned for special or individual purposes come 
before us, and all may be called beautiful, however multifarious their 
differences, so long as all express their purpose in an original and cha- 
racteristic way, while none are beautiful which have borrowed for other 
purposes forms that when used rightly were characteristic, and therefore 
beautiful. 

Though ever>' product of Nature may be considered perfect in its 
kind, we yet recognize natural kingdoms which differ as a whole in the 

* Opans change their function in the course of the struggle of the organism to adapt itself to 
A changing cnvinmment. The same constant adaptation of structure has everym-here in the animal 
kingili)m left organs which once were useful, Imt now arc not. Our Ixxiies ha%*e many such. Exactly 
ihc same <H:cur» in art. Evcr\' work of art exhibits " sur\'i\-als " — namely, jxuts which were once of 
uvc, Imt aic nt)w employ eil from habit and have no significance save an arcluuological one. Much 
of our applied ct»nventi(»nal ornament is a sur\i>*al of jxuts which once had a jnirpose. Abstract per- 
fection existH neither in art nor in nature save in the sense of ))erfect adaptation to the environment, and 
this kind of (x'rf(,*ction is {x^ssible only when for long ages the environment does not change. In both 
art ami nature this perfect >)H;ciali/ation brings about extinction if the environment changes. — Ed. 

• This full agreement rarely, if ever, exists in nature or in art. Conditions change, and w*orks of 
nature as well as those of art change in their attemiits to ada{it themselves to the alterxxi rev|uirements. 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 25 

degree of organization of their component species, and even in the same 
kingdom we speak of a higher or a lower organization of animals and 
plants. In a similar way the purposes of structures, and therefore their 
outward design and ornamentation, may be called higher or lower, and 
we may no more produce the effect of beauty by taking a series of forms 
belonging to a higher structure and applying it to one designed for 
a lower purpose than may in Nature a lowly organism assume the out- 
ward form of one more highly organized. Only in so far as the purpose 
agrees can forms be similar. 

Since human creative power is not so infallible as the eternal energy 
of the Creator, the character impressed upon works of art is less defined 
than that exhibited by the works of Nature; so by occasionally borrowing 
a cycle of forms the works of art sometimes acquire a greater apparent 
similarity than really exists.^ 

2. Laws of Constructive Art. 

The character or distinctive appearance of a building depends essen- 
tially upon the grouping of its leading masses. This grouping is 
governed by the same law that obtains in the creations of Nature, 
and that gives to each individual organs of the size and shape best fitted 
to enable it to fulfil its mission in the economy of the universe. In 
the same manner must the architect fix the number, size, and relative 
position of the spaces which in their entirety compose the required 
building. The more accurately he conceives his idea, the more fully 
he realizes it in his distribution of spaces, the nearer will he approach 
Nature, and consequently the more perfect, characteristic, and beautiful 
will be his building. 

It is this which shows in the highest degree the artistic and creative 
power of the designer. This is especially the case when the size and 
relations of the spaces to be obtained do not depend entirely upon the 
material requirements, but more or less upon the impression they are to 
make and the idea they are intended to convey to the spectator. This 
impression and this idea must to a certain extent be embodied in the plan, 
and thus the building owes its leading character to the combination of 
ideal and material requirements in the arrangement of its spaces. This 
is consequently the first and most important stage of artistic creation. 

In our determination of the extent to which this artistic creation 
shall represent Nature's mode of work we must, according to the greater 
or lesser amount of idealism which the resultant building is to express, 
decide to how great an extent the mere external requirements of space 
shall be dominant and how far they shall be subordinate to the demands 
of the ideal. 

Order, — In this case artistic creation can again borrow one of the 
fundamental rules of natural creation. This rule is Order ^ and the artist 
must more particularly be guided by it when the exact arrangement of 

* The same thing occurs in nature. Thus, a whale is a mammal in the form of a fish. — Ed. 



26 ARCHITECTURE. 

the spaces required cannot be mathematically determined. The arrange-^ 
ment of a building demands that the size and number of the individual 
apartments shall bear a clearly-defined geometrical relation to one 
another. A certain geometrical relation of length, breadth, and height 
produces even in a single room a harmonious and pleasant appearance, 
just as harmony of tone is based upon a determined simple law of 
numbers. As for the separate apartments, so also for the building itself 
a simple, clear, and well-defined geometrical ratio can be found. The 
number of rooms should depend on a law of a nature similar to that 
which gives the numerical ratio of the separate apartments. The greater 
and lesser apartments should be grouped according to the principles of 
unity around a centre or around one or more axes, and the higher and 
lower ones should be placed side by side or built one over another. 

Symmetry. — The great law of symmetr>' which per\'ades Nature is 
also a fundamental law of artistic construction, but, as Nature does not 
sacrifice symmetr\' to the purpose she has in view, the architect should 
not place this law above the practical requirements of a building. Here 
we can recognize the genius of the master, because in this he must use 
discrimination in the highest degree. 

Not only does regard to the utility* of a structure compel the architect to 
de\*iate from the law of s\Tnmetr\% and even that of harmonv, but a mul- 
titnde of irresistible forces and elements also restrict the construction of 
a building by the interference, as in Nature, of one law with another. 
Complete artistic success demands abundant room, so that the structure 
may arise unhampered save by the requirements of the essential rules of 
art. If the ^ork is to reach full artistic development, ever\' means 
which artistic requirement renders essential must be employed. 

The tree does not seek its nourishment so deeply in the soil where it 
is rooted that it cannot be dwarfed by lack of space, while the weight of 
the snows and the fury of the tempests, exerted unequally upon its 
\*arioas parts« prevent it from attaining that absolute s\*mmetr\' which 
Nature designed. In this way forms which are one-sided even to 
defonxiit>' and mutilation may result from the crossing of their simple 
law of growth by other natural forces. 

In a similar manner an architectural work may be restricted hy ^-ant 
of space, lack of materials, dimatological conditions, etc., and thus 
cannot absolutely adhere to the artistic law. It must stniggle along 
and develop as best it can within the scope of its circumstances, and 
thus many works of art, like many organisms, never attain full develop- 
ment. Yet there is a peculiar charm even in this. Would a landscape 
in which ever\- tree stood in strict symmetry of ptvsition and growth 
like the ideal of an orange tree be plcasinjj lo cmr eyes? Just as we 
are forcibly attracted by the individuality that each ticc asstnnes by rea- 
son of the interference of so many natural forct*s with its natural law 
of growth, and are charmed by the wondcrftil varirtv of forms that has 
resulted while we follow with interest the K'^»*U****k: *»f dilVrrcnt jvuts of 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 27 

a living tree, so are we fascinated by the stamp of originality and the 
picturesque appearance which a building obtains from the influence of 
external circumstances. 

But, further, when the storms of time have wrought their changes on 
the completed structure, when they have cracked and scarred it as storms 
split and tear the limbs of a tree, when mosses and lichens, soil and cob- 
webs, and even a varied vegetation, have covered its walls, then its 
original beauty is enhanced, and the ruins, whether singly or in combi- 
nation, possess a charm peculiarly their own. It is true that this charm ' 
differs from that possessed by a complete work of art the analogue of 
which is a perfectly symmetrical, fully-developed, and erect tree. But 
this picturesque appearance of the tree is not the result of any definite 
intention of Nature, nor can we in our search for originality ever succeed 
by pruning and binding the branches in producing more than a cari- 
cature. 

The laws of Nature are rigorous, and all that men can do for the tree * 
that it may not become a distortion is to remove all obstacles which 
impede its development, and to contribute whatever its nature demands. 
Thus also in Architecture, when the artist attempts to supply what Time 
only can furnish, or when he uselessly and purposely violates the laws of 
artistic construction, of harmony, and of symmetry, only a distortion is the 
result. This law of harmony may no more be sacrificed to a clearly false 
artistic intention than may utilitarian purpose be likewise sacrificed, for 
it is and ever will be the foundation of all creation in the domain of art 
as in that of Nature. 

Geometrical Construction, — The question has often been raised whether 
the architect in designing ought to employ the compass and square to 
formulate a geometrical scheme of the plan and details of his building, 
or whether he should arrange his dimensions and proportions in artis- 
tic freedom, following his genius only. The answer, as regards general 
proportions, is that where extraneous demands do not require originality, 
and where size and form are not imperatively prescribed by utility, a sym- 
metrically-arranged building with its parts in harmonious relation to 
one another is always to be expected;* but whether in the attainment of 
this the artist is guided by his own ideas of proportion and harmony, or, 
distrusting his own powers, has recourse to geometrical constructions, 
depends entirely on the individual case. 

3. Materials of Construction. 

To enclose, cover, and separate the spaces, and to give to the structure 
its appropriate external form, we make use of the masses which are com- 
posed of the building materials. All materials have special properties, 
and in their choice Nature is again the master's infallible guide. She 
has built the mountains of solid rock, but the slender tree of elastic wood, 

' This must be taken with some resen'e. A large building may be regarded rather as a group than 
as an individual ; its parts must be s}Tnmetrical, and the whole must have a leading feature. — Ed. 



k 



2S ARCHITECTURE. 

thai it may bend before the furj' of the blast and spring back into its 
original position. She has constructed of inflexible material the skeletons 
of animals, but has covered the joints with elastic tissue, and has made 
the surrounding muscles soft and tender, yet tough enough to be the 
instruments of die energ\- which moves the animal on the earth or through 
the air. 

The architect has a less ample choice of materials than Nature, yet he 
will also choose the strongest and best for a fabric that is intended to 
outlast centuries. Those parts which bear a superincumbent weight he 
will construct of the hardest and most resistant materials, while those 
which are present only for their own sake or to present a beautiful series 
of fonns will be of materials that can be easilv worked. But the architect 
must not only consider the requirements arising out of the building itself, 
but, if his building is to endure, must also provide -against the assaults 
of external forces. Stone crumbles through exposure, w^oodwork is 
destroyed by fire, rust and impact deprive iron of its strength, and, accord- 
ing as one or another of these foes is through circumstances most to be 
feared, so must the materials of the structure be chosen. 

Durability, — It is tnie that in a structure erected for a modest purpose 
we cannot always aim at solidity alone, nor should we expect too much 
from a building which is designed to ser\'e only temporarj" requirements. 
We must, however, increase our demands as the undertaking becomes 
more ideal. If the object is to ser\'e an external requirement only, the 
structure, even if designed to be permanent, can be renewed after it has 
been impaired by the elements; but if it is to stand as the expression of 
a great idea, if it is to demonstrate to the contemporarj' world and to 
future generations what were the emotions of a people and a period, or 
if it is to be sacred to the Most High, it must be made of the choicest 
and most permanent materials — must be a monumental pile enduring as 
the mountains, not ephemeral like the forest foliage which is borne away 
bv the autumn winds after the fulfilment of its summer mission. 

4. Construction. 

A prime consideration in the selection of material is the manner in 
which the separate pieces can be united and the amount of strength which 
will result from their union. Constniction, which unites these masses 
and by their union encloses the spaces, is essentially dependent upon 
these qualities, and yet is itself one of the most essential factors in the 
artistic success of the fabric. It is the province of construction to 
arrange the necessar>- spaces and to enclose them with materials, also to 
combine the prescribed masses of materials so that, finnly united and 
banded, they may enclose a space. The art of constniction also exacts 
variety in the form and size of the masses, and this variation must accord 
with the nature of the material itself and the dimensions of the space to 
be enclosed; yet almost evcr\- case pennits of numerous methods. 

The style of construction affects most esseniially the aesthetic aspect 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 29 

of the design, for the question will perpetually arise which out of many 
possible modes of construction shall be chosen when neither the dimen- 
sions of the rooms nor the qualities of the materials exact a special one. 
If spaciousness is the only object, rooms may be enclosed and covered 
with the least possible expenditure of material and in the simplest 
manner, but to produce an aesthetic result a more complex construction 
is demanded, and its realization will require more material. 

Here also Nature gives us an unerring example. How wonderfully 
does she construct the skeleton, the sinews, the muscles, and the skin 
which surrounds them ! Nowhere a superfluous mass, nowhere a heed- 
less connection ! For the ends of mere existence an organism may 
be very simple and light in structure, not requiring for the function 
of locomotion the strength which resides in muscles. The weight 
of its body is not sufl5ciently great to need the support of a skel- 
eton. But the higher we ascend in the kingdom of Nature, the more 
complicated are the organisms and the vaster are the masses which 
enter into their construction, not only that they may withstand external 
forces and perform their complete functions, but also because a higher 
place in Nature's economy demands a higher organization and greater 
exertion. Nature's principles of construction yield for the guidance of 
Architecture the following law: The simplest methods should not always 
be adopted, for to the extent that the aim is ideal it must be expressed by 
more complex methods and designs. We must not limit the material to 
the minimum needed for safety, but must provide an overplus propor- 
tionate to the grandeur and ideality of the edifice.* 

5. Structurai. Details. 

The material cannot of course remain in its original form, but must 
be worked and reduced to shape. As the masses of the edifice enclose 
space, so is the edifice itself bounded by infinite space, and the boun- 
daries which result from this enclosure define the outlines of the struc- 
ture. These outlines must in their vast totality indicate the charac- 
ter and purpose of the building, while their every detail must clearly 
denote what relation a particular portion bears to the whole and how it 
contributes to the general effect. This proportioning of the several con- 
structively united parts to one another is in the German language called 
the Gliederung; literally, the '' membering." The term includes that part 

* The parallel between Nature and Art must not be carried too far. Whether the forms of Nature 
were, according to the still general belief, created each one perfectly adapted to its environment (a belief 
in opposition to every-day experience), or whether, according to the nK>re enlightened view constantly 
gaining ground, all forms of life are the result of the interaction of external and internal forces, 
each organism bearing in itself certain tendencies resulting from the. environment of its ancestors, — in 
neither case can Nature be said to have an ideal aim. The aim is practical. Man alone has an ideal 
purpose. liis ideas of the beautiful are derived from nature and from the conditions of his existence. 
The Art of every race is the result of the inherited tendencies of that race (caused by the environment 
of its ancestry) and the conditions imposed by its surroundings. The climate, the scenery, the available 
materials, poverty or wealth, are so many factors which, acting upon races whose inherited tendencies 
are diverse, produce diverse styles of art. — Ed. 




30 ARCHITECTURE. 

of proportion which is not imperatively prescribed by the requirements 
and also the arrangement of the details. The membering will be of least 
importance in mere utilitarian structures, but will become more prom- 
inent the more the aesthetic idea predominates; and in the ideal realiza- 
tion of the highest conceptions it exacts that no dead masses, as they are 
called — namely, portions unnecessary to the artistic idea — be allowed, but 
that every part shall bear its characteristic detail. 

The details — that is, the forms of the smaller separate parts — are not 
directly dependent on the general character of the whole structure, which 
can only make its influence felt in a subordinate manner, but must 
primarily depend on the nature of the materials, the kind used in each 
individual part, the manner in which the parts are connected, and the 
purpose which the connection of a series of parts into a constructional 
member serves in the entire construction. When great strength and 
consequently ponderous masses are needed, the effect of strength must be 
made clear to the eye by large, severe, massive details; while where the 
masses to be decorated serve no statical or mechanical purpose, but owe 
their presence to aesthetic demands, the existent relation may be expressed 
by light and graceful features. 

The details must not only indicate the intrinsic nature and functions 
of the individual parts of the construction, but must also enable the eye 
to bind and unite apparently incongruous elements, must harmonize dis- 
cordances and detach similarities. Supporting and supported structures 
have each their appropriate detail, and so have independent detached 
maSses. The detail is partly essential and partly conventional. In this 
respect it is like a language which expresses individual thoughts. Lan- 
guages differ according to races and nations, but not at random, since each 
tongue is absolutely dependent on the natural affinities and civilization of 
the people who speak it, and develops with their culture. 

Language of Forms, — In the same way the language of forms, of detail 
and decoration, differs with races and times, progresses with the civiliza- 
tion of a nation, and ascends hand in hand with the problems which are 
presented to Architecture by the modes of life of the people. We can 
thus explain why the general purpose and character of the whole structure 
do not exert any direct influence on the decoration. As speech develops 
with the necessity for new expressions and sharp definitions, so is it also 
with the form-speech of Architecture. As languages var\' in their power 
of expression, in their euphony and harmony, so does the language of 
fonn, expressed in the architecture of one nation, differ from that of 
others. That this is the case is proved by the fact that the speech and 
the language of form of a people usually exhibit similar properties and 
reach an equal development. Language develops according to well- 
defined laws. Certain fundamental sounds and a few general rules for the 
relation of sounds are common to all ; definite fundamental rules regard- 
ing various modes of expression are repeated ever>'where. The declen- 
sions and conjugations in all languages bear a certain relation. In the 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 31 

same way, certain fundamental elements of decoration are found every- 
where, accompanied by a few fundamental principles. 

All the forces that architectural structures are calculated to withstand 
are static and dynamic, and their operation depends on purely mathemat- 
ical principles. Hence the structures which subserve or oppose these 
forces have only statical functions, and the operation of these functions 
can g^ve expression to geometrical forms only. 

Laws of Proportion, — One of the most widespread laws of proportion 
is the division of every whole into three parts, of which the middle, or 
principal, is characteristic of the functions to be performed, the lower, or 
base, brings it into relation with its foundation, and the upper either 
furnishes a means of transition to the parts above or forms the ter- 
mination. This law is true alike in grammar and in form. All na- 
tions divide every structure into foundation, wall, and roof; evety pil- 
lar has its base, shaft, and capital, and only in lower or degenerate forms 
do we find one of these omitted or misplaced.^ 

Analogies of Form. --^^t, may also consider the law of languages as a 
law of Nature, and discover in the building up of its systems the closest 
analogy with those laws of Nature which have been previously shown to be 
of normal application to artistic creations. All our analogies for the gen- 
-eral arrangement and distribution of parts were found in a province where 
the absolute supremacy of a few fundamental laws holds all individual 
subjective creation in abeyance; so that the most perfect execution of a 
^ven task by the artist lay in the thorough identification of his ideas with 
the laws of Nature, and perfection depended in no degree upon individual- 
ity, while now, in the construction of our building, we reach an acting 
principle which, though analogous to an unalterable law of Nature, g^ves, 
like language, more room for individuality in fashioning details. 

When once a command of language has been gained, the same idea 
can be expressed in many ways, its harmony and delicacy of expression 
depending upon the delicacy of perception possessed by the writer or the 
speaker. The same holds good in the language of form; here talent is 
all-powerful. In this province there is no direct rivalry with those omnip- 
otent, infallible laws of Nature which bring the most gifted and clearest 
intellect to feel its weakness; here man's powers are fully fitted for his 
task. 

Ornamentation,— hi\jtr the proportioning of the details comes the 
artistic shaping of the decoration of the various members and surfaces — 
that is, the ornamentation. This follows close upon constructive detail, 
and is even in many cases merely a continuation of it. The presence, 
position, and style of the ornamentation have so great an influence upon 
the expression of the purpose of the constructive members that decoration 
is as important as constructive detail. This is evident even in the arrange- 
ment of ornament. Decoration enjoys special freedom in its forms, since 

' The Grecian Doric, always reputed to be aesthetically the nearest approach to perfection yet made, 
is an exception, as it has no base. — Ed. 



32 ARCHITECTURE. 

it is not hampered by constructive limitations and does not add more 
material, but serves solely the aesthetic idea which determined the 
arrangement of the masses and the methods of construction and guided 
the proportionment of the members. 

Ornamentation also belongs to the language of form, and its shapes 
can hax-e no relation to the structures of Nature, since speech and the 
formulating of particular ideas are not Nature's aim. What we consider 
the ornaments of a plant, as the flowers and leaves, are so only to our 
eyes, but in reality are as necessary to the life of the plant as are the stalk 
and the roots. They express no aestlietic ideas save such as are subject- 
ively created in the human mind. Of course a perfectly useless ornament 
is out of place even in an architectural structure; the question as to its 
presence is analogous to that regarding the flowers and leaves of the 
plant The character and ideal purpose of the edifice must determine 
the quantity and position of the ornamentation, and in a perfect structure 
the quantity must be neither too great nor too small. Its usefulness or 
uselessness does not depend on the material aspect of the work, which is 
here less important, but always on the ideal. Nature has given creative 
power to man alone, and therefore art, which is a portion of the divine 
fire reflected in man, is purely human. 

Decorative Forms. — If all parts which fulfil constructive needs express 
those needs by strongly-marked geometrical forms, and if these con- 
structive forms may be less massive when the parts have less to sup- 
port or to hold, it follows that the purely-decorative forms of omamenta- 
tioft may follow at will all the forms that the human intellect can grasp, 
that the eye can see or the mind imagine. It can choose intricate geomet- 
rical combinations or derive its forms from the vegetable or animal king- 
doms, even including that highest of animal forms, the human body. 
Even imaginary animal and vegetable forms have a right to be repre- 
sented. All possible objects of surrounding existence — tools and weapons, 
books and instruments, even the mountains and valleys with their trees 
and buildings — furnish material for ornamentation ; yet all this must be 
arranged in accordance with the spirit expressed in the edifice. 

The one external consideration by which decoration is limited is the 
material of which it is formed, and to the nature of which it must give 
full expression. In doing this it becomes inseparable from the building — 
not a merely accidental extraneous part of it, but a part of the essence 
which, with the body of the work, constitutes the art-creation. This 
consideration of the nature of the material necessitates the more or less 
extensive changes which have to be made in the original conception in 
order to make it conform to the given style. In ornamentation, as in 
proportion, there are most marked differences l^etween the language of 
forms of different nations. Upon the range of their fancy, itself depend- 
ent upon their grade of culture, depend the number of their conceptions 
and the kind and grade of their style. 

Color in Archiucturc. — Our attention has thus far been occupied with 




.*_:J.d 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 33 

the creation of form, but form never appears unaccompanied by color, 
and this latter element perhaps impresses the mind of the spectator even 
more than form. Thus Architecture has to deal not only with form, but 
also with color, which has especial influence in the more ideal part of the 
problem. In the choice of materials attention must be paid not only to 
their constructive suitability, but also to their harmony of color. When 
the choice of materials is not free and their colors do not harmonize with 
the general character of the building, the care bestowed upon construc- 
tion and proportion must be doubled, so that the inharmonious character 
of the materials may be overcome, or, at least, diminished. 

One of the chief problems in the choice of constructive materials is so 
to arrange them that their tints may be in harmonious relation with the 
idea of the building. Color also influences the constructive detail, since 
the shadows cast by bright materials are in stronger contrast than those 
cast by dark ones, and those cast by delicate tints contrast more strongly 
than those cast by deep ones; so that proportions do not appear of equal 
mass for all colors. It often occurs that, color excepted, all the other 
qualities of the materials are perfect. 

As the raw material needs much preparation and must be brought into 
artistic form before it is capable of architectonic expression, so also the 
natural coloration is not always adapted to the representation of an archi- 
tectural idea, and we must use an artificial scheme of coloration which 
can be applied locally to individual parts in order to give proportion, just 
as variety gives form. The effects of proportion given to the members of 
a building by colors, thougl^ they speak out sharply, are limited in their 
range; yet it is possible by means of color to denote the difference between 
heavy and light, supporting and supported stnictures — to tone down a 
rough form or to detach from one another forms which are not sufficiently 
distinct. 

The principal use of color is, however, to bring out the decoration. 
Surfaces may be relieved by a rich play of colors without actual relief, 
and ideas may be with facility expressed by colors when the object they 
embellish calls for the widest possible range of imagination and fancy. 
Still, color has its own province, and to a certain extent its own series of 
forms, and must therefore be treated in its own manner. A harmonious 
interplay of colors, with correct proportion in the distribution of each, is 
characteristic of a fine work of art. In a truly artistic period color has 
never made use of artificial shadows to bring out artificial reliefs and 
depths, nor has it in any way been employed as a makeshift for form. 

Conclusion, — We must content ourselves with the foregoing outline of 
the theory of Architectonics. As to the practice which is based on it — 
that is, the methods of solving according to its rules each individual prob- 
lem, of proceeding rationally in the arrangement of every kind of build- 
ing, of constructing various parts, as walls, windows, doors, halls, pillars, 
etc. — we can the less consider it in this connection, inasmuch as no the- 
ory of the development can be traced in the history of art. We mentioned 

Vol. IV .—3 



34 ARCHITECTURE. 

above that the laws of Nature often oppose one another, and that, as a 
clear result of a single one dcKrs not thus appear, forms are produced which 
the e> c Jo<.5 not recognize as normal, but as freaks of Nature. 

We nnu also in the h:stor\- of art that the rational theon' does not 
alw.;\ s iominate. but that, as in culture itself, all kinds of influences 
wbic!: n:.iy :>e external and unavoidable or may arise from deficient per- 
ctrt::.- CT f::I>e jr-i'iance make themselves felt. We have dwelt partic- 
r.'-!v .:: ::::i::*> iintxTfcct conception of the general laws of artistic cre- 
LW.'L :.r.\ .: h:> :r.:--_:n ierstancin;^ of their application to a particular 
w->i ::=.'. ::::> ::zrr.y l:i almost fundamental law the operation of which 
t tt -.-_> \'rz -.:n:r:^.:r.r ".".::'£ exercise of the ideal lawsof Architecture. This 
:.ir> z.: :-.>■.-": rr:::/.y iron: the individuality of the creative artists, but 
'.\^.' '- . :_ ::.- irr^zrr .f vtilture jLi'-fSsessed by the entire nation; and so by 
■jT-i > . -. . :' :': - z^iz . - :y . f \r.t^^ry appears the influence of tradition, which 
.-iK"...'.^ -. -- t?.:^ y.r,tr:\:'.'.y and has in a most conspicuous manner 
-n.t-1^^. . .:^/:' t--. _ :: t '.ist or.* of Art. The influence of tradition as 
.: iT" ^•' '^"•'r. :1 1 rLu::.nr hiS contributed more to the diversit)' of 
^-.: >..■::-._" rv':- :'- .- !-:.vt the external necessities of climate. But 
i.. ■_: r .-.jL '-.", i-_: -- V. .-*y in a historical manner, and we shall there- 
."-- • : -' V- -..-. .:' -. :;•. : f-vj.; styles, make it our especial duty to dis- 
.-.- r- : . - Ir Jit th-r.r:-- tri'*td above have made themselves felt at all 



PART I. 



ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE. 



THOUGH the most primitive peoples possessed mental powers which 
greatly surpassed those of the brute creation, we meet with nothing 
tli'at can properly be called Architecture until a higher culture 
developed higher aims. But the development of this civilization did not 
progress simultaneously over all the habitable world: not everywhere was 
a substratum ready on which to build; and, though we may speak of the 
culture of races which accomplished these results thousands of years 
before our era, and possess magnificent monuments executed by them, 
-other races have not as yet passed beyond the beginnings of civilization. 

I. THE EGYPTIANS. 

Probably the oldest monuments of Architecture are those transmitted 
to us by that wonderful race which dwelt on the north-eastern coast of 
Africa more than four thousand years ago, and which not only attained 
considerable political importance, but also left to the world a civilization 
which has served as a basis for the culture of all succeeding ages. The 
history of Eg}'pt reaches into the remotest antiquity, and as far^as we can 
trace it back it is that of a civilized nation. On the threshold of this his- 
tory- stands Mena, or Menes, who, coming down from Thinis (or This; in 
Egyptian, Teni), in Upper Egypt, nearly three thousand years b. c. , built 
Memphis, his capital, adorned it with temples and palaces, and constructed 
immense embankments and extensive irrigation-works which fitted the 
land for cultivation. Granting that we have no remains positively proved 
to be his, still the pyramids overlooking the Nile near Memphis undoubt- 
edly date from about three thousand years before Christ. 

There are two prime motives which lead man beyond the most rudi- 
mentary civilization. The first is that dawning recognition of the power, 
grandeur, and eternal order of the universe which draws him to the 
Divinity and leads him to adore and love Deity as the fountain-head of 
the whole order of nature as well as the Ruler and providential Guide 
of his own individual fate. The second is the consciousness that the soul 
of man — that transformed Godhead which in life was clothed with a body, 
and which, like an image of the Godhead, is conspicuous here by its great 
deeds — has even after death a claim to reverence, since future generations 
owe much to the great of the past. While, therefore, man consecrates 

35 






36 ARCHITECTURE. 

temples and altars to the Divinity, he raises fiAieral piles to receive the 
bodies of the dead and erects monuments to their memory. 

The wonderful fertility of E;^pt, dependent on the annual inundation 
of the Nile — a phenomenon so regular that it could be calculated by the 
study of the stars — was likely to lead its inhabitants to a recognition of 
the forces and the masterly order of nature, compared with which man 
is so small and powerless. The conception of the uncertainty and brevity 
of life and of the immortality of the soul was deeply impressed on the 
character of the people and influenced all their ideas. Consequently, an 
intense and overpowering solemnity, a grand and reverential dignity^ 
shine forth in all their representative arts. 

The I^'iisthood, — The nation itself was divided into distinct 'Classes, 
each of which had its definite part to perfonn. One class was in posses- 
sion of all the knowledge and all the ability, and its duty was to direct 
the other castes and to determine their tasks. This class, as the most 
cultured, as the repository of all the intelligence of the nation, stood 
nearest to the Divinity, and fonned a priesthood whose duty it was to 
offer sacrifices, to instruct the people, and to lead them to the Divinity 
through godliness. The insignificance and brevity of human life, as con- 
trasted with the unchangeable grandeur of nature, induced the conviction 
that eventually the soul would return to reinhabit its earthly tenement, 
and led to a burial-ceremony whose chief aim was to preserv^e the body 
projxTly until the time when it should again assume the rank its owner 
held in life. (See Vol. II., p. 135.) 

The I\ramids^ the most venerable piles of monumental architecture 
known to us, are the sepulchres of kings, the sanctuaries of the dead. 
About forty of these structures, of different sizes, situated in groups, 
cluster around the ** three giant pyramids'' and stretch from them in two 
directions, northward to Abu-Roash, and southward as far as the Fayoum. 
Between them have sprung up villages which furnish names for these 
groups. The pyramids rise at angles of a little more than forty-five 
degrees, and are constructed partly of brick and partly of large blocks 
of stone, some of which latter are 6 metres (igf-j feet) in length. The 
largest — commonly called the '* Great Pyramid*' (//. \^Jigs, i, 2) — has a 
base of 250 metres (820 feet) and is 150 metres (492 feet) in height.^ 

These, the most colossal sepulchral monuments in the world, exhibit 
more resemblance to those masses of material w^hich compose the funeral 
mounds of other nations than to regularly-constructed buildings. They 
are monuments of primitive culture, but of a culture that possessed ample 
means and extensive aj)i)liances, anvl they indicate a highly-organized 
slate and a strong central government to which everything was subser- 

* The nri!»inAl vortica'. heiL:ht <if iln: '• C inal iVi.uni'l" i«i v.iiinijsly estimated: l»y Vyse and Per- 
riii'^:. ai 480-4 fctt; by Fcrj;;is-on, nt 4-^4 feet: an<i l»y Tia/./i Smytli, at 4S5 feet. The length 
of each "iiiU*. acc-Ttliu to Vy>e an i iVtrinj;. w.i-* 764 ftcr. .11. il accor«ling to Kcr«;U'.<on 760 feci. The 
present height i^ a^»:j! 2> I'oe: Ij;« t')an the <»:i:;inal hri^hi, and the lenjjth of each side ha« been 
diminished al'..::i iS fctt. Many uf ihe lKL>emeni->tone» are 30 feet in leni;th and nearly 5 feet 
high. — El). 



THE EGYPTIANS. 37 

vient. As they now appear, partly buried by the sands of the desert and 
stripped of their smooth-coated granite plates, with the deep-blue sky 
overhead, they create an impression stronger than that evoked by the 
solid hills. Moreover, it appears that they grew to their present size by 
degrees: a small pyramid formed a nucleus, and over this were laid suc- 
•cessive coats of material. 

Connected with the pyramids which contain only small funeral cham- 
bers in their nucleus are other structures which exhibit architectonic 
development and ser\'e to prove that these stupendous masses are in their 
simplicity a relic of still earlier times. Other tombs, of smaller dimen- 
sions, are scattered among these gigantic achievements of Architecture. 
There is thus presented the appearance of a burial-ground upon a large 
scale grouped around the pyramids. 

The Sphinx. — The head of a colossal sphinx rises from the desert near 
the Pyramid of Gizeh and indicates a figure 25 metres (82 feet) high and 
more than 40 metres (131 feet) long {pi. i. Jig. 2).^ 

Egyptian Dynasties. — The history of Eg>'pt is reckoned by the dynas- 
ties that ruled over the countr>\ The pyramids belong to the period of 
the earliest dynasties — the largest of them, to the fourth. They may be 
regarded as the works of the first bloom of Egyptian culture. A second 
flourishing period may be distinguished at the end of the third thousand 
years before Christ, in the time of the twelfth dynasty. From this age 
•date the rock- tombs of Beni-Hassan, which consist of chambers hewn in 
the solid rock, with columned porticoes of primitive character on the 
exterior, yet with details somewhat developed. 

The Hyksos. — About the year 2100 b. c. certain Asiatic tribes known 
as the Hyksos overran Egypt, and during their domination, which lasted 
several centuries, they annihilated the ancient native culture or compelled 
it to take refuge in isolated spots, whence, under the eighteenth dynasty, 
about 1600 B. c, the Egyptians issued to undertake the liberation of their 
country — a task which was completed, after a protracted stniggle, about 
the middle of the fifteenth century B. c. Even during the wars of libera- 
tion the restoration of the ancient sanctuaries was commenced, and the 
revived kingdom soon entered upon a new period of advanced culture. 

Momiments of Thebes. — The city of Animon — Thebes, in Upper Egypt 
— became the seat of government, and here arose the most splendid monu- 
ments. The buildings and sanctuaries erected during this period are the 
expression of a strong and living national spirit. King after king, genera- 
tion after generation, rivalled one another in the erection, decoration, and 
enlargement of these structures. The private buildings have disappeared; 

> The French, during their occupation of Egypt (i 798-1802), removed the sand in which the 
Sphinx was buried up to the neck, and discovered that, with the exception of the fore-paws, which arc 
of brick, the figure was carved out of the natural rock on which it rests. Between the paws there was 
a small sanctuary or temple. The shifting sands of the desert soon again covered the figure. Its re- 
exhumation is now in progress. It is so far laid bare that there has been found starting from between 
the paws a passage whose entrance, covered by a large stone, is supposed to lead to the interior of the 
Great Pyramid. — Ed. 



^- 



A J', ZHITECTURE. 

LT rr-riT-.c-T-irii ii-t canals, the fish-ponds, the embankmcntsy 
»ii=;. ir.: iilrT Lirrtirii'tntes, "zj^ no definite artistic form. It is in 

::: the temples* and in the tombs that the 



.*a ■■B, 



=r -t :r -Ji-t 5^^ .= rbnrz l=.1 vlr^ce they are the most idealistic expression. 



rrssL 



Er:y^'-'^' Z'. wr.: .- — Tht tIh: si:d size of the temples differ according 
t: -Ii* zji^i^ :: v :r:h:^ A ch^ricteriitic feature of the plan is the propy- 
-C- t-.cjrif-i-ri" :f t-c: ir:^! t^rsmidal towers, wider than deep, between 
"s-h-ih - iTT-= 2. nirhty yjTJtL. Upon the towers stand masts, which once 
hii 1;^ — :f!rrz s.t titir r:i:nr::-5: in front of the towers are attached colossal 
irrr^:* 2r:f :n frtt:: tf :he=e srt slender obelisks, while rows of sctdptured 
Ltcr: rsTLf- iZ.i r^hinrcts f-^m: the approach. Behind the propyloa is a 
ftrt-tt-n ?-irr:-rted by a 5in;r'e or double portico. Then follows the 
szzirrtrfry. . v:n.fi?t;n:: of nt^^y communicating chambers, for the most part 
-^TJU'sr. -ctnitTTS- their ceilings being partly supported by columns (//. i, 
f.r- t ' /.'. ^- f'7'- 2. 3 . In the largest temples several fore-courts with 
y^\rjL.r WZ.\rs: cnt another, and around the sanctuar\' are other courts, 



_z « 



h:th vther santtnaries are sometimes builL The columns con- 
Eirt t-f ttl-jsiil W'xSml^ of Stone, while the capitals are variously designed^ 
hi-'nr v.tnttime? the form of a closed flower-calj-x, and sometimes that 
^x an tc*tn ont //. 2. ^/f^;. 5-1 1). 

Inrm-tn-i-t linttls of stone carried on low four-sided, prismatic imposts 
str*tih frotn colnmn to column, while huge stone slabs form the roof, and 
*l&t int-s-arily a platform reached by steps. All the outer walls are 
nLrrtTr*-f np^ar-f: their angles are marked by a roll-moulding, and a 
rre:at :-:ve :omt3 the cornice '^ fig. 12;. The blocks of which this cor- 
n:t* 1? t-ilt- and Trhich lie upon the roof-slabs, form a parapet for the 
\r^r^f: platform. All the walls, the surfaces of the columns, the architrave 
an.-: cornice within and without, are adorned with paintings and painted 
Va.5-rel:ef5. :n y^me of which the round of symbolism and mytholog>', in 
o«±er? hiftor^.-. and in others the public, private, and industrial life of the 
natioc, are depicted in rich yet severe outline. The paintings and sculp- 
fire, tofe-ether with the connecting decoration and hieroglyphics, form an 
eTcte-r^in^ly vivid ornamentation, which, however, does not in the least 
alo-rr the character of the surfaces it covers (//. i, figs, 8, 9, 11; pL 2, 






Cn'mination of Egyptian Culture, — Eg>'ptian culture culminated at 
the end of the eighteenth dynasty and the beginning of the nineteenth, 
when Kin:;; Set: L and his son, the great Rameses II., reigned and (about 
li'/j £. 0. extended their victorious arms over Ethiopia, Syria, Asia 
Minor, Me>o:K»tam:a, and, according to tradition, even to the Ganges, 
5>r.'th:j^ and Thrace: so that the treasures of the world flowed to Egypt 
a« tribnte. A j^reat part of the principal sanctuar>' at Thebes, the im- 
jxrriil temple, not far from which stands the present village of Karnak,. 
dates from their rei;^ns. 

Great Tc7KpU a! Karnak, — This temple had already a double pair of 



« 



L- 



»'. 



THE EGYPTIANS. 39 

pylons, in front of the first pair of which these kings built a columned 
hall icx) metres (328 feet) in width by 50 metres (164 feet) in depth. Twelve 
gigantic columns 20 metres (nearly 66 feet) in height and 3 metres (nearly 
10 feet) in diameter form a central avenue, and on each side sixty-one col- 
umns each 12 metres (nearly 40 feet) high support the roof of the lower 
lateral portions of the hall. The central and higher portion has upper 
windows, like the clere-storey of a Gothic cathedral. The lintels are 7 
metres (23 feet) long, i j5^ metres (nearly 5 feet) wide, and nearly 2 metres 
(6^ feet) thick; a pair of them together form an architrave. The roof- 
slabs which rest on these are 8^ metres (nearly 28 feet) long and more 
than a metre (3^ feet) in breadth and thickness. Thus immense blocks 
of stone have here been lifted to a considerable height. Figures 6 and 7 
(//. 2) show the closed lotus-capitals of the lateral portions, while Figure 
9 shows the open-calyx capitals of the central series. In front of the col- 
umned hall is a fore-court with porticoes on each side, while a central 
open-pillared avenue leads up to the entrance. Another pair of pylons, to 
which a double row of sphinxes conducts, completes the new structures. 
The entire temple has a length of 320 metres (1049^^ feet). 

Rameses II. added a new fore-court with pylons to the temple 
near the present Luxor, and in front of it two colossal figures and two 
obelisks each 24 metres (about 79 feet) high. One of the latter is still in 
place, while the other has been carried to Paris to decorate the Place de la 
Concorde. Another obelisk, which Rameses II. erected at Heliopolis, 
now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome.^ 

The Rock-temples of Ntibia^ especially the two at Ipsamboul, belong to 
the reign of Rameses II. The larger is represented on Plate I. {Jigs, 3-5). 
Not only are the various halls hewn out of the solid rock, but also the 
fagade itself, which consists essentially of four colossal sitting statues 19 
metres (62 feet) high, representing Rameses himself. Smaller but still 
colossal figures, representing members of his family, stand between the 
feet of these giants. The inner hall has eight square columns, against 
which are attached standing figures 10 metres (nearly 33 feet) in height. 
Wherever Rameses led his victorious hosts he erected triumphal columns 
and other memorials, some of which still exist. 

Decadence of Egyptian Art. — Shishak, a king of the twenty-second 
dynasty, conquered Jerusalem in the year 970 B. c. , carried off the treas- 
ures of the temple of Jehovah, and immortalized his deeds upon the 
southern wall of the temple at Kamak; yet about a hundred years later 
Egypt fell into the hands of the Ethiopians, whose king, however, ruled 

* Among the best known of ancient relics are the two obelisks coipmonly called " Cleopatra's 
Needles." They were originally brought from Heliopolis to Alexandria during the Roman rule, and 
were set up in front of the Temple of Coesar. Sul>sequently one of them fell, and lay prostrate for 
centuries, until, in 1878, it was taken to London and placed on the Thames Embankment. The other 
remained in position until 1880, when it was conveyed to the United States and erected in Central 
Park, New York City. Its full length is 69 feet 2 inches. At the base, just above the broken portion, 
the stone is 92^/ inches thick, and at the top, at the edge of the pyramidion, it is 63 inches thick. 
The one in London is of about the same dimensions, though not quite so long. — Ed. 



I . 



-o ARCHITECTURE. 

accorcinj^ Vj tlie aricient regime, since the Ethiopians themselves had 
prev:o"sIy adopted Egyptian culture. This foreign domination, which 
al-io lef: behind some monuments, did not last a centun-. After its fall 
fAe'.ve princes ruled the separate provinces as independent lords, but 
ibnntd a federation and built as their sanctuarv the celebrated Labvrinth.* 

Psammetichus, one of these rulers, about 670 b. c. overpowered the 
others and a;;ain established the unity of the kingdom: he fixed bis resi- 
dence at Sais. During the twenty-sixth dynasty, that of the Psam- 
metlchi. which lasted about a hundred years, Eg>pt enjoyed a new 
period of prosperity. 

Ejsrypi under Persian Rule, — Amasis also, the founder of the twenty- 
seventh dynasty, sought by splendid monuments to glorify his reign; but 
soon afterward, under his son Psamenit, Eg\'pt was conquered (525 B. c.) 
by Cambyses, king of Persia, who in his passage destroyed all that it was 
possible to overthrow of the monuments of the land. Ha\*ing broken the 
Eg>ptian power, he sought to annihilate Eg>ptian culture, but it with- 
stood the shock, and the conqueror's successors celebrated their rule over 
Eg3.pt, as the Ethiopians had done before them, by erecting £g\'ptian 
national monuments. With short intermissions during the rule of sev- 
eral national kings, the last of whom, Xectanebes, who reigned 363-350 
B. c. made it his chief aim to restore the national sanctuaries, the Per- 
sian rule lasted until Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian power 
and became master of Eg>'pt. 

E^ypt under Greek and Roman Rule, — The Ptolemies, Greek princes, 
adhered to Hellenic customs; imder them Alexandria reached its great- 
est prfrJperity, but they, as well as their successors the Romans, allowed 
Eg>ptian culture to exist. Even under the world-wide domination of 
Rome, as late as the third centur>' .\. D., Eg>ptian culture had sufficient 
vitality to remain true to itself, and to raise monuments which essentially 
retain the ancient character. To this era belong the monuments of Philae, 
Edfu ^ pL 2, y/c- 2). E>neh, Denderah, etc., all of which show foreign 
influence in many unimportant details. Esp)ecially characteristic of this 
late date are capitals with four human heads (Jig, 10), unusually high 
imi>osts upon the columns ijig, i), partition-walls between the lower 
halves cf the colnrtins ^^V^. i, 2, 4), the arrangement of door-jambs with- 
out a lintel, but attached to columns ^Jigs, i, 2, 4), and richly-decorated 
fonr.*i of capitals ^jigs. i, 11). 

* "i ;. - w jr. 'icrful \ i::! i:ii:j vciTupic'l :hree si'le> of an oj^en quatlran^le al* 'Ut 200 yards square in 
::.•.- .:.- . : ::.c :' • :r:r. -•■'■. -.v.i- r._arly cIoncI liva pyramitl which was 243 feet high. The entire stmc- 
• :-•: •..-.- . .\:\ \\ v.-..'.-. c . 1 i^jou-* hall- or courts, each of which w.i-> vaulte-l and had twelve 
«"' -ir-. - \ ;'.r nj V \\\k n r':. .-;'k1 -.ix to ;he s'juih. Tlie clifice c<in:aiiK-tl ihrcc thousand chambers, 
I ;'--t-.. . 'x-: '. <.:' ^* '..CM were 'jn ler gr. iintl. The ro- f-i and walls of the chambers were incnisted with 
r..-' !■: -•. : ! rr. • '. -.w'*: s..j*;.!-.;re'i h^^urc'.; the li.il!'« v.\.re surroun'le«l with >titely pillars of white 
n..-.r •; !• ••. -. :V • r.-. ■.•.-.-: ■•.*:. 'i chanil.tr> which H-.r-i lr»ii.> in-pcctetl, and which filled him with 
^■jTy. i-: - ■-■^.. :.* :'• T. :. • f -jr I M^f.'U inaie'juate t> dc-cr:l-c what he wime-sed. The opening of the 
'! ■■.r. V. .i- -"ir:.-!-. : v. ••':\ -■.: :?; '.erri' le n '•.-%: that he c-inpare'l it in ]K*al> of thunder. He vms not per- 
m:"- ! : • 'u^:-.r* t*,..- i.-w.-r ^^rir- <*( chamV*v<, a< they crtnrnined the miimniioN of the holy crocodiles 
a-. ■ ;' rh'j liin^-. T': • !."»\rin".i. w.i- -iru.Uc I a: Ar>inje. near Lake M'L'ri>. — Ll>. 



THE EGYPTIANS. 41 

Character of Egyptian Architecture. — That which gives Egyptian 
architecture even in these late times its peculiar character is its expres- 
sion of calm, solemn, majestic grandeur, which does not in the least 
depend upon dimensions, but resides most fully and characteristically in 
that innate harmony of simple lines which is the outward expression of 
an unutterably steadfast, self-reliant, well-balanced spirit. It is through 
their complete concordance with their natural environment — the clear 
sky, the broad lines of the landscape, the warm light of the atmosphere 
— that these monuments appear as if they were spiritualized creations of 
Nature, yet greater than Nature's creations, since they manifest the full 
grandeur of human genius. Though every part — each sphinx, each 
obelisk, each columned hall — is independent, yet each forms a part of 
one grand whole. The spirit of the Egyptian people speaks out in them 
in all its fulness, just as it found expression in the life of the common- 
wealth, in which each individual was a fixed part of g mighty and 
powerful whole. Each was assigned a definite and unalterable duty in 
the entire organism, of which he felt himself a part and in the pros- 
perity of which he took a share. As stone on stone makes a massive 
structure which defies the centuries, so, bound together by implicit faith, 
does man combine with man to fulfil the great designs of the State, whether 
as a warrior to enlarge its boundaries, or as a peaceful worker — one among 
thousands who are animated by the same spirit — to raise up mighty monu- 
ments to be the pride of the entire community. 

Conclusion, — Through the medium of the narratives of the Old Testa- 
ment we are made acquainted in our earliest youth with the ancient won- 
derland of the Pharaohs, with which we inseparably connect the idea of 
servitude. When we read how ''the EgJ^ptians made the children of Israel 
to ser\'e with rigor, and made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mor- 
tar, and in brick," the mighty monuments of the Egyptian kings seem to 
us the product of despotism, erected to gratify the caprice of an individual 
by means of the labor of an entire people. But we must not forget that 
no greater contrast can be imagined than that which existed between the 
Egyptians and the Israelites. The former were a sedentary people who 
had doubtless resided in one place thousands of years; this is evidenced 
by the greatly-developed scale of their arts and industries, whose earliest 
known examples are of a kind which shows that they must have been 
based upon an extended course of development. Out of this protracted 
growth was evolved every element of that culture which we see histori- 
cally demonstrated to have endured without alteration through long 
periods of time. 

The Eg>"ptians possessed a state-life, and each individual was assigned 
a place in which he felt himself to be a part of the great whole, without 
even a thought that there could arise the possibility of a change of condi- 
tion. How could the Israelites — a people whose ever-recurrent propensity 
for wandering brought them inio the land perhaps by accident — share in 
this life in which all individuality was merged in the state? Does it not 



32 ARCHITECTURE. 

it is not hampered by constructive limitations and does not add more 
material, but serves solely the aesthetic idea which determined the 
arrangement of the masses and the methods of construction and guided 
the proportionment of the members. 

Ornamentation also belongs to the language of form, and its shapes 
can have no relation to the structures of Nature, since speech and the 
formulating of particular ideas are not Nature^s aim. What we consider 
the ornaments of a plant, as the flowers and leaves, are so only to our 
eyes, but in reality are as necessary to the life of the plant as are the stalk 
and the roots. They express no aestlietic ideas save such as are subject- 
ively created in the human mind. Of course a perfectly useless ornament 
is out of place even in an architectural structure; the question as to its 
presence is analogous to that regarding the flowers and leaves of the 
plant. The character and ideal purpose of the edifice must determine 
the quantity and position of the ornamentation, and in a perfect structure 
the quantity must be neither too great nor too small. Its usefulness or 
uselessness does not depend on the material aspect of the work, which is 
here less important, but always on the ideal. Nature has given creative 
power to man alone, and therefore art, which is a portion of the divine 
fire reflected in man, is purely human. 

Drcorative Forms. — If all parts which fulfil constructive needs express 
those needs by strongly-marked geometrical forms, and if these con- 
structive forms may be less massive when the parts have less to sup- 
port or to hold, it follows that the purely-decorative forms of omamenta- 
tioft may follow at will all the forms that tlie human intellect can grasp, 
that the eye can see or the mind imagine. It can choose intricate geomet- 
rical combinations or derive its forms from the vegetable or animal king- 
doms, even including that highest of animal forms, the human body. 
Even imaginary animal and vegetable forms have a right to be repre- 
sented. All possible objects of surrounding existence — tools and weapons, 
books and instruments, even the mountains and valleys with their trees 
and buildings — furnish material for ornamentation; yet all this must be 
arranged in accordance with the spirit expressed in the edifice. 

The one external consideration by which decoration is limited is the 
material of which it is formed, and to the nature of which it must give 
full expression. In doing this it becomes inseparable from the building — 
not a merely accidental extraneous part of it, but a part of the essence 
which, with the body of the work, constitutes the art-creation. This 
consideration of the nature of the material necessitates the more or less 
extensive changes which have to be made in the original conception in 
order to make it conform to the given .^tyle. In ornamentation^ as in 
proportion, there are most marked difierences between the language of 
forms of different nations. Upon the range of their fiuicy, itself depend- 
ent upon their grade of culture, depend the number of their conceptions 
and the kind and grade of their st}'le. 

Color in Architecture. — Our attention has thus far been occupied with 



THE THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL FORMS. 33 

the creation of form, but form never appears unaccompanied by color, 
and this latter element perhaps impresses the mind of the spectator even 
more than form. Thus Architecture has to deal not only with form, but 
also with color, which has especial influence in the more ideal part of the 
problem. In the choice of materials attention must be paid not only to 
their constnictive suitability, but also to their harmony of color. When 
the choice of materials is not free and their colors do not hannonize with 
the general character of the building, the care bestowed upon construc- 
tion and proportion must be doubled, so that the inharmonious character 
of the materials may be overcome, or, at least, diminished. 

One of the chief problems in the choice of constructive materials is so 
to arrange them that their tints may be in harmonious relation with the 
idea of the building. Color also influences the constructive detail, since 
the shadows cast by bright materials are in stronger contrast than those 
cast by dark ones, and those cast by delicate tints contrast more strongly 
than those cast by deep ones; so that proportions do not appear of equal 
mass for all colors. It often occurs that, color excepted, all the other 
qualities of the materials are perfect. 

As the raw material needs much preparation and must be brought into 
artistic form before it is capable of architectonic expression, so also the 
natural coloration is not always adapted to the representation of an archi- 
tectural idea, and we must use an artificial scheme of coloration which 
can be applied locally to individual parts in order to give proportion, just 
as variety gives form. The efiects of proportion given to the members of 
a building by colors, thougl^ they speak out sharply, are limited in their 
range; yet it is possible by means of color to denote the difierence between 
heavy and light, supporting and supported structures — to tone down a 
rough form or to detach from one another forms which are not sufEciently 
distinct. 

The principal use of color is, however, to bring out the decoration. 
Surfaces may be relieved by a rich play of colors without actual relief, 
and ideas may be with facility expressed by colors when the object they 
embellish calls for the widest possible range of imagination and fancy. 
Still, color has its own province, and to a certain extent its own series of 
forms, and must therefore be treated in its own manner. A harmonious 
interplay of colors, with correct proportion in the distribution of each, is 
characteristic of a fine work of art. In a tnily artistic period color has 
never made use of artificial shadows to bring out artificial reliefs and 
depths, nor has it in any way been employed as a makeshift for form. 

Conclusion. — We must content ourselves with the foregoing outline of 
the theory of Architectonics. As to the practice which is based on it — 
that is, the methods of solving according to its rules each individual prob- 
lem, of proceeding rationally in the arrangement of ever>' kind of build- 
ing, of constructing various parts, as walls, windows, doors, halls, pillars, 
etc. — ^we can the less consider it in this connection, inasmuch as no the- 
ory of the development can be traced in the history of art. We mentioned 

Vol. IV .—3 



34 ARCIIITECTURK. 

alx)ve that the laws of Nature often oppose one another, and that, as a 
clear result of a sinj^le one does not thus apjxrar, fonns are produced which 
the eye does not recoj^iizc as normal, but as freaks of Nature. 

We find also in the history of art that the rational theor\' does not 
alwavs dominate, but thai, as in culture itself, all kinds of influences 
which may l)e external and unavoidable or may arise from deficient jx-r- 
ception or false jjuidance make themselves felt. We have dwelt partic- 
ularly on man's imperfect conception of the f^eneral laws of artistic cre- 
ation and of his mi>underslandinj^ of their application to a particular 
case, and this forms an almost fundamental law the operation of which 
prevents the untrammelled exercise of the ideal laws of Architecture. This 
does not result entirclv from the individuality of the creative artists, but 
partly from the dej^ree of culture jx^ssessed by the entire nation; and so by 
the side cjf the authority of theor>' a])pears the influence of tradition, which 
operates even more powerfully and has in a m(»st conspicuous manner 
impressed itself ufHrn the history of Art. The influence of tradition as 
it jjrew uj) with the nations has contributed more to the diversity of 
architectural styles than have the external necessities of climate. But 
all this can be dealt with only in a historical manner, and we .shall there- 
fore, when we treat of individual styles, make it our especial duty to dis- 
cover how far the theories traced above have made themselves felt at all 
periods and in various climes. 



PART I. 



ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE. 



THOUGH the most primitive peoples possessed mental powers which 
greatly surpassed those of the brute creation, we meet with nothing 
tl/at can properly be called Architecture until a higher culture 
developed higher aims. But the development of this civilization did not 
progress simultaneously over all the habitable world: not everywhere was 
a substratum ready on which to build; and, though we may speak of the 
culture of races which accomplished these results thousands of years 
before our era, and possess magnificent monuments executed by them, 
-other races have not as yet passed beyond the beginnings of civilization. 

I. THE EGYPTIANS. 

Probably the oldest monuments of Architecture are those transmitted 
to us by that wonderful jrace which dwelt on the north-eastern coast of 
Africa more than four thousand years ago, and which not only attained 
considerable political importance, but also left to the world a civilization 
which has served as a basis for the culture of all succeeding ages. The 
history' of Eg}^pt reaches into the remotest antiquity, and as far as we can 
trace it back it is that of a civilized nation. On the threshold of this his- 
tory' stands Mena, or Menes, who, coming down from Thinis (or This; in 
Egyptian, Teni), in Upper Eg>'pt, nearly three thousand years B. c. , built 
Memphis, his capital, adorned it with temples and palaces, and constructed 
immense embankments and extensive irrigation-works which fitted the 
land for cultivation. Granting that we have no remains positively proved 
to be his, still the pyramids overlooking the Nile near Memphis undoubt- 
edly date from about three thousand years before Christ. 

There are two prime motives which lead man beyond the most rudi- 
mentary civilization. The first is that dawning recognition of the power, 
grandeur, and eternal order of the universe which draws him to the 
Divinity and leads him to adore and love Deity as the fountain-head of 
the whole order of nature as well as the Ruler and providential Guide 
of his own individual fate. The second is the consciousness that the soul 
of man — that transfonned Godhead which in life was clothed with a body, 
and which, like an image of the Godhead, is conspicuous here by its great 
deeds — has even after death a claim to reverence, since future generations 
owe much to the great of the past. While, therefore, man consecrates 

35 



36 ARCinrECTl ^RE. 

temples ami altars to the Divinity, he raises fiftieral piles to receive the 
bo<lies of the dead and erects monuments to their meniorv. 

m 

The wonderful fertility of H;^ypt, dependent on the annual inundation 
of the Nile — a phenomenon >o rej^ular that it could be calculated by the 
study of the stars — was likely to lead its inhabitants to a recognition of 
the forces and the masterly order of nature, conijxired with which man 
is sf) small and i>ower!ess. The conception of the uncertainty and brevity 
of life and of the immortality of the soul was deeply impressed on the 
character of the peoj)le and influenced all their ideas. Consequently, an 
intense and overi>owering solemnity, a grand and reverential dignity, 
shine forth in all their representative arts. 

The Priisthoinl, — The nation itself was divided into distinct -classes, 
each of which had its definite part to perfonu. One class was in posses- 
si(m of all the knowledge and all the ability, and its duty was to direct 
the other castes and to determine their tasks. This class, as the most 
cultured, as the repository of all the intelligence of the nation, slcxxl 
nearest to the Divinity, and formed a priesthood whose duty it was to 
ofier >;icrifices, to instruct the people, and to lead them to the Divinity 
through godliness. The in*^ignificance and brevity of human life, as con- 
trasted with the unchangeable grandeur of nature, induced the conviction 
that eventuallv tiie soul would return to reinhabit its earthlv tenement, 
and led to a burial-ceremony whose chief aim was to preserxc the body 
projx^rly until the time when it should again assume the rank its owner 
held in life. (See \'ol. II., p. 135.) 

The I\ramids^ the most venerable piles of monumental architecture 
known to us, are the sepulchres of kings, the sanctuaries of the dead. 
About forty of these structures, of different sizes, situated in groups, 
cluster around the ''three giant pyramids" and stretch from them in two 
directions, northward to Abu-Roash, and southward as far as the Fayoum. 
Between them have spnmg up villages which furnish names for these 
groups. The pyramids rise at angles of a little more than forty-five 
degrees, and are constructed partly of brick and partly of large blocks 
of stone, some of which latter are 6 metres (19:3 feet) in length. The 
largest — commonly called the ''Great Pyramid*' {pi, lyjigs, i, 2) — has a 
base of 250 metres (S20 feet) and is 150 metres (492 feet) in height' 

These, the most colossal .sepulchral monuments in the world, exhibit 
more resemblance to tho.se masses of material which compose the funeral 
mounds of other nations than to regularly-con.stnicted building.s. They 
are monuments of primitive culture, but of a culture that possessed ample 
means and extensive appliances, and they indicate a highly-organized 
state and a strong central government to which ever\thing was sub.ser* 

* The orif^inal vertical hci^fht of ilu* "(Irvat iVMiui'l" i* vaiiimsly c^timaicfl : !•>• Vy^c an<l Per- 
rinjj, al 480^4 fctl: by Fcrj;«s*on, at 4S4 feci; anil l»y TLi/zi Smyth, at 4S5 feci. The Icnf^th 
of each *ulc, acci»r»lin^ to Vy*.e an»l iVirinj*. wan 7^)4 feet, .\\A .icconling to Kcri;u'''.on '(o feel. The 
present height !•• al»o\ii 20 foet K".^ than the oii^nal hei^jhi, and the length of eaih su\t ha* been 
diminished alh»ui iS feet. Many of the bascment'^ono aie 30 feet in length and nearly 5 feet 
high. — Ed. 



THE EGYPTIANS. 37 

vient. As they now appear, partly buried by the sands of the desert and 
stripped of their smooth-coated granite plates, with the deep-blue sky 
overhead, they create an impression stronger than that evoked by the 
solid hills. Moreover, it appears that they grew to their present size by 
degrees: a small pyramid formed a nucleus, and over this were laid suc- 
cessive coats of material. 

Connected with the pyramids which contain only small funeral cham- 
bers in their nucleus are other structures which exhibit architectonic 
development and serve to prove that these stupendous masses are in their 
simplicity a relic of still earlier times. Other tombs, of smaller dimen- 
sions, are scattered among these gigantic achievements of Architecture. 
There is thus presented the appearance of a burial-ground upon a large 
scale grouped around the pyramids. 

The Sphmx, — The head of a colossal sphinx rises from the desert near 
the Pyramid of Gizeh and indicates a figure 25 metres (82 feet) high and 
more than 40 metres (131 feet) long (//. i, Jig. 2).^ 

Egyptian Dynasties. — The history of Eg>'pt is reckoned by the dynas- 
ties that niled over the countr>\ The pyramids belong to the period of 
the earliest dynasties — the largest of them, to the fourth. They may be 
regarded as the works of the first bloom of Eg>'ptian culture. A second 
flourishing period may be distinguished at the end of the third thousand 
years before Christ, in the time of the twelfth dynasty. From this age 
•date the rock-tombs of Beni-Hassan, which consist of chambers hewn in 
the solid rock, with columned porticoes of primitive character on the 
exterior, yet with details somewhat developed. 

The Hyksos. — About the year 2100 b. c. certain Asiatic tribes known 
as the Hyksos overran Egypt, and during their domination, which lasted 
several centuries, they annihilated the ancient native culture or compelled 
it to take refuge in isolated spots, whence, under the eighteenth dynasty, 
about 1600 B. c, the Egyptians issued to undertake the liberation of their 
country — a task which was completed, after a protracted stniggle, about 
the middle of the fifteenth century B. c. Even during the wars of libera- 
tion the restoration of the ancient sanctuaries was commenced, and the 
revived kingdom soon entered upon a new period of advanced culture. 

Monuments of Thebes. — The city of Animon — Thebes, in Upper Egypt 
— ^became the seat of government, and here arose the most splendid monu- 
ments. The buildings and sanctuaries erected during this period are the 
expression of a strong and living national spirit. King after king, genera- 
tion after generation, rivalled one another in the erection, decoration, and 
enlargement of these structures. The private buildings have disappeared; 

* The French, during their occupation of Egypt (1798-1802), removed the sand in which the 
Sphinx was buried up to the neck, and discovered that, with the exception of the fore-paws, which arc 
of brick, the figure was carved out of the natural rock on which it rests. Between the paws there was 
a small sanctuary or temple. The shifting sands of the desert soon again covered the figure. Its re- 
•exhumation is now in progress. It is so far laid bare that there has been found starting from between 
the paws a passage whose entrance, covered by a large stone, is supposed to lead to the interior of the 
Oreat Pyramid. — Ed. 



38 ARCHITECTURE. 

the great irriji;ation-\vork.s, the canals, the fish-ponds, the embankmeutsy 
the streets, and other conveniences, had no definite artistic form. It is in 
the remains of the royal palace, in the temples, and in the tombs that the 
style of the age is shown and, since they are the most idealistic expression, 
reaches its highest development. 

Egyptian Temples, — The plan and size of the temples diflFer according 
to the needs of worship. A characteristic feature of the plan is the prop\- 
lon, consisting of two broad pyramidal towers, wider than deep, between 
which yawns a mighty portal. Upon the towers stand masts, which once 
had banners at their summits; in front of the towers are attached colossal 
figures, and in front of these are slender obelisks, while rows of sculptured 
lions, rams, and sphinxes form the approach. Behind the propylon is a 
fore-court surrounded by a single or double portico. Then follows the 
sanctuary, consisting of many communicating chambers, for the most part 
without windows, their ceilings being partly supported by columns (//. i» 
figs, 6, 7; //. 2^ figs, 2, 3). In the largest temples several fore-courts with 
pylons follow one another, and around the sanctuary are other courts, 
behind which other sanctuaries are sometimes built The columns con- 
sist of colossal blocks of stone, while the capitals are variously designed, 
having sometimes the form of a closed flower-calyx, and sometimes thai 
of an open one (//. 2, figs. 5-1 1). 

Immense lintels of stone carried on low four-sided, prismatic imposts 
stretch from column to column, while huge stone slabs form the roof, and 
also outwardly a platform reached by steps. All the outer walls are 
narrowed upward; their angles are marked by a roll-moulding, and a 
great cove fonns the cbmice (fig. 12). The blocks of which this cor- 
nice is built, and which lie upon the roof-slabs, form a parapet for the 
upper platform. All the walls, the surfaces of the columns, the architrave 
and cornice within and without, are adorned with paintings and painted 
bas-reliefs, in some of which the round of symbolism and mythology, in 
others history, and in others the public, private, and industrial life of the 
nation, are depicted in rich yet severe outline. The paintings and sculp- 
ture, together with the connecting decoration and hieroglyphics, form an 
exceedingly vivid ornamentation, which, however, does not in the least 
alter the character of the surfaces it covers {pi. i, figs. 8, 9, 11; //. 2, 

fig^* 2, 3). 

Culmination of Egyptian Culture. — Egs'ptian culture culminated at 
the end of the eighteenth dynasty and the beginning of the nineteenth, 
when King Seti I. and his son, the great Rameses II., reigned and (about 
1400 B. c. ) extended their victorious anns over Ethiopia, Syria, Asia 
Minor, Mesopotamia, and, according to tradition, even to the Ganges, 
Scythia, and Thrace; so that the treasures of the world flowed to Eg>'pt 
as tribute. A great part of the principal sanctuarv* at Thebes, the im- 
perial temple, not far from which stands the present village of Karnak, 
dates from their reigns. 

Great Temple at Karnak. — This temple had already a double pair of 



THE EGYPTIANS. 39 

pylons, in front of the first pair of which these kings built a columned 
hall 100 metres (328 feet) in width by 50 metres (164 feet) in depth. Twelve 
gigantic columns 20 metres (nearly 66 feet) in height and 3 metres (nearly 
10 feet) in diameter form a central avenue, and on each side sixty-one col- 
umns each 12 metres (nearly 40 feet) high support the roof of the lower 
lateral portions of the hall. The central and higher portion has upper 
windows, like the clere-storey of a Gothic cathedral. The lintels are 7 
metres (23 feet) long, i >^ metres (nearly 5 feet) wide, and nearly 2 metres 
(6^ feet) thick; a pair of them together form an architrave. The roof- 
slabs which rest on these are 8>^ metres (nearly 28 feet) long and more 
than a metre (3^^ feet) in breadth and thickness. Thus immense blocks 
of stone have here been lifted to a considerable height. Figures 6 and 7 
{pL 2) show the closed lotus-capitals of the lateral portions, while Figure 
9 shows the open-calyx capitals of the central series. In front of the col- 
umned hall is a fore-court with porticoes on each side, while a central 
open-pillared avenue leads up to the entrance. Another pair of pylons, to 
which a double row of sphinxes conducts, completes the new structures. 
The entire temple has a length of 320 metres (1049^ feet). 

Rameses II. added a new fore-court with pylons to the temple 
near the present Luxor, and in front of it two colossal figures and two 
obelisks each 24 metres (about 79 feet) high. One of the latter is still in 
place, while the other has been carried to Paris to decorate the Place de la 
Concorde. Another obelisk, which Rameses II. erected at Heliopolis, 
now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome.^ 

The Rock-temples of Nubia^ especially the two at Ipsamboul, belong to 
the reig^ of Rameses II. The larger is represented on Plate I. {Jigs, 3-5). 
Not only are the various halls hewn out of the solid rock, but also the 
facade itself, which consists essentially of four colossal sitting statues 19 
metres (62 feet) high, representing Rameses himself. Smaller but still 
colossal figures, representing members of his family, stand between the 
feet of these giants. The inner hall has eight square columns, against 
which are attached standing figures 10 metres (nearly 33 feet) in height. 
Wherever Rameses led his victorious hosts he erected triumphal columns 
and other memorials, some of which still exist. 

Decadence of Egyptiati Art. — Shishak, a king of the twenty-second 
dynasty, conquered Jerusalem in the year 970 b. c, carried off the treas- 
ures of the temple of Jehovah, and immortalized his deeds upon the 
southern wall of the temple at Kamak; yet about a hundred years later 
Egypt fell into the hands of the Ethiopians, whose king, however, ruled 

> Among the best known of ancient relics arc the two obelisks coipmonly called ** Cleopatra's 
Needles." They were originally brought from Heliopolis to Alexandria during the Roman rule, and 
were set up in front of the Temple of Cnesar. Sul^equently one of them fell, and lay prostrate for 
centuries, until, in 1878, it was taken to London and placed on the Thames Embankment. The other 
remained in position until 1880, when it was conveyed to the United States and erected in Central 
Park, New York City. Its full length is 69 feet 2 inches. At the base, just above the broken portion, 
the stone is 92^^ inches thick, and at the top, at the edge of the pyramid ion, it is 63 inches thick. 
The one in London is of about the same dimensions, though not quite so long. — Ed. 



40 ARCHITECTURE. 

according to the ancient regime, since the Ethiopians themselves had 
previously adopted Eg>'ptian culture. This foreign domination, which 
also left behind some monuments, did not last a centur>\ After its fall 
twelve princes ruled the separate provinces as independent lords, but 
formed a federation and built as their sanctuar\' the celebrated Labvrinth.* 

Psammetichus, one of these rulers, about 670 B. c. overpowered the 
others and again established the unity of the kingdom; he fixed his resi- 
dence at Sais. During the twenty-sixth dynasty, that of the Psam- 
metichi, which lasted about a hundred years, Eg>'pt enjoyed a new 
period of prosperity. 

Egypt under Persia fi Rule, — Amasis also, the founder of the twenty- 
seventh dynasty, sought by splendid motmments to glorify his reign; but 
soon afterward, under his son Psamenit, Eg>'pt was conquered (525 B. c.) 
by Cambyses, king of Persia, who in his passage destroyed all that it was 
possible to overthrow of the monuments of the land. Having broken the 
Eg>'ptian power, he sought to annihilate Eg\'ptian culture, but it with- 
stood the shock, and the conqueror's successors celebrated their rule over 
Egypt, as the Ethiopians had done before them, by erecting Eg>'ptian 
national monuments. With short intennissions during the rule of sev- 
eral national kings, the last of whom, Nectanebes, who reigned 363-350 
B. c, made it his chief aim to restore the national sanctuaries, the Per- 
sian rule lasted until Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian power 
and became master of Eg>'pt. 

Egypt under Greek and Roman Rule, — The Ptolemies, Greek princes, 
adhered to Hellenic customs; under them Alexandria reached its great- 
est prosperity, but they, as well as their successors the Romans, allowed 
Eg>'ptian culture to exist. Even under the world-wide domination of 
Rome, as late as the third centur>' A. D., Eg>'ptian culture had sufficient 
vitality to remain tnie to itself, and to raise monuments which essentially 
retain the ancient character. To this era belong the monuments of Philae, 
Edfu {^pl. 2, fig, 2), Esneh, Denderah, etc., all of which show foreign 
influence in many unimportant details. Especially characteristic of this 
late date are capitals with four human heads (Jig. 10), unusually high 
imposts upon the cohnnns {Jig. i), partition-walls between the lower 
halves of the columns {Jiq^s, i, 2, 4), the arrangement of door-jambs with- 
out a lintel, but attached to columns i^gs. i, 2, 4), and richly-decorated 
forms of capitals (Jigs, i, 11). 

* 'l)ii> wonilcrful building; occupied three sides of an open quadrangle alx>ut 200 ^rards fquare in 
the in«>i<lc ; the fourth >itlc was nearly closed b)'a pyramid which was 243 feet high. The entire struc- 
ture w.!-* liviilt'd l»y twelve coirijjuous halN or court*, each of which w.ih vaulted and had twelve 
<l««r"., "ix . jH:ninj» to the nj>r:h and six to the south. The e<lificc containe<l three thou^nd chamber*, 
fifteen hur.«ired of which were under ground. The roofs and walU of the chaml»er^ were incrusted with 
m.ir])te and adi»rnt*<l with sculptured figures; the h.ilU were »urroun<le<l with stately pillars of white 
marble. It wa-i tho r.Iw>ve-gri»und chaml>en» which Hcnxlotiw in^f)ecte«l, and which filled him with 
such ama.:cment that he ftund wonU inadequate to de-^cribe what he witne>sed. The opening of the 
<loors was attended with such terrible noi-ie that he compared it to peals of thunder. He was not |)er. 
milted to in<jx'C! the lower >eries of chamber*, an they contained the mummie* of the holy crocodiles 
and of the kings. Thi^ labyrmih wx< situated at .\rsino€, near Lake Morriv — Ed. 



THE EGYPTIANS. 41 

Character of Egyptian Architecture, — That which gives Egyptian 
architecture even in these late times its peculiar character is its expres- 
sion of calm, solemn, majestic grandeur, which does not in the least 
depend upon dimensions, but resides most fully and characteristically in 
that innate harmony of simple lines which is the outward expression of 
an unutterably steadfast, self-reliant, well-balanced spirit. It is through 
their complete concordance with their natural environment — the clear 
sky, the broad lines of the landscape, the warm light of the atmosphere 
— that these monuments appear as if they were spiritualized creations of 
Nature, yet greater than Nature's creations, since they manifest the full 
grandeur of human genius. Though every part — each sphinx, each 
obelisk, each columned hall — is independent, yet each forms a part of 
one grand whole. The spirit of the Egyptian people speaks out in them 
in all its fulness, just as it found expression in the life of the common- 
wealth, in which each individual was a fixed part of g mighty and 
powerful whole. Each was assigned a definite and unalterable duty in 
the entire organism, of which he felt himself a part and in the pros- 
perity of which he took a share. As stone on stone makes a massive 
structure which defies the centuries, so, bound together by implicit faith, 
does man combine with man to fulfil the great designs of the State, whether 
as a warrior to enlarge its boundaries, or as a peaceful worker — one among 
thousands who are animated by the same spirit — to raise up mighty monu- 
ments to be the pride of the entire community. 

Conclusion. — Through the medium of the narratives of the Old Testa- 
ment we are made acquainted in our earliest youth with the ancient won- 
derland of the Pharaohs, with which we inseparably connect the idea of 
servitude. When we read how ''the Egyptians made the children of Israel 
to serve with rigor, and made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mor- 
tar, and in brick," the mighty monuments of the Eg>'ptian kings seem to 
ns the product of despotism, erected to gratify the caprice of an individual 
by means of the labor of an entire people. But we must not forget that 
no greater contrast can be imagined than that which existed between the 
Egyptians and the Israelites. The former were a sedentary people who 
had doubtless resided in one place thousands of years; this is evidenced 
by the greatly-developed scale of their arts and industries, whose earliest 
known examples are of a kind which shows that they must have been 
based upon an extended course of development. Out of this protracted 
growth was evolved every element of that culture which we see histori- 
cally demonstrated to have endured without alteration through long 
periods of time. 

The Eg\'^ptians possessed a state-life, and each individual was assigned 
a place in which he felt himself to be a part of the great whole, without 
even a thought that there could arise the possibility of a change of condi- 
tion. How could the Israelites — a people whose ever-recurrent propensity 
for wandering brought them in4o the land perhaps by accident — share in 
this life in which all individuality was merged in the state? Does it not 



42 ARCHITECTURE. [The Amatic Rachs. 

even seem that the Israelitish narratives make an oppression out of what 
was reallv a natural relation? 

\Vc may, therefore, dismiss the thought that caprice and arbitrarv- 
ix)wer coerced the masses of the i>eople to the raising of these monu- 
ments which only pride and thirst for fame could erect. These monu- 
mental piles are in reality the expression of the entire national character. 

II. THE ASIATIC RACES. 

The Ahorij^ines, — The Old Testament makes us acquainted with the 
possessors of still another civilization, with a series of races of the same 
.stock as the chosen j^eople. The tenth chapter of Genesis mentions Nim- 
rod as the great-grandson of the patriarch Noah: **He began to be a 
mighty one in the earth;'' **And the beginning of his kingdom was 
Bal^el .... in the land of Shinar;'' **Out of that land went forth Asshur, 
and builded Xineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen 
between Xineveh and Calah: the same is a great city." The scene 
of this civilization is Mesopotamia, the plain of the Euphrates and the 
Tigris, a land constituted similarly to Kg>pt and similarly favored by 
nature — a land calculated to attract a nomadic race which desired to 
become stationar\' and civilized. 

This land did not, indee<l, furnish those mighty blocks of stone 
with which the Eg>ptians erected their monuments. The eleventh 
chapter of Genesis says, ** .And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the 
east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. 
And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and bum them 
thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and .slime had they for mortar. 
And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower, whose top may 
reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad 
upon the face of the whole earth." And .so they founded cities — some of 
which are mentioned in the Book of Genesis — generations before Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob appeared, and before the chosen people in their 
wanderings came to Eg\pt. 

We can only vaguely guess at the aspect of the cities founded in that 
earlv time, as scarcelv anv of their remains now exist. Greek tradition 
names Nineveh or Ninus, a work of a king of the same name, as the 
oldest city; it tells of his immense constructions, and relates how his 
widow, Semiramis, founded Babylon and built the Temple of Belus, and 
it speaks of the enormous walls of the city, the great citadel, the reser- 
voirs, and the hanging-gardens. We have, indeed, reason to believe that 
these extensive works — which Herodotos professes to have seen, and which 
the Greeks classed among the wonders of the world — did not belong to 
this early age, or, at least, were remodelled at a later time. The exact 
date is difficult to fix. The most recent investigations place the culmina- 
tion of Chaldaean culture at about 2000-1500 b. c. ; so these races probably 
became settled about 2100 B. c, or abou^the time when the Hyksos in- 
vaded Egypt and destroyed its ancient civilization. Without doubt the 



Phoenicians.] THE ASIATIC RACES. 43 

Hyksos issued from this part of Asia, having been driven out by other 
tribes whose wanderings were connected with those of the Old-Testa- 
ment patriarchs of whom the Book of Genesis gives us so vivid a picture. 

Tlie Mongolians and Assyrians, — Whether these peoples were all 
related, as may be inferred from the biblical narrative, or were of diflfer- 
ent stock, as ethnologists assert, the Assyrians being allied to the Mon- 
golians and coming from Central Asia, is for the broader scope of archi- 
tectural history of little importance. But the latter were probably the 
first of that inland group of tribes to become settled and to develop a 
stable civilization; without doubt they influenced the culture of the other 
tribes by the extent and importance of their rule — the more so as, with 
the exception of a single people, these continued in their nomadic life 
long afterward. 

The P/icenicians. — About the same time that the Chaldseans settled in 
Mesopotamia, the Phoenicians, a people of Semitic origin, and one of the 
most restless races of antiquity, endowed with that versatility which, in 
conjunction with the impetus of an incessant chase after gain, induced other 
nomads to wander through the land, settled down upon the coast of Syria. 
These hardy sailors, who soon searched every coast from India to Britain, 
brought home the natural treasures of different countries and exchanged 
with their inhabitants the products of an extensive industrial activity. 
A series of colonies gave to this oldest world-wide commerce a steadfast 
organization. Ere long the Phoenicians had incorporated the collective 
artistic abilit}^ of all these peoples with that which was of home-growth. 
Their oldest and most important cities were Tyre and Sidon. 

Primitive Type of Asiatic Architecture, — This remarkable people also 
undertook the erection of immense buildings. The traditions of these 
are more explicit than those we have concerning the buildings of the 
ancient days of Nineveh and Babylon. Though in some respects they 
probably deviated from their type, these structures clearly belong to a 
culture identical with that in which the Assyrians were dominant. Which- 
ever of these races was the first to become settled, whichever earliest turned 
toward the arts and industries or longest sought for profit in the increase 
of its flocks and herds, the tent of the nomad furnished to all these wan- 
dering peoples the primitive type, as w^ell for buildings devoted to ordi- 
nar\' uses as for fortifications and other classes of structures, even though 
for the lower portions of their temples and palaces the mightiest piles of 
squared stones were put together. 

Technical SkilL — As the Phoenicians were versed in weaving, in colors, 
in glass-making, and, above all, in wood-cutting, bronze-working, and the 
goldsmith^s craft, their constructive talent displayed itself chiefly in mag- 
nificent ornament and did not seek expression in that vast monumentalism 
for which the Egyptians were distinguished. Cedar lavishly employed, 
inlaid work of cypress, bronze pillars, gold-plating upon walls, ivory 
seats, and tapestry are what we find in Phoenician temples, as also in the 
sanctuar}' which the friendly Phoenicians erected for the Israelites when at 



44 ARCHITECTURE. [The Assyrians. 

last the latter resolved to replace their wandering tabernacle by a perma- 
nent stnicture. 

Mofiumcfital Remains, — All that is left to us of Phoenician magnif- 
icence, as well as of Jewish stnictures, is the remains of substructures, 
dams, and embankments, the huge square-hewn blocks of which seem to 
express even greater energy, and by their exactly smooth-hewn edges and 
often rough surfaces give still more the impression of power, than do the 
incised, polished, and sculpture-adonied walls of the Eg>'ptians; but at the 
same time they yield nothing that can furnish a key to the artistic taste 
of their builders or to the cycle of fonns used by them. What we glean 
from the biblical description suggests a lack of fixed principles rather 
than a prevalence of pure artistic genius. This is particularly apparent in 
Solomon's Temple, begim in 1015 B. c, as well as in his splendid palace, 
built in the Phoenician manner. The Bible tells us of the intimate con- 
nection between Jerusalem and the dominant Assyrians, and relates how 
the Israelites were carried captive to Nineveh and how their land was 
peopled by colonists of Assyrian stock. 

Assy nan Architecture : Xineveh, — The prophet Jonah and Greek 
authorities both state that the circuit of Nineveh was three days' journey. 
The Cireeks sjx?ak also of fifteen hundred towers built upon the city wall, 
which latter was so broad that on its summit three chariots could drive 
abreast. In recent times the immense mounds of debris that have been 
excavated reveal the entire arrangement of many palaces. Inscrip- 
tions which tell us of the builder and the date of the building, and 
numerous fragments which enable us to form a reproduction of at least 
some portions of the structure, have also been discovered. Whether those 
restorations, which have been attempted upon the basis of the exhumed 
fragments, are correct must ever remain somewhat doubtful, and even the 
guidance of the probably related palace of Solomon cannot prove to the 
practical artist with such clearness as to amount to certainty that we do 
not view a phantasm when we see the Jewish and Ass>Tian palaces in all 
their pristine magnificence displayed up>on paper. The ground-plans are 
indicated with sufficient clearness: around several courts were grouped 
halls and smaller chambers, the living-rooms of the royal family, and the 
whole was surrounded bv terraces. 

Assyrian Royal Pa/aces, — The most remarkable of these palaces is that 
of Sargon, excavated near the village of Khorsabad. This palace pos- 
sessed a grand terrace which was constnicted of dried brick, and which 
was 14 metres (46 feet) high, 314 metres (1030 feet) broad, and 344 metres 
(1 128 feet) long. It was bounded posteriorly by a wall 3 metres (nearly 
10 feet) thick, lined with great limestone blocks, and provided with towers 
of defence, the whole appearing to be a continuation of the city wall. 
The building constnictetl on this platform comprises two hundred and ten 
halls, rooms, and chambers grouped around thirty-two courts. A great 
open staircase on one side and an inclined plane on the other lead up to 
the terrace. Twenty-six pairs of colossal human-headed winged bulls 



I 



I 



The Assyrians.] THE ASIA TIC RA CES. 45 

wearing a priestly head-covering form portals through which access is 
gained to the courts and halls (//. 3, ^g, 8). 

Many of the rooms were lined below with bas-reliefs and higher up 
with plaster. Recent investigators believe that the rooms were ceiled by 
tunnel-vaults, which, as well as the walls, were built of sun-dried bricks. 
Arches were sprung over the doors. The comparatively small rooms 
obtained light partly through the doors and partly through openings in 
the vaulting; the higher rooms, through a clere-storey immediately below 
the ceiling. Yet these clere-storeys, as we see them in relief among the 
representations upon the walls, give us an intimation that the larger halls 
had a wooden roof-covering. The climate pennitted this roof to be used 
as a terrace, and it was surrounded by a parapet. Single rooms were 
occasionally roofed with a dome. 

On the whole, it seems probable that the buildings on the terrace had 
but one storey, though certainly some portions were higher than others; 
yet the reliefs that we have obtained show, unless the poor perspective 
deceives us, buildings which consisted of many terraced storeys. In some 
palaces a steplike pyramid seven stages high rises from the terrace. 
Among the exterior decorations, besides reliefs, are the painting of the 
reliefs, wall-paintings, ornamental painted patterns, and a covering of 
glazed tiles. 

The palace at Khorsabad stands in connection with a contemporaneous 
city the wall of which has a thickness of 24 metres (78^ feet), while 
its top corresponds with the terrace of the palace, of which it was a con- 
tinuation; sixty-four towers rose above this wall, and it had seven gates, 
the three largest of which were adorned on the lower sides with winged 
bulls, while the arches appear to have been covered with colored glazed 
tiles. 

Palaces at Nunnid, — The ancient Calah has been recognized in the 
ruins of Nimrud, where several palaces have been found. The north- 
western palace is proved by inscriptions to be the work of Assuniazirpal 
(923-899 B. c), while the central palace is that of his son, Shalman- 
ezer V. (899-870). Sargon (721-702) built a palace and a dependent city, 
which was named Hisir-Sargon in his honor. His successor, Sennacherib 
(702-680), built the vast palace of Kouy6njik, the remains of which are 
said to have been discovered in a huge mound near Mosul. The mounds 
at this spot are believed to mark the site of the ancient Nineveh. Assur- 
banipal (668-660) built the south-western palace of Nimrud. 

Construction: Cupolas and Arches, — What may have been the mode 
of construction of the cupolas which were erected on these palaces — 
whether horizontal in ever-narrowing circles, or whether the blocks 
were formed into wedge-shaped voussoirs — cannot now be ascertained; but 
the presence of radiating voussoirs shows that the arch was used in the 
tunnel-vaults, in the crowns of the doors, and especially in the city gates. 
This is, therefore, the earliest known application of the arch. Elemental 
forms are preserved in the life of a people for thousands of years, and thus 



46 ARCIIITECrURE. [The Babvloxians. 

the vaulted designs which under Grxco-Roman influence were erected in 
the now-dcscrtcd cities of Central Svria can be traced back to these Assvr- 
ian vaults. These buildings differed in their construction from the then 
prevalent tyjx^ enianatinj^ from Greece and Italy, just as the present Orien- 
tal structures differ from ours. Even now the East has its cupolas and 
terraced roofs, even now the tunnel-vault is indigenous there; timber-con- 
struction is lavishly applied in combination with more enduring materials, 
and glazed colored tiles play a prominent part in the decoration. 

Materials, — From the infonnation we have upon the subject we must 
conclude that wood was of very general application. We catniot doubi 
til is when we see once-populous cities and magnificent palaces destroyed 
bv fire, when we reflect that the tent of the nomad lav at the base of the 
entire architectural development of the East, and when in later phases 
of development of the same culture we meet with fonns in stone which 
are but translations of those to which wood would naturally lend itself. 

These splendid structures had but a short existence; the Assyrian 
kingdom soon fell. About 600 B. c, Nineveh was overthrown, never 
to be rebuilt; in a few hundred years not a vestige remained visible. 
The perishable material was destroyed; the more substantial was buried 
in the slime of the adobes, and tradition alone tells us that what seem 
natural mounds, which ever)* year are decked with fresh green, were 
formerly the seat of a flourishing civilization. 

liaby Ionian Art. — Babylon took the place of Nineveh. Originally an 
Assyrian province, it had repeatedly sought to gain its independence, and 
at last the Babylonians, under Nabopolassar, leagued with the Medes, de- 
stroyed Nineveh and put an end to the Assyrian monarchy, dividing 
its provinces between themselves.' Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar 
and son-in-law of the King of the Medes, extended his kingdom even to 
Egypt. The Bible narrates how he destroyed Jerusalem and in the year 
599 B. c. carried its people into captivity. He restored Babylon and 
caused vast edifices to be erected there; he rebuilt the Temple of Bel 
(Baal, Belus), and constructed the immense walls and the hanging- 
gardens attributed to Semiramis. To his time belong all the remains 
of buildings which have recently been unearthed. 

The Temple of Bel rose in eight storeys of successively diminishing 
width, forming a terraced pyramid of about 200 metres (656 feet) at the 
base and of equal height, like those pyramidal structures which, ser\'ing 
either as tombs, like the Egyptian pyramids, or as sanctuaries or as astro- 
nomical observatories, towered alx)ve the Assyrian palaces in whose niins 
their remains are now found. We mav believe that we have here the 
sacred number sevcn^ corresponding to that of the planets, each stage 
bearing its characteristic color, while the eighth, or lowest, is but the vast 
terrace upon which the principal structure rests. The uppermost stage 
bore the temple with golden statues, together with a couch and a golden 

* Xjlxtp'il.i^^ar of Babylon miac himself indcpendeni 625 u. c, and Nineveh was destroyed about 
^oSii. ».,— Ki>. 



The Babylonians.] THE ASIATIC RACES. 47 

table for the god. A wall formed the enclosure of the temple, which 
is also known as the Tomb of Belus. 

Babylonian Remains, — Although among the huge mounds which mark 
the site of Babylon no remains of architectural value have as yet been 
found, we have reason to believe that the immense wall-masses of the ter- 
raced buildings which were constructed of sun-dried brick had a covering 
of mosaic like that of which fragments have been found in the ruins of 
Warka, where the fa9ade is partly covered with a diaper pattern fonned 
of small wedges of baked clay pressed into a layer of asphalt, and partly 
with what was once a varicolored coating of plaster. In these wall-deco- 
rations we behold a reminiscence of the rich tapestries for which Babylon 
was fonnerly famous; yet it is difficult at this time to obtain an approx- 
imately correct restoration of the architectural monuments of Babylon 
except as exemplified by Assyrian or by the later Persian models. 

Walls and Palaces. — Herodotos speaks of a city wall which formed 
a square 120 stadia (14 miles) on each side, and was 50 royal cubits 
(93^!3 feet) wide and 200 cubits (373^^ feet) high, and after examination 
of the Assyrian remains we have scarcely groimd to doubt the correctness 
of the description. A hundred gates opened in this wall. A second 
wall, of less thickness than the first, but very little inferior to it in 
strength, enclosed an inner portion of the city, which was regularly laid 
out with streets crossing at right angles. The houses had three or four 
storeys. Among them were two royal palaces, the more ancient of which 
•exceeded the newer in circuit. With it were connected those terraced 
hanging-gardens which rose to the height of the city wall and equalled it 
in breadth, and which Nebuchadnezzar built for his consort as a reminis- 
cence of the mountains of her native Media. (See Vol. II. p. 147.) 

Architectonic Features, — The impression produced by the Assyrian and 
Babylonian palaces must have been one of great magnificence. The 
arrangement of the parts gave them an extraordinar>' appearance. The 
material aim and the ideal significance of such a royal palace found fullest 
■expression. Yet purely architectonic features are almost entirely wanting; 
the wall-masses are not built to express any particular idea, nor is the 
appearance of strength aided by a 'division into members. Scarcely a 
trace of a cornice exists. The columns which supported the roof were not 
of substantial materials; all that remains are colossal masses of walling 
decorated with reliefs and painting and once crowned with an elaborate 
structure of wood. 

The walls themselves, devoid of proper architectonic expression, might 
be called monumental draperies. Where the decoration stands in nearest 
relation to the architectonic constructive parts, and where usually an 
architectural language of forms must be developed, as in the portals, this 
want is most conspicuous, and the fantastic decorations by no means com- 
pensate for the lack of rational fonns. The bulls which bear the arches 
are not architectural features; they are not the correct expression of a 
part of the building which fulfils a thoroughly statical purpose. 



48 ARCHITECTURE. [The Persians. 

Though the architectonic features, when compared with the Egyptian, 
are remarkably deficient in the appearance of rational constniction, the 
oniamentation, which was trained in the excellent school of the textile 
arts, is pure, noble, and full of beautiful forms. Thouj»^h somewhat stiff 
in the representation of figures, it succeeds well in the conventionalization 
of plant-forms, and in the arrangement as well as in the combination of 
geometrical patterns with severely conventional plant-like ornament it 
reaches its climax. As a proof of this we represent that often-recurring 
nwtit\ the so-called **trce of life'' (//. i^ Jig> 13). 

77/^ Fiili of Babylon, — Babylon's prosperity was also short. First it 
became subject to the Medes, and then, about the middle of the sixth 
centun- b. c, the Persians issued from their mountain-fastnesses and over- 
whelmed alike Mede and Babylonian. Cynis took Babylon about 536 B. c, 
Darius razed the walls, and Xerxes destroyed the Temple of Bel, which 
Alexander the (treat failed to rebuild. Both city and neighborhood 
fell into decay, and Babylon, like the great Nineveh before it, soon passed 
from the memory of man. But the Medcs, and after them the Persians, 
adopted the ancient culture and expressed it in their monuments. 

Palace 0/ Echatana, — The capital of greater Media was Ecbatana. 
According to the accounts which have come down to us, all the architec- 
tonic features of the palace were of cedar and cypress overlaid with gold 
and silver; even the roof was plated with these metals. It is also de- 
scribeil as a pyramidal structure of seven stages, recalling the terraced 
buildings of Babylon. The battlements of the parapets were brilliant 
with gorgeous coloring. The uppermost buildings were entirely of wood. 

Susa, also, lying cast of the Tigris, in the level lowlands, was a kingly 
residence, and enclosed splendid structures, of which the Bible speaks in 
the Book of Esther. 

Persian Architecture : Palace and Tomb of Cyrus, — The histor>' of 
Persian architecture proper begins with Cynis (559-529 B. c). Of his 
palace at Pasargadar there are extant some remains, consisting principally 
of an artificial terrace made of great blocks of squared stone resting 
against the cliffs. A smaller palace, near by, had a colonnade, of which 
a pillar 50 feet high exists. His tbmb (Jig. 3) is tolerably well pre- 
served; it is a sarcophagus shaped like a house, and is situated on the 
summit of a terraced substructure, the whole about 12 metres (39 feet) in 
height. According to Greek tradition, a hall of twent\'-four columns and 
a garden once surrounded the stnicture; broken shafts are all that is left 
of the hall. The interior of the tomb is 5 metres (i6>i feet) broad by 
6 metres (nearly 20 feet) long, and once enclosed a golden coffin, a 
golden couch, a table, chairs, swords, earrings with jewels, drinking-gob- 
lets, and an inscription which read, ** Men ! I am Cynis, who led the Per- 
sians to power and niled Asia. Grudge me not a grave." But even in 
the time of Alexander the treasures of the tomb were gone. A pillar in 
a building near by bears a bas-relief of the king himself. 

Rock'tombs of PerseptUis: Tomb of Darius. — The most important 



The Persians.] THE ASIATIC RACES. 49 

I 
group of monuments is that of Persepolis, where stood the Persian royal 

palace which Alexander in his drunken fury delivered to the flames. Not 
far from this city is the King's Mountain, in which are the tombs of the 
kings. These are not close together: two of them are in the marble-hill 
of Rahmed, while four others — among them an unfinished one — are about 
nine miles distant. The rock-face is hewn perpendicularly, and high up 
is a columned portico sculptured in relief, with a half-blind door placed 
between two of the columns. Above this is a superstructure richly dec- 
orated with floral ornament, and upon the summit is the king himself 
praying before a fire-altar. These tombs, of which we show that of 
Darius (//. 3, fig. 2), are the most important monuments for guidance in 
the reconstniction of Persian architecture, since they alone remain intact 
to show what a Persian building was as a whole. 

Royal Palaces at Persepolis. — Of the royal palace at Persepolis a series 
of ruins remains besides the great terraces upon which it was built. A 
double staircase of marble broad enough for ten horsemen to ride abreast 
leads to a terrace whereon stand massive piers against which rest the 
winged bulls with human heads whose acquaintance we have already 
made in Assyria (p. 44). Between these stand columns of slender propor- 
tions. This was the entrance, the propylaea, of the structure, attributed 
to Xerxes. A second gigantic staircase leads onward to a higher terrace, 
on which are situated great columned halls. Behind these halls is a struc- 
ture which from the character of its reliefs seems to have served as a cham- 
ber for the reception of ambassadors, and farther back another, which may 
have been the dwelling-apartments. 

The Persian kings inherited from their nomadic life the custom of 
changing their residence according to the season and the occasion, and, as 
Persepolis was the royal palace which stood nearest to the burial-place of 
the kings, it was set apart for royal celebrations of a solemn and imposing 
character. These grand staircases and terraces form, indeed, a majestic 
theatre for a pompous ceremonial. The present condition of the propytea 
is shown in Figure 4, and in Figure i is Fergusson's restoration of the 
Great Hall of Xerxes, which we reproduce because he has adhered closely 
to the facades of the tombs. 

Construction : Origin of Architectural Forms. — The slender columns 
with their fantastic capitals {Jigs. 5-7) show clearly their descent from the 
forms of wood-construction; and when we draw conclusions from other 
analogies between the earlier Assyrian and later Persian art, we can trace 
our way back to the older wooden structures which were everywhere built 
on the vast terraces. Wood-constniction must have been of long stand- 
ing, and undoubtedly was intimately connected with the national senti- 
ment, since, with the slightest possible modifications, the endeavor was 
made to imitate it in stone. It can, however, scarcely have been indig- 
enous with the Persians, but must, with other architectural peculiarities, 
have been the property of an entire group of people, and we prefer to 
believe that the Persians, whose civilization was acquired from the soil of 

Vol. IV.— 4 



50 ARCHITECTURE. [The Persians. 

Mesopotamia and Clialda^a, also borrowed thence these wooden fonns, 
rather than that we are in the presence of a constniction in no wise 
related to the more ancient mode and yet possessed of a series of 
fonns so closely related to it. In fact, we cannot fail to perceive the inti- 
mate relationship between the figures of bulls in the Assyrian and Persian 
portals and those on the capitals on Plate 3 {Jigs, 5, 7), and the relation- 
ship of both with those which bore the brazen laver in Solomon's Temple. 
\Vc may suppose that in the older wooden buildings these double bulls 
were of metal, perhaps of cast bronze, the columns themselves being 
covered with beaten metallic plates. The volute as well as the entire por- 
tion of the columns shown in Figure 6 has no other origin than the curl- 
ing shavings produced in working the wooden shafts. 

The Portals of Persian architecture, however, bear witness to a devel- 
opment different from the Chalda^o-Assyrian. There we have an arch 
springing immediately over the bulls' heads, so that these beasts seem to 
bear the arch. Here the piers rise higher, so that the creatures are but a 
decoration applied to the lower part of the jambs. In a portal at Per- 
sepolis nearly 5 metres (16' j feet) wide and 14 metres (46 feet) high these 
beasts measure only 6 metres (nearly 19-^4 feet) to the crown of the head. 
A huge lintel spans the o])ening, and a great Eg\'ptian-like coved cornice 
finishes the architecture of the upper part of the doorway. The remains 
consist only of columns and door-jambs {figs, 11, 12). 

The Walls. — The assumption that the walls — the massiveness of which 
is evident from the plan of the piers — were either of baked bricks, or, 
more probably, of sun-dried bricks whose friable material has been con- 
verted into earth, is more likelv than that human hands have borne awav 
huge blocks of stone. There is nothing to prove that windows occurred 
in the manner shown by Fergusson in his restoration {fig. i.). It seems 
more probable that the light came through the clere-storey, of whose 
existence the superstnicture of the hall carved in relief upon the royal 
tomb may give a hint, and also found entrance through the halls and 
doors of the courts. It is evident that the interiors of the rooms not onlv 
were resplendent with metallic plates and draper>', but were also clothed 
in rich colors. Even the exterior of the existing niins shows ever\'- 
where traces of color. 

Conclusion. — If we put together all that we certainly know concerning 
the architectural monuments of the various Asiatic peoples, we must see 
in them the works of one widespread common culture, even though there 
were notable differences of race between the peoples. Though of gigantic 
propc»rlions, they lacked that expression of majestic solemnity, that 
undisturbed dignified repose, which characterizes Eg>ptian monuments. 
With ail their size, they seem a fantastic play, and the tent of the nomad 
is perceptible even in the works of the latest p>eriod. Thence are 
derived the unsubstantial materials, the varied modes of application of 
unbunit brick, and the use of wood plated with metal. 

The first and most ancient jx^riod of this architecture — we might 



THE PELASGIAN RACES. 51 

almost say of this civilization — was that of the Chaldsean Kingdom in the 
second thousand years b. c. ; the second was that which developed among 
the Phoenicians previous to the year 1000 b. c. ; the third, that of the 
Assyrian Kingdom from 1000 to 700 b. c. ; the fourth, that of Babylonia 
and Media in the sixth century b. c. ; and the last, that of Persia from the 
second half of the sixth century to the time of Alexander the Great, 
under whose successors Grecian culture replaced the indigenous civiliza- 
tion. Yet many elements outlasted the Greek domination, and many 
which are prevalent to-day go back to that early time. But Egyptian art 
may have had some influence upon the development of the native st}'les 
before the last period, and in that period, under the Persians, Hellenic art 
may have been influential. 

III. THE PELASGIAN RACES. 

In the preceding section we have sketched the art of a group of races. 
How far this art and the culture founded upon it were spread, under their 
sway, beyond the limits within which we have viewed them, we cannot 
ascertain with certainty; still less can we tell how widely their indirect 
influence may have made itself felt through peaceful and warlike relations 
with other nations. In general, we may assert that its proper territory was 
enclosed by the Persian Gulf and the Caspian, Black, and Mediterranean 
■seas, although in the beginning it did not occupy the whole of that terri- 
tory. We have seen that the Phoenicians organized a world-wide com- 
merce along the seacoasts frpm India to Great Britain, and thus doubtless 
carried among foreign peoples the products of this magnificent Asiatic 
civilization. Certainly this would have its influence; yet historic data as 
to how far this influence extended are entirely wanting. 

We now come in contact with a group of inter-related tribes of Indo- 
Oermanic origin which are known by the common title of ''Pelasgi." 

■ 

They settled in South-eastern Europe, descended to the Grecian penin- 
sula, and spread over Asia Minor and Italy. It is not known when or by 
what route their migration occurred, but it may be presumed that it took 
place before the Asiatic peoples had attained their seats and their culture. 
We find them in Greece in the second thousand years before Christ, and 
to them very many of the Greek myths refer. In contrast to the great 
peoples of Asia who were united into vast empires, we find these peoples 
settled in small tribes, each perhaps the increase of a single family, 
while each had one of its oldest members at its head, similar to a 
patriarch of Asia in former times, but called a king. Instead of wan- 
dering like the patriarchal folk, they fixed their dwelling in a valley, 
upon a mountain, on some part of the seacoast, or upon an island. Their 
race-relationship formed an ideal bond, and they often united for common 
deeds or expeditions. 

It matters little when Greek folk-lore had its origin, when it was 
brought into its present shape, or how much of it is due to a poetical 



52 ARCIIITECrURE. [The Peiasgi. 

imajT^inalion; wc always find the Pclasgiaii races ereciing for themselves 
pennaiKiit houses, niaiiufactiirinj; their own weapons, building cities with 
solid walls ^"<1 constnictin;; ships in which to seek treasures in distant 
lauds • as Jason sought the Golden Fleece) or to send out colonists to other 
localities. How far the Phcenicians were their teachers, how much they 
learned from the Eg>ptians, and what they discovered for themselves is 
not known. From the siege of Troy, which lasted ten years, we may 
conclude, since Troy was only an outpost of the older Chaldaeo- Assyrian 
culture, that, although their civilization in that age might not have been 
nearly related to the Asiatic, they must have been strongly impressed 
with the idea that it was superior to their own. 

PtUisj^ian Works. — Structures of such immensity as the Eg>ptians 
erected or such as we have met with in Xineveh and Babvlon could not 
be raised by these small communities. Since those powerful Asiatic 
peoples did not construct buildings composed throughout of substantial 
materials, it is not surprising that the Pclasgi, whose forests yielded an 
abundance of timber, should allow that material to play an important 
part in their architecture. Still, when they had need of monumental 
memorials, the Pelasgi even in that early time raised works at once so 
primitive and so massive that they seemed strange to the later Greeks, 
who regarded them as the works, not of men, but of giants. 

City II 'ii/fs of Tiryfjs and Mxkemr. — Manv of these monumental works 
Still exist, particularly the circumvallation walls of several cities. The 
oldest is prolxibly that of Tir\ns, which is 25 feet thick, and is con- 
stnicied of huge irregular blocks, some of them more than 3 metres (nearly 
10 feet i long and rough as they came from the quarr\'. Corridors which 
are i'^ metres wide (nearly 5 feet) run lengthwise within this wall and 
are roofed with blocks which project on both sides. As the larger blocks, 
from the irregularity of their surfaces, could not be bedded upon one 
another with sufficient security, smaller irregular pieces were wedged in 
between, so as to form a safe bed and bond for the larger. These walls 
are called *' Cyclopean." Somewhat later are the walls of Agamemnon*s 
city of Mykena: i pi. 4, y?4^ 12), as is proved by the masonry, which, 
tho!igh not regularly laid in courses, consists of polygonal blocks well 
bonded. 

GatciL-ays: Gate of the Lions, — In places, as at the principal gate of 
the city, the so-called **Gate of the Lions" (fig^ ii\ the courses are 
horizontal and the joints are vertical. The door itself is now for the 
greater part of its height blocked with earth and di?bris, so that only the 
upixrr part can be seen; it consists on both sides of two huge stone jambs 
leaning toward each other, ujx)n which is a lintel nearly 5 metres (16J3 
feet) long and i 'J metres (nearly 5 feet) thick. Above the lintel is a tri- 
angular space, the sides of which are fonned of horizontal courses of 
stones which project toward one another, so as to meet above. In this tri- 
angular ofArning is inserted a block of the same shape, on which are 
carved in relief two lions standing with their fore-feet on the pedestal of 



The Pelasgi.] THE PELASGIAN RACES. 53 

a central pillar. Egyptian influence as well as the working of a primitive 
idea can be traced in the form of this gate, while the rendering of the 
muscles of the animals and the treatment of the reliefs remind us of 
Asiatic works. 

Other City Gates and JVa//s. — The walls of Phigalia, a portion of 
which remains, have a gate the jambs of which consist of several stones 
with oblique ends projecting inward. An immense lintel closes the 
opening (//. 4,y?^. 13). The upper parts of the gates of Amphissa 
(y?^. 14) and Samos (Ji^. 15) show us regularly-built work with vertical 
joints. Besides these walls, similar ones exist at Buphagos and Psophis. 
In Asia Minor there also exist remains of walls belonging to the same 
category, as at Kalynda, in Caria, where the masonr>' is polygonally 
jointed, and at lasos, on the Carian coast, where the courses are almost 
regular. We also meet with similar walls in Italy, as at the city of Cossa, 
where the irregularly-polygonal blocks are without mortar, and at Vol- 
terra, Populonia, Fiesole, and Cortona, where the blocks are in regular 
courses. Some walls in Greece have doors worked out of horizontal 
courses into an arched form, while some of the later Italian ones show 
perfect arch-construction. 

We cannot assign a date to the erection of these walls; it seems 
indubitable that they are older than the later Assyrian buildings. Equally 
doubtless it appears to us that that method of arch-construction which 
consisted of horizontally-projecting courses, as here exemplified, cannot 
be the forerunner of the vaulted building, and from the multifarious rela- 
tions which existed between the Asiatic civilization and the Pelasgian 
races we may conclude that the latter derived the arch from ancient Asia, 
first in imperfect imitation, but afterward in correct construction. The 
various tribes to which these walls belong bore a multitude of names, 
yet it would be clear that they were allied in race, or at least belonged 
to one and the same phase of civilization, even were there no evidence 
other than that of the fortification-walls, similarly fashioned and nearly 
contemporaneous, which we have described above. Another common 
characteristic is the want of any massive monumental temples. 

Pelasgian Temples, — The simple nature- worship of the Pelasgi sought 
its gods in forest and grove, in rock and stream, frequented the spots 
where they resided, and received visits from them in human form either 
to aid or to punish, according to their will. Homer mentions temples 
wrhicli enclosed the image of a god that served for the protection of the 
city, just as each house had its Penates, but gives no further infonnation 
concerning their structure and arrangements — an omission which he cer- 
tainly would not have made had they by the beauty of their forms, their 
size, or their conspicuous appearance given him an opportunity for poetic 
description. But we find in the older writers glowing descriptions of 
sacred groves and altars under the open sky where the chief ceremonial 
of the worship of the gods — the offering of sacrifices — could be performed. 
Such was the sanctuary of Zeus in the oak-grove of Dodona, which was 



54 ARCHITECTURE. LThk v^xj^u 

retained by the Hellenes as a holy place. Wherever meiitiou is made of 
temples we must believe them to have been made of bronze or of wood 
and to have been constructed in Asiatic fashion. Pausanias tells us 
(x. 5, 9) that the first Temple of Apollo at Delphi was built of laurel, 
while a later one was of bronze. 

On the island of EuboL*a there remain some rectangular stnictures 
built of irregularly-shaped stone slabs, among which, as in the walls of 
Tir>ns, smaller stones fill in the interstices between the larger and make 
for them a secure bed. There are three of these on Mount Cliosi, near 
Styra, and one on Mount Ocha, near Karystos. From the structure of 
these stone temples it is evident that they were contemporary with the 
walls before described. The building at Mount Ocha is internally about 
9 metres (293 < feet) long and 4 ji metres (nearly 15 feet) wide; the upright 
walls are about 3 metres (9^4 feet) thick and about 2 metres (6^ feet) 
high. Slabs which in'tenially project over one another, leaving an open- 
ing at the top, form a gable-like ceiling to the room, wjiich is thus higher 
in the centre. On the southern long face of the rectangle is a gate very 
similar to that at Mykcuie, built of two opposite stone jambs with a stone 
lintel. Two small four-sided oj^enings apparently served as windows. 
Although the building is known as the Temple of Hera, we cannot be 
certain that it is a sanctuarj', but incline to believe it a memorial sacred 
to departed heroes. 

Sepulchres. — In the twenty-fourth book of the Iliad we find Homer's 
description of the burial of Hector. A huge funeral-pile was raised, on 
which the body was burned. The people quenched the embers with wine. 
Brothers and friends collected the bones and ashes, 

" And placc<l Ihcm in a {golden urn. O'er this 
They <irew a covering of hoft )>uq)le roi)CS, 
Ami laid it in a hollow grave, and } tiled 
Fragments of rock above it, niany and huge/' ' 

The funeral of Patroklos is similarly described, and express mention is 
made of the circular form of the mound of earth (Book xxiii.). At 
Elpenor's burial {Odyssey^ xii. 14) a stele or upright slab erected upon a 
hill is mentioned. 

Lydian Tombs. — In Lydia are a number of grave-mounds, some of 
which are of great size and rise in the form of a cone from a stone sub- 
structure of cylindrical shape. In the interior is a small square burial- 
chamber roofed above with courses of stone projecting horizontally, 
exactly like the so-called Temple on Mount Ocha. Around this sev- 
eral concentric rings of walling bound together by cross-walls and 
filled in with loose rocks fonn a secure foundation for the cone-shaped 
mound above. The so-called ''Grave of Tantalos/' as yet in tolerably 
good preservation, stands among several others on the north side of the 
Gulf of Smyrna; its diameter is nearly 60 metres (197 feet). Near Sardis^ 

^ I3r}*ant's translation, ///<i«/, xxiv. ioia-1015. 



The VEiJisGi,} THE PELASGIAN RACES. 55 

the ancient capital of Lydia, there is a group of mounds, three of them 
of surpassing size, the largest of which, 80 metres (262 feet) in diameter, is 
presumed to be the Tomb of Alyattes, mentioned by Herodotos, according 
to whose description it was crowned with five memorial columns. (See 
Vol. II. p. 196.) 

Rock-tomb of Midas. — Of another kind are the tombs which we find 
in Phrygia, and which, hewn out of the solid rock, have sculptured 
fa9ades. The most important of these is the so-called '' Tomb of Midas.** 
This has a nearly square surface entirely filled with a geometric ornament 
and surrounded by a frame-like border; above this a triangular frame, 
similarly decorated, fonns a low gable. This is evidently a reminiscence 
of a tent-like wooden building covered with a gable roof and closed in 
front with drapery, and furnishes another element the direct connection 
of which with the rest of the Pelasgian works cannot be traced. Such a 
work would have to be regarded as an oflfshoot of Cbaldseo- Assyrian art 
were it not that certain ornamental details of the same age which occur 
upon fragments found in the so-called '* Treasury of Atreus" (//. \^fig- 
4) also exhibit a geometric ornamentation conceived in a similar spirit. 

Treasury of Atreus. — It does not seem to be proved that the so-called 
*' treasuries" — several of which occur in Greece — are entitled to be' so 
named. The most remarkable of these is that of Minyas, in Orchomenos, 
which Pausanias (ix. 38, 2) praises as a wonder. The best known is that 
of Atreus, at Mykense {figs. 4, 6), a circular structure 15 metres (about 49 
feet) in diameter; its walls begin to curve from the floor and rise in par- 
abolic outline, each course so projecting over the one beneath it that by 
this diminution of the concentric circles they finally unite at the summit 
so as to form a pointed vault. It was evidently built against the rock, 
in which a chamber is excavated, and the whole was then covered with 
earth. We are inclined to believe that this structure was connected with 
ancestral worship. The entrance {fig. 4) is built in a manner similar to 
the **Gate of the I^ions" {fig* n), only there are no special door-jambs 
placed slanting, so as to form an opening narrower above than below, but 
the horizontally-laid ashlar work of the structure reaches to the door, 
which is surrounded by an architrave of flat channelled profile. The slab 
which in the other doorway filled the triangular space over the lintel is 
here absent. At this place were found several ornamental fragments which 
give us an insight into the ideas of decoration possessed by the Pelasgi; 
the base and the shaft of a column {fig. 7) have been restored from these. 
As the shape of the building recalls the Asiatic domes, so certain orna- 
ments in relief {figs. 8, 10) seem related to Assyrian decoration, and the 
spiral patterns {figs. 7, 9) recall the bronze utensils of the Northern people 
— utensils which reached them through the Etniscans, or probably even 
through the Phoenicians, until they learned to manufacture them for 
themselves. 

Royal Palaces. — Homer gives us descriptions of royal palaces, par- 
ticularly those of Odysseus, Menelaos, and Alkinoos. A wide fore-court 



56 ARCHITECTURE. [The Pelasoi. 

surrounded by walls and battlements, with outbuildings in connection 
with it, j^ave access to an inner court, surrounded by porticoes, with the 
altar of Zeus Herkeios in its centre. A passage led from this to the great 
hall of the men, the roof of which was borne by rows of columns^ and 
from which a staircase led to the upper storey. A door led to the women's 
quarters, which formed the rear of the dwelling, and contained, besides 
the working-apartment and the conjugal chamber, a series of rooms and 
chambers both on the ground-floor and in the upper storey. Other rooms 
for the men lay on each side of the inner court. (See Vol. II. p. i8i, 
pi. 23.) The decorations of bronze, gold, silver, amber, and ivor>' of 
which Homer speaks so admiringly point to the employment of a con- 
struction partly of metal and partly of wood plated with metal, similar to 
that of Asiatic structures. It is supposed that the interiors of the treas- 
ure-houses were also lined with metal, since in that of Orchomenos and 
in a circular chamber near the Treasur>' of Atreus fragments of bronze 
plates have been found; .so that it may be that the other buildings were 
also built monumentally of stone. 

The Palace of Menelaos is described in the thirtv-seventh line and fol- 
lowing lines in the fourth canto of the Odyssey; Homer makes Menelaos 
say that Asia and Eg>'pt had furnished models for the described dwelling. 
The Palace of Alkinoos is described with even more detail. Walls of 
beaten brass, silver door-jambs, and a golden door with a golden ring, 
having on either side the golden hounds wrought by Hephaistos, chairs 
along the wall hung with gorgeous tapestr\' made by female hands, 
and statues of golden youths l>earing burning torches, figure in this 
description. 

Though we must make some allowance for poetic fancy, we may yet 
believe the description to be in the main correct, and even the allusion to 
the dwelling of Zeus (not a temple, but the home of the human person- 
ality of the g(Kl at Olympus) in the description of the Palace of Menelaos 
must not Ix? relegated to the realm of fancy, since tli^ gods were believed 
to manifest themselves with human forms and needs. The universal use 
of bronze, and particularly the bronze statues which adorned the mansion 
of Alkinoos, Ix'come doubly significant through the allusion of Menelaos 
to the Phoenicians as a source from which he procured the models for the 
decoration of his palace. This allusion clearly indicates the relationship 
which existed between Pela.sgic culture and that of Eg\'pt and Western 
Asia. The Pelasgi were acquainted with both sources, from which they 
borrowed, and out of which they worked a style peculiarly their own. 

Historical records leave here a notable gap. With the exception of a 
few architectural remains for the determination of whose exact age no 
external testimony exists, we have only the short notices of the later 
Oreek writers, as of Pausanias, whose descriptions are based on traditions 
none tcK) critically examined, and of Homer, concerning whose poetical 
account always arise the questions. To what date can the definitive collec- 
tion of the whole, and especially of the portions which most interest us, 



The Etruscans.] THE PELASGI'AN RACES. 57 

be traced? or are not such parts later interpolations? If we consider the 
time of the Trojan war, the twelfth century b. c, as the most flourishing 
period of Pelasgic art, then information is entirely wanting concerning 
its further development on Grecian soil. 

In exchange, we find in Lykia some very interesting additions to our 
knowledge of its further development in a number of tombs, some of 
them sarcophagi or pillared buildings standing free, others consisting of 
rock-hewn fa9ades in front of burial-ehambers, many being placed close 
together. It cannot in all cases be determined from what age they date. 
Some belong to a later era and show the influence of Grecian architectural 
forms, but others exhibit such unique characters that, even though they 
may be late, we recognize the perpetuation of forms whose origin lies far 
back in primitive times, while even the later works attempt to imitate 
those of an earlier period. 

Lykian Rock-tombs. — The appearance of these rock- tombs is shown on 
Plate 4 {Jigs, 1-3). Figures i and 2 are most interesting, since they retain 
survivals of the timber-construction and furnish us with proof that in the 
earliest days wood was largely employed in building, and that in the 
change to stone the same cycle of forms was retained; so that the idea 
that the fully-developed Greek columnar architecture was a reminiscence 
of timber-construction has to a certain extent a positive basis. We shall 
return to this when we treat of Greek architecture. 

Probably we have here the transition to the Grecian style which is 
separated by an interval of several centuries from the Heroic Age, but of 
this transition we have no records, either monumental or historic; so that 
Grecian art comes suddenly upon us as a beautifully complete whole, an 
entity which breathes a spirit differing entirely from that with which 
the Heroic Age presents us. We observe a much closer relationship when 
we cross into Italy and consider the works which are usually known as 
** Etruscan." 

Etruscan Architecture : Walls and Gates. — ^The origin of Etruscan art 
must be sought in the remains of Italian city walls, to which we have 
referred (p. 53) in connection with those of Greece. We must now return 
to them, as in the construction of the portals we find an element which 
does not occur in Greece. This is the formation of the arch with wedge- 
shaped voussoirs put together according to the rules of vaulted construc- 
tion, as in the Gate at Falerii {pi. 5, fig. 8), in which the keystone of the 
archivolt is decorated with a sculptured head. In a doorway at Volterra 
not only the keystone, but the springing stones, bear carved heads. In 
other buildings, as in the city gate of Arpino, a pointed arch is formed 
by projecting horizontal courses. 

Akin to the Treasuries are such buildings as the so-called ''Spring- 
House" at Tusculum, the pointed vault of which is also constructed of 
horizontal courses. Similar to this is the Mamertine Prison at Rome, the 
lower chamber of which — the so-called Tullianum — has a vault of the 
same description. Many thousand cone-shaped towers called *'Nuraghi," 



58 ARCUITECTVRE, [Tai Et«iscass. 

from lo to 15 metres (33 to 49 feet) high, exist in Sardinia. These contain 
one or several bell-shaped adjacent or superposed chambers, which were 
iiswl as tombs and exhibit a similar construction. 

Etruscan Tombs. — In Ktriiria this corbelled construction obtains in 
]nauy tombs, a.s in the vcr\' ancient ones of Re^lini and Galassi, in Crcre. 
Tombs are the most important relics of Etruscan art, and a large uuniber 
have been opened and examined. Some are hewn in tufa, or hard rock, 
in wiiich several chambers frequently communicate, while others are inde- 
]>endent structures in which the tumuhis-form is more or less preserved. 
The rock-hewn chambers have ceilings partly flat, partly sloping upward 
toward the middio, worked into beams and rafters, in imitation of wood- 
coiistructiun. L'p to the present day the uuuierons inscriptions found in 
these tombs have not been deciphered; still, though it is not possible to 
arrange them chronologically, wc must consider those oldest which are 
nearest to tlie tumulus archetyiie. 

The largest tomb of this kind is the Poggio Gajelle, at Chiusi, a 
natural mound about 100 metres {328 feet) in diameter, hollowed out 
into several superposed series of labyrinthine passages and funeral-cham- 
ber.s. The one called the Cncnuiella, near Volci, an artificial mound 
about 60 metres (nearly 200 feet) in diameter, walled around at the bottom 
and now about 15 metres (49 feet) high, bears upon its summit two lower- 
like elevations, one of which is quadrangular, the other cone-shaped. 
Pliny describes the tomb of King Porseuna as square, and pierced below 
with a labyrinth the endless turns of which conld not be threaded without 
a clue; five pyramids rose above the substructure. Five conical turrets 
still remain upon the wrongU-nanied Tomb of the Horatii and Curiatii, 
at Albano {pi. 5, _/ff. 4). The interior of the rock-tombs at Cerx-etri 
ifigs. 1-3) probably gives us a picture of the abodes of the living. Fig- 
ure 5 gives an idea of an exterior fa^de which, though probably the work 
of a later date and constructed under Grecian influence, yet in many 
respects brings before iis a picture of the Pelasgian Heroic Age. 

Period of Etruscan Art-culture. — Etruscan art can be followed from 
early prehistoric times far into the historic. It niled throughout Italy 
until the conquering Romans adopted the art of the conquered Greeks, 
but mingled with certain Etruscan elements, so that the boundarj'-Iine 
cannot exactly be determined. The Roman historians themselves briefly 
describe the advance of the art-culture of their people by saying tliatat 
first all was Tuscan, while later all was Greek. The most ancient build- 
ings of Rome are of the Etruscan era, and so we have historic information 
and certain data concerning some Etruscan works. 

The distinguishing features between Etruscan art and the later Grecian 
are especially hard to define in Rome, because Greek influence made an 
impression at a rather early period, its continued increase giving birth to 
the later native Roman art; so that what wms Grecian in the Roman sense 
was yet not Grecian, since it could not be separated from the elements 
derived from Etruscan architecture. 



The Etruscans.] THE PELASGIAN RACES. 59 

But the elements which form the foundation of Etruscan art are sov 
closely allied to those of the old Pelasgian that the Romans contrasted 
them with the later period of Grecian art, and thus furnish us with a rea- 
son for seeing in the art of the Etruscans only the further development of 
the old Pelasgian. But whether the entire Etruscan life was but a con- 
tinuation of that of the old Pelasgian or the religion alone was directly 
derived from the Heroic Age must remain undetermined, and it is still 
an open question to what extent the mces were allied; yet as the older 
Asiatic culture was perpetuated by transference from one race to another 
and reached its highest point at a comparatively late period among tlie 
Persians, so Pelasgian culture and art in the course of their passage from 
one people to another were developed among the Etruscans. Even among 
these they survived the older Asiatic for a short time only, though, unlike 
the latter, they did not quite disappear, but continued to live on to a more 
perfect development in classical Greek culture. 

Inception of Roman Art. — Although the boundary-line is not a rigid- 
one, we may reckon the commencement of Roman art at about the middle 
of the second century b. c. , from which date we possess a complete series 
of monuments illustrating the entire round of public life. From this age 
date the buildings of the Capitol and of the Fonini, bridges and aque- 
ducts, city walls, tombs, etc. The first arrangement of the Forum, the 
centre of the city, is attributed to Tarquinius Prisons (616-579 b. c), the 
conqueror of Etruria. It was a place for public assemblies, a market in. 
which were booths where all things needful were exposed for sale. As 
the city g^ew, this sale of commodities was drafted ftflf into separate mar- 
kets, and so the Forum became splendid with grand edifices; thus in the 
third century the Goldsmiths' Forum was erected for the exchange of 
gold and silver and the trade in jewelry. But the magnificence of a later 
generation rebuilt the Forum as well as all Rome in Grecian style. The 
grandest work of Etruscan art was executed about 600 b. c. : it was the 
sewerage system of Rome, culminating in the Cloaca Maxima. To this 
earlier age of Rome belongs also the first Circus Maximus. 

Etruscan and Roman Temples, — The temples of both the Etruscans 
and, the Romans followed the ancient traditions, and, though the walls 
and columns were of stone, the beams and roofs were of wood. A cha- 
racteristic example of this is the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. It had 
three adjoining sanctuaries, with a portico of three rows of columns in 
front and lateral porticoes of a single series of shafts; ordinary temples 
had only the anterior portico. Vitruvius mentions such a temple, not as 
something left from historic times, but as extant in his day; he describes 
it as low, broad, spreading, and top-heavy. Especially characteristic of 
the time are the wide projecting roof, the comparatively high pediments, 
and the wide spacing of the columns. Figure 7 {pi. 5) shows such a 
temple. It is believed that in this description he had in view the Temple 
of Ceres, Liber, and Libera, a three-celled temple built in the fifth cen- 
tury B. c, and extant in the time of Augustus. 



6: ARCHITECTURE. [The Etruscans. 

But we have further sources of infonnation, and the copy of the 
ttnjl'j-fi^^ide shown in F'igure 5 {pL 5) does not entirely agree with the 
def-rr>.::on of Vitruvius; so that Semper, making use of all sources of 
:-:f icmition, has reconstructed the Etruscan temple in all the glorj' of its 
c'/-Lnn^. as shown in Figure 6. Among the temples we must mention 
thit of Salus. which C. Fabius Pictor enriched with wall-paintings, as also 
t':ii: of Virtus et Honos, which dates from the close of the third centun* 

m 

£- c aa'J which was afterward decked with works of Grecian art taken 
fror: 5yrac".i^. Figures 9 to 12 are characteristic examples of the details 
cf Htru^^an architecture. 

labile Works. — The first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, was erected 313 
B. c. :n 272 B. c. the Anio Vetus, but both were at first of small capacity. 
A '-ni^j-ie monument was the Columna rostrata. which in 261 B. c. was 
erected in honor of C. Duilius and commemorated his first naval victor)' 
cr.trr the Carthaginians (261 B. c). How far the basilicas belong to the 
Tjtrifjfl under discussion must be left undetermined; the Greek title renders 
it probable that we should postpone their consideration till we come to 
5:xrak of (^irecian art in Rome. 

Concluunn. — If we can trace the development of Architecture from the 
old Pelasgian times through the Etruscan epoch to Rome, we can still 
more definitely trace the various mechanical arts which are allied to 
Arcliittcture. Metal-work had indeed ceased to have in Architecture that 
imjyjrtance which it assumed among the early Asiatic peoples, and 
through them attained among the earliest inhabitants of Greece; yet it 
flourished among the Etruscans for employment in small utensils and 
ornaments. The ceramic art was so transcendently developed, so superior 
was the pottery of the Etruscans, that they on the one hand furnished the 
Greeks even to the time of the greatest art-development of that people 
with cherished products of their industr>', and on the other supplied the 
Celtic and Germanic races of the North with their productions- Thus 
these races were provided with elements of culture which may be traced 
to Etniria; so that we sec the last phases of Pelasgian art displayed in a 
comparatively late age in the lands north of the Alps, though of course 
it is not monumental art which reappears here. 

We have already seen in treating of heroic times that many small 
independent communities will not pennit of the development of an art 
comparable to that which results from a great people working together 
toward the same goal. This federation of small communities endured in 
Italy among the Etniscans, Latins, and others; so that even in their case 
monumental art does not present us with results of great magnificence, 
and therefore it can still less be looked for among the Celts and Germans, 
where there is no tradition of any similar federation of powers, where the 
simplicity of needs was against art-development, and where the sentiment 
for magnificent creations was first awakened when an entirely new ele- 
ment of national genius gave it direction, though meanwhile even clas- 
sical culture had perished. 



CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 6i 



IV. CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

I. Greek Architecture: Period of Hellenic Independence. 

It is ideal sentiment only that can unite peoples in grand undertakings 
and give a higher direction to Architecture. This ideal sentiment was 
possessed in a supreme degree by the Hellenes. What the genesis of 
the peculiar development of Greek architecture was, what factors entered 
into it, what earlier and middle stages it passed through before it reached 
the climax of its glorj', cannot be established satisfactorily, because both 
notices and monuments have only come down to us from an age in which 
a preWously rich architecture appears to have reached almost the highest 
point of its development. 

Transition from Pelasgic to Hellenic Art, — If we follow the history of 
Greece after the close of the mythic days of Pelasgian antiquity, we come 
upon the immigration of the Dorians at the commencement of the last 
thousand years before Christ. This people brought a new element into 
the social life of the region, which from this period began to change 
from Pelasgic to Hellenic, and this Hellenic culture spread far beyond the 
limits within which certain races worked, and became on the one hand 
the basis, and on the other the unattained ideal, of the collective culture 
of the later ages. However intimately the new Doric element blended 
with the older or Ionic, there was still a difference between them both in 
life and in architecture, and two independent yet parallel schools of forms 
arose — namely, the Doric and the Ionic — which gave outward expression 
to the two elements. 

TJie Dorians and lonians. — The Dorians at the time of their entrance 
into Greece may be regarded as a people nearly devoid of culture, familiar 
with nothing more than the primitive wooden buildings in the mountains. 
The lonians inherited the ancient Pelasgian culture, and in their architec- 
ture, as proved by their monuments in Asia Minor, likewise evolved most 
of their forms from timber structures, which are thus most probably the 
prime source of Greek architecture. But the ideal sentiment of the Hel- 
lenes planted Architecture upon a basis diflferent from that in which they 
found it as left by the Asiatics and the Pelasgians. The monarchies of 
the Pelasgian Heroic Age had passed away: Hellenic architecture was not 
ordained the task of building palaces. Under the open heavens the free 
citizens discussed their public aflfairs, while their private life was one of 
the greatest simplicity; thus neither of these called the higher Architec- 
ture into requisition, and it became the expression of an ideal purpose 
almost free from material restrictions. 

The Greek Temple, — The development of Grecian art was chiefly in 
the erection of temples. The religious conceptions of the Greeks were 
primarily artistic. Their poets taught them the knowledge of their gods 



■ 



I 



I 11 



6:j architecture. [The Gi:eek>. 

v,i:ho::t other intention than that through the fulness of poesy which 
iL-siflcs in < Grecian m\ tiioiriiry they niiglit lift their hearers out of every- 
f'.iy \\\\i :nto an irit-a: reaini. The earnestness and the strenj»;th of their 
nMrality were entire'.) inc!ti>enclent of their reli-^ious conceptions, wliicV. 
latter Iiad liierefore liiile practical significance. The temple itself prob- 
ably har: n.^r.L-: t-j the «ireeks it was not a dwelling of the gods uor a 
si>ace in wi;ic;i <:rcai numbers of the people could assemble, nor was it an 
ab'yJt- in whicii 'hvelt a muhitude of priests performing there their oflBce>: 
it w:^- an id>a! iricnii.rial of the r^odhead, an artistic shrine for the ima^j 
of tJic I)eity, an a-lonnnent and a decoration of the city, a common ideal 
: J. session wliicl:, erected by the collective contributions of all, was a 
oiiiinon lie an«l wa-^i to every individual a cause of pride, an incentive 
!'• T-atriotism. a si;:n that the j^'xl therein worshipped, and whose image 
tr.sT .<inctuar>' encl.'Sed, was tiie protector both of the city and of himself. 

In the temr»:L- "f the Deitv was to a certain extent embodied the ideal 
comnii:nity of the str.te, to protect which was the duty of all the citizens, 
b:;t which witiio'.it some outward expression could not have bound their 
hearts so closely. In the temple Arcliitecture was through an ideal pur- 
jhxc iiTii^ici to a hi.i;(her development. The architecture of the temple 
was ih-.- proper art-sjjeech of the people, and it was also the only one; so 
that when we see monumental architectural activitv otherwise exhibited 
tiie fonns are those of I'ne temple applied to other purposes. 

Tim^'tr-c^Kstruc::-}!. — The starting-point was the timber structure. 
But an ideal conception cannot find expression in a material so easily 
destroyed by f.re, and a glance at Eg\pt, whose monuments bid defiance 
alike to time an-l to the influence of the elements, must have induced the 
^irceks to erect tlie symbol of their state-existence, the temple of the pro- 
tecting Deity, of more durable materials. 

The r,rceks had derived from the Pelasgi the independent existence of 
the in*lividual cities as distinct states, but the necessity of opp)osing union 
ajjainst ;;Teater forei;^^ pov.ers compelled them to encourage the spirit of 
federation, and common sanctuaries at once gave expression to this 
recjuirement and cemented the federated bodies. But this federation 
sprang always from their regard for independence and freedom. Rivalr>* 
must l:ave been an important incentive, and to it and to the force of the 
sentiment of race-independence we owe the parallel developments of two 
distinct cycles of forms. 

Pausanias relates that he saw at Olympia stnictures of wood which 
were 5ai'l t-) Ik: the remains of an older temple of the same material. In 
t}:e !!! irkvt "f the city of Elis he also saw a temple-like building the ceil- 
i::>: '^f which was bonie !»>•' oaken columns, and was reputed to be the 
tomb of the chief ( )xy;os, who led the Dorians into the Peloponnesus. 
T!:e Sanct'iary <>f Poseidon Hij.pios was of cak, and the Emperor Ha- 
■::rian c-recte*: a n^onuniontal temple around it. Pliny tells of an ancient 
Te:nple of Hera r.t Metaix)ntum, in Lower Italy, the columns of which 
were of vine-wovxl. 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 6-. 



o 



Stone-construction reaches also into high antiquity. We will omi': 
description of remarkable remains which perhaps belong to the Pelasgic 
period, as the columns which were found in the Sanctuary of Artemis 
Brauronia on the Acropolis of Athens, the octangular columns of the 
Temple of Apollo Thearios at Troezen, and the columns of the Sanctuar\'^ 
of Artemis Limnatis near the village of Bolimnos, between Laconia and 
Messenia, because the time of their execution is unknown. We will also 
omit the pyramids which were erected in Greece, and which may be cited 
as testimony of the influence of Egyptian art over that of ancient Greece, 
as such works give no clue to the origin of details, and belong more prob- 
ably to the flourishing period of Pelasgian art than to the era of the devel- 
opment of Hellenic architecture. 

Doric Temples. — The oldest Doric temple is said to be that of Hera 
at Olympia. This had a peristyle, and also, besides the cella itself, an 
antechamber and a rear hall, which again opened between two columns 
into the peristyle; one of the two columns of the rear hall was of wood. 
Though built soon after the Doric immigration, this yet exhibits the com- 
plete perfection of the Doric temple in its arrangement, which, as it is 
not based on Pelasgian models, was probably that which was applied to 
temples by the Dorians in their ancient home, and was by them brought 
to Greece. 

The temple-fagade upon the vase of Klitias and Ergotimos, preserved 
at Florence {pL 6, fig. 14), may be considered the oldest Grecian mon- 
ument extant; but we must not forget that the painter probably did not 
intend to give a correct representation in our modem sense. To a sim- 
ilarly early age belongs the temple at Assos, and also that of Corinth, of 
which seven columns and a portion of the architrave are still preserved, 
and reveal to us the severe proportions of the Doric cycle of forms per- 
fectly developed. 

Before we follow the histor)' of Greek architecture further it is essen- 
tial to present the characteristics of the temple in general and those of the 
two form-cycles in detail. 

Characteristics of Templc-co7istn(ction, — The temple-area is entirely 
enclosed by a wall. The temple itself stands upon a substructure of three 
or more stages, each of which is too high for a step; so that they are 
ascended by a flight of steps both in the front and in the rear. Upon this 
substructure rises the rectangular temple, the transverse breadth of which 
equals the half of the length, while both ends or the entire circuit are 
furnished with a row of columns which support the massive blocks that 
form the entablatures. The roof of the colonnade itself was borne by stone 
lintels, which rested on one side on the entablature of the colonnade, 0:1 
the other on the walls of the cella, and between these lintels the roof was 
formed of thin slabs. The cella, or sanctuar>', had no windows, and 
obtained light either through the opened door only or through an aper- 
ture in the roof In front of the cella was an antechamber, or pronaos^ 
and behind it usually a rear hall, qx posticum. The roof at both extrem- 



64 ARCHITECTURE. [The Greeks. 

ities ended in a gable. Some temples which have an entrance-hall with 
two columns, but no surrounding colonnade (//. 6, figs. lo, 14), are 
called crdcs in antis. Those surrounded by a colonnade {figs, 3, 5, 6, 7) 
were called peripteros; if there were two rows of columns, they were 
called dipteros. When a single row of columns occupied a double width, 
so that the plan was similar to that of the dipteros, the arrangement was 
called pseiidodipteros. When a portion of the cella was parted off at the 
rear {fig» i), this separated part was called the opisihodomos. The cella con- 
tained the image of the god, which, together with a small sacrificial altar 
and the sacred gifts, was elevated upon a throne at its rear extremity. In 
the pronaos stood a shell with holy water, with which each worshipper, 
as he entered bearing an offering or a sacrifice, sprinkled himself as a sign 
of the inward purification. The posticum was the receptacle for the 
golden ornaments and precious objects of the public treasure, as well as 
for the sacred utensils reser\'ed for great festivals. 

In large temples the cella is divided into a nave and two side-aisles 
by rows of columns, which latter bear a galler>'. The nave is in this case 
lighted by an opening in the roof; such a structure is a hypaethral tem- 
I)lc (//. 7,y?^. 4). But, though in its interior the temple contained different 
hcills of varying size and for diverse purposes, this arrangement was not 
evident on the exterior. The established fonn of the temple had become 
to a certain extent holy, and the Greek language of forms recognized only 
the accustomed simple shape as that of the temple; so that the exterior in 
no way expresses the interior arrangement. 

Doric Order, — When we describe the superstructure of the Doric 
temple, we must first of all notice the careful proportioning of the 
somewhat tapering columns, which were set upon the substructure 
without a base. The shafts were fluted, and the blocks which composed 
them so interlocked that the joints were entirely invisible. A strongly 
projecting roll-moulding(^r///>//j»)fonned a simple capital, which supported 
a square slab {abacus). The simple lintels {architrave^ epistyle) stretched 
from column to column without any detail. Over them, separated by a 
small moulding, stood the frieze, which was composed of a number of 
larger projecting blocks called triglyphSy the spaces between which were 
filled with thinner slabs, called metopes^ usually adorned with canning. 
Above the triglyphs was placed the crowning cornice {geison\ formed of 
thick projecting slabs, which supported the margins of the roof and was 
adorned upon its inclined lower surface, above each triglyph and metope, 
with slightly-projecting ornaments {mutuli\ to which, three or six in a 
row, cylindrical drops were appended. Above this was the gutter {cyma\ 
behind which the rain-water collected and was conducted to the four 
angles of the stnicture, whence it flowed through spouts in the form of 
lions* heads. The inclined lines of the pediments expressed the shape of 
the roof; along them extended the cornice and the cyma in a somewhat 
modified form. The triangle thus enclosed {tympanum) was adorned with 
sculptures, and sculptured acrotcria stood upon the summit and both 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 65 

extremities of the pediment. The roof was of stone slabs, the imbricated 
junctions of which were covered with curv^ed tiles corresponding with 
the palm-like ridge and end tiles upon the ridge of the building and over 
the cornices. It is believed that the whole was richly adorned with 
bright but harmonious coloring. 

The ancient wood structure is yet perceptible in the monumental stone 
edifice — of course not in the sense that each single form was existent in 
the rude wooden stnicture in the place in which we find it, with all the 
refinement imparted to it by the language of form, but in the sense that 
the outward form is in the main similar to that of the wooden temple, 
and that the constnictive ideas were derived from the latter. From the 
temple of wood came the sacred traditions which passed over to the tem- 
ple of stone. Even the form of the temple continued through all the 
ages as a sacred tradition — a form not necessarily linked to a compli- 
cated group of buildings, existing even where there is but a simple cella 
and portico, but which in a complicated group of buildings necessitates 
the omission of a part of the roof. Notwithstanding the delicacy of the 
lines, we can yet see the tree-trunk in the column, so plainly is the 
wooden origin evident in single forms. For the triglyphs we can find no 
other parentage than the fastenings of the ends of the beams, which in 
the wooden building projected upon the long sides of the rectangle, and 
were also represented on the ends of the building by short pieces. 

Although in the monumental building the stone-linteled roof of the 
portico lies higher and is differently constructed in front, it is still a 
reminiscence of the wooden building. The mutules are survivors of 
the formerly-visible ends of the rafters, although in the monumental 
building they occur upon the ends of the structure as well as upon the 
sides, where alone real rafter-ends could occur. Plates 6 and 7 give a 
number of Doric temples, while Figures 6-9 of the latter Plate give the 
details of columns and entablature. 

Ionic Order, — The Ionic temple is more elegant than the Doric. The 
columns have more slender proportions; the architrave is lighter. The 
Ionic column has a base in which various mouldings find application. 
One of these forms — that called the Attic — was adopted by all the later 
schools of architecture. The delicate shaft has narrow deep flutings, 
alternating with fillets; the neck of the column is enriched with an 
ornamental frieze; between the echinus and the abacus lies a cushion 
rolled into volutes upon both sides; the abacus is enriched, as is also the 
architrave, which is divided into three faces; the frieze, of less height 
than the Doric, may be plain or adorned with carving, and the cornice 
is set with dentils. 

The entire order certainly does not exhibit a finer sense of proportion 
than the Doric, which, in fact, displays an unsurpassable refinement in 
the arrangement of its lines; yet the Ionic has greater softness and rich- 
ness of details. It may be compared with tiie Doric as feminine beauty 
with masculine strength. The Ionic bears also in its entire aspect some- 
VoL IV.— 5 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 67 

tion, and gained great fame because they employed Parian marble, where- 
as their contract only obliged them to use sandstone. Famous also is the 
Temple of Zeus at Athens, which was commenced under Peisistratos by 
the architects Antistates, Kallaischros, Antimachides, and Porinos, yet 
remained unfinished until the Emperor Hadrian completed it. 

The Older Parthenon^ upon the Acropolis — a peripteral temple of 
eight columns on the front and sixteen on the sides — though certainly 
of smaller extent, was yet famed as the more complete work of art. It 
was destroyed by the Persians, but enough of the old arrangement has 
recently been discovered beneath the later building to allow, in conjunc- 
tion with fragments found in the ancient wall of the citadel, a spirited 
restoration to be made, and also to show that it was never entirely com- 
pleted. 

The Temple of Athena at ^gina was probably built after the Persian 
war, yet still in the earlier half of the fifth century B. c. It is a hypae- 
thral peripteros of six columns by twelve, about 14 metres (46 feet) wide 
by twice that length. Two rows of five columns (//. 7, fig, 7) part the 
cella into a nave and two aisles. The structure was partly of marble, 
and partly of sandstone covered with stucco. A temple in antis is that 
of Themis at Rhamnos. 

Works of the Fifth Century B, C — In Lower Italy and Sicily there 
are also a great number of Doric temples belonging to the fifth centurj'^ 
B. c; among the most ancient are two temples at Syracuse. On the 
island of Ortygia have recently been found the remains of a Temple of 
Artemis, a peripteros of six columns by eighteen. The Temple of Athena 
at Ortygia was a peripteros of six columns by fourteen. At Selinus yet 
remain the niins of six peripteral temples. 

Temple of Olympian Zeus, — At Agrigentum are the ruins of seve- 
ral temples, of which that of Olympian Zeus {fig. 5) is especially 
interesting because the columns are not detached; but the temple is 
enclosed by a wall to which half-columns are attached, seven in front 
and fourteen on the longer sides: these carry the entablature. So firmly 
established was the conception of a temple as a sacred tradition that the 
portico was here carried up as an attached screen, though the necessities 
of the construction demanded the erection of enclosing walls. The pedi- 
ment was formerly decorated with statues, one series representing the bat- 
tle of the gods with the giants, the other the surrender of Troy. The 
interior is divided into a nave and two aisles by two walls set on each 
side with pilasters; the upper part of these walls bears figures of giants. 
The dimensions of this temple are 104 metres (340 feet) by 52 metres 
(170 feet), and the height reaches 36 metres (118 feet). This temple had 
not been finished at the time when the city was destroyed by the Cartha- 
ginians, in the year 400 B. c. 

Not much smaller was the Temple of Zeus at Selinus, a pseudodip- 
teros with eight columns in front and seventeen along each side, each 
€olumn nearly 15 metres (49 feet) high by 3 metres (10 feet) in diam- 




6S ARCHITECTURE. [The Greeks. 

eter at the bottom, and about 2 metres (nearly 7 feet) at the top. This 
temple al.-io was left unfinished through the destruction of the city by the 
Carthn^inians, 

/>;>//>/'' of Poseidon, — The ruins of several temples are still extant in 
\'rrif\<\f,xi r, city of Paestum ( Poseidonia). The most important is that of 
VrjMf:\f\cy\\ i pL (>^ fig- ']\ pL ", figs, I, 2, 6), a dipteros of six columns by 
fourteen — smaller, indeed, than the great temples just described, but 
nfr v-rrtheless impressive through the eamestaess of its simple forms and 
thf: harmony which reigns throughout. The interior is divided iiito a 
n/ive and two aisles by columns, and there is a second row of columns 
nytXi the first. The centre of the roof was open. This is, on the whole 
th'; m^iftt complete Greek temple now existing, and, judging from other 
Kiff,iin*:n^ of the Doric style, can hardly be later than 500 B. c. 

At MetajKjntum, upon the Gulf of Taranto, are still standing the 
ruin^ of two temples, one of which is remarkable because it shows frag- 
ments of a former richly-painted covering of baked clay. 

Architrctnre of Athens. — In Greece, particularly in Athens, architec- 
turti iiciivity received a new impulse after the close of the Persian war. 
Th'-rni-.lokles, and after him Kimon, restored the partly-destroyed walls, 
ii\A hy means of the *'long walls" united the fortifications of Athens 
wi'h »h'- harlKjr of Peiraieus and the citadel of Munychia. Kimon built at 
th^: norlli-west end of the market-place a magnificent hall the wall-paint- 
ini^=t of which celebrated the heroic deeds of the Athenians; he also 
0-Ap' \t'i\ the Temple of Theseus at Athens (//. 6, fig. 5) of the Doric 
r/fdrr. and a small temple in the Ionic on the Ilissos; also, probably, the 
iirn;ill Ionic Temple of Nike Apteros (the Wingless Victor}*) in front of 
fh" I'ropylx-a. 

f.'nder Pcrikles, Athenian art reached its climax. He finished the 
f/>flific:ations commenced by Themistokles and Kimon, built the Odeion, 
d/^dicated to the Muses, and restored with the utmost magnificence the 
i(;incttiarics on the Acropolis, which had been overthrown in the Persian 
war 

Nrw Parthenon. — Above all, Perikles must be credited with the erec- 
tion of the new Parthenon (pi. S^figs. i, 2; pL "J^figs. 3, 8), that noblest 
anrl moi^t harmonious of Doric temples, which the architects Iktinos and 
Kallikrates completed in the year 438 after sixteen years of labor. As 
14 iihown in the view of the Acropolis (pi. dyfig. 12), the stnicture rises 
hijjh alxive the walls, dominating the entire group of buildings. It is 
f,yv\\ tf>-rlay — at least, in its exterior — except the Temple of Theseus, the 
ly'-.t-pnserved and most complete Grecian stnicture, and is distinguished 
\tiA\\ by the nobility of its proportions and by the delicacy of all its 
Uiuws, It is a peripteral temple of eight columns by seventeen, 69 by 31 
UMtrcs ^226 feet long by loi in width). The interior, indeed, does not 
now jicrmit the ancient architecture to be clearly recognizeil, and the 
f0('\VA\7K\ view (fig. 2) rests only on conjecture. As in no case does the 
bypccthral arrangement of a temple now exist in a complete state, the 




The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 69 

attempted restorations differ widely from one another, and it may perhaps 
be questionable whether the arrangement corresponds to that shown on 
Plate 7 {Jig. 4). 

The Propylisa. — Perikles also built the Propylaea on the Acropolis 
{pL f>^figs. II, 12) — that noble work in which temple-architecture was 
applied to a partially profane purpose; for, though the Propylaea formed 
a portion of the ramparts of the Acropolis, it yet constituted the entrance 
to the sacred temple-enclosure. As the entrance to the sanctuary, it was 
necessary that it should wear a sacred form, and as the gateway to the 
majestic buildings which adorned the Acropolis it had to be a noble work 
of art. The architect, Mnesikles, executed the work in 437-433 B. c. 
Although the exterior is Doric, the interior has Ionic columns. The 
splendid ceiling of the hall excited the highest admiration of contem- 
poraries by its immense lintels and its rich sculptural and painted 
adornment. 

TTie Erechtheion. — ^The Ionic order attains its greatest elegance in the 
Erechtheion, a small temple also situated on the Acropolis (//. 8, figs. 1-3), 
a picturesquely irregular group having a small temple upon each side of a 
central hall. Commenced just after Perikles' s time, it was not, according 
to an inscription, completed in 409 b. c. In more ancient times there 
here stood a place of worship enclosing the wooden image of Athena 
which fell from heaven, as well as that goddess's sacred olive tree and 
Poseidon's salt-spring, called into existence by these deities in a friendly 
contest of power. The ground-plan and the section {pi 6^ fig. 8; pL 8, 
fig. 3) are given according to Hansen's restoration. Under the great hall, 
the roof of which is borne by Ionic columns {fig. 4), are seen the trident 
and the sacred spring. From the temple access was obtained in the rear 
to a smaller portico, the roof of which was borne by six female statues 
(caryatides ;y?^. 5). This small temple is usually considered as the sanctu- 
ary of the nymph Pandrosos. According to Hansen's opinion, the middle 
part of the principal temple was open in hypoethral fashion, and in it 
grew the sacred olive, while the anterior room of the same temple was 
divided into three celiac, of which the middle one was sacred to Athena 
and the lateral ones to Poseidon and the nymph Pandrosos respectively. 

Other Temples. — Among non-Athenian buildings which were erected 
at this date is the Temple of Nemesis at Rhanmos {pL 6, fig. 10), which, 
although it remains uncompleted, comes nearest in the fineness of its pro- 
portions to the works upon the Acropolis. In Thorikos, on the east coast 
of Attica, are the remains of a building which, notwithstanding its per- 
istyle, may have served ends other than those of worship. It has seven 
columns in front, but the centre intercolumniation and the two middle 
ones of the fourteen columns on the longitudinal sides are wider than the 
others. The interior arrangement is not preserved. Perhaps the Pro- 
pylaea and Temple of Athena at Sunion, as well as that of Demeter at 
Eleusis, are of this date (//. 8,y?^. 16). The latter is a structure of very 
peculiar plan, begun by Iktinos, architect of the Parthenon. It is a large 



k 



70 ARCHITECTURE. [The Greeks. 

square hall divided by four rows of Doric columns, which were erected by 
Kora*bos, into five aisles, the centre one of which, about 20 metres (65 
feet) wide, had an ojx^n roof, while above the four side-aisles rise upper 
series of columns, erected by Metagenes; Xenokles constructed the roof 
Although quadratic in plan, the arrangement of the aisles is such that 
they have a longitudinal direction, and so the face upon which the 
entrance is placed must be considered as the longitudinal side.* In tlie 
year 318 B. c, Demetrios Phalereus added a portico of twelve Doric 
columns. 

Iktinos also built (430 B. c.) the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, near 
Phigalia (//. 6, fig, 6), a peripteral Doric temple of six columns by fif- 
teen, 14 metres (46 feet) wide and 38 metres (124^ feet) long, the walls 
of whose cella enclosed Ionic half-columns on their interior faces (//. 
8, fig. 12). A single column — which probably bore a votive offering — 
has a richly-decorated capital {fig, 13). Little remains of the great 
Temple of Zeus at Olympia built by Libon, and which, though similar in 
dimensions to the Parthenon, had only six columns in front and fourteen 
on each side; yet enough is left to enable us to reconstruct the exterior 
(//. 6, fig, 4), while the interior, with its colossal statue wrought by 
Pheidias, had, according to a wall-painting in the new Museum at Berlin, 
the appearance shown on Plate 7 (y?^. 4). 

About five miles from Epidauros stood a famous Temple of Asklepios 
in a thickly-wooded grove in a beautiful valley between two mountains. 
This temple was distinguished for its splendor, and bore the inscription, 
** Let only pure souls enter here." Some of its foundations can still be 
traced. The great theatre by the sculptor Polykleitos at Epidauros is the 
best-preserved ruin of its kind in. Southern Greece. 

At the close of the fifth and beginning of the fourth centur>' B. c. the 
Athenian sculptor Skopas built the Temple of Athena at Tegea, which, 
according to Pausanias, had Ionic columns externally, while *in the 
interior the Corinthian order sunnounted the Doric. This is the first 
appearance of a new order with a tall, rich capital adorned with leaves, 
slender shafts, and an entablature still richer and more elegant than that 
of the Ionic. 

Works of the Fourth Century B, C, — To the fourth century belong the 
great theatre of Megalopolis and that of Messene. The former, which 
Pausanias regarded as the largest in (rrecce, was elliptical, with a circum- 
ference of fifty stadia; its ruins are still well preserved. The latter was 
surrounded with magnificent walls of ashlar-work with numerous round 
and rectangular openings; its stadium, with its Doric porticoes, is in great 
part still extant. 

The Temple of Apollo at Miletos was a dipteros of ten columns by 
twenty-one, commenced in the beginning of the fourth centur\' by 
Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos, yet was scarcely finished at 

' Fcr):uHS(>n's plan sho\%< the reverse of this. The entrance U at the end of the central nave, is \\ 
Qsaal. — Ed. 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 71 

the end of the centuty. The Ionic order was employed externally, while 
interiorly the cella was adorned with pilasters having capitals of various 
styles; near the entrance stood half-columns with Corinthian capitals (//. 

%fig' 15)- 

The Temple of Athetta at Priene must also be referred to this date; it 

was built about 340 b. c. by Pytheos, and was consecrated by Alexander 

the Great. It was an Ionic peripteros of six columns by eleven {Jig> 14). 

Mausoleum of Halikarnassos. — In Asia Minor the Greek culture came 
into contact with the Asiatic. If in the Ionic order we recognize a series 
of Asiatic elements permeated by the Greek spirit, we must not think it 
strange if other Asiatic elements recur. Thus a work which in its day 
was widely famed, and which has given its name to a whole class of mon- 
uments, was linked to Asiatic traditions. This was the tomb which 
Artemisia in the year 354 b. c. erected to the memory of her husband, 
Mausolus, king of Caria, in their capital, Halikarnassos. The monarchy 
had more relations to the Asiatic than to the Greek civilization, and so the 
monument assumed the arrangement of the many-staged pyramids of 
Assyria and Babylonia. Both in its execution and in the proportion of 
its details it is one of the noblest of Ionic buildings. The architects were 
Pytheos and Satyros, the former of whom designed the Temple of Athena 
at Priene, and the sculptures are ascribed to Skopas, Bryaxis, Timotheos, 
and Leochares. A substructure of five stages, 36 metres (118 feet) long 
and 2jyi metres (90 feet) wide, enclosed the burial-chamber. Upon this 
stood a cella surrounded by an Ionic peristyle of nine columns by eleven. 
A pyramid of twenty-four steps, which upon its uppermost stage bore a 
chariot with the colossal statue of Mausolus, crowned the structure. 
Constructive necessities seem to exact that the cella, upon which the 
weight of the pyramid rested, must have been vaulted. The work existed 
until the Middle Ages, but in 1402 A. d. it was destroyed, and the stone 
was removed to build a fort; yet so many fragments remain that there can 
be no doubt concerning its original form. 

The Temple of Artemis at Magnesia, a pseudodipteros built by Her- 
mogenes, is also Ionic, as is likewise the peripteral Temple of Dionysos 
erected by the same architect at Teos and the Temple of Aphrodite at 
Aphrodisias, a pseudodipteral structure of eight columns by thirteen sur- 
rounded by a peribolus with Corinthian columns. 

The inner Propylsea at Eleusis is also Ionic. Yet even at this date we 
meet with the Doric order in the Temple of Demeter at Paestum (//. 7, 
fig, 9), but in a form unlike the solemnity and severity of the ancient 
period. The four columns of the pronaos have bases. The temple is per- 
ipteral, with six columns in front and thirteen on each side, and measures 
14 metres (46 feet) by 32 metres (105 feet). The so-called '' Basilica '' at 
Paestum is also Doric. 

Choragic Monuments, — Athens has a number of interesting minor 
memorials in the choragic monuments which were erected by individuals 
for the display of the tripod which they and their choir had carried off as 



1 
-J 

i . 

5 1 



^ 72 ARCHITECTURE. [The Grelks. 

% 1 the prize of a musical contest. Some bear the tripod upon a column, 

while others are built in the form of small temples. A street in Athens 
has so many of these memorials that it is named '* Tripod Street.'' 

I! Perhaps the most l)eautiful is the choragic Monument of Lysikrates (//. 

8, y/^j. 10, II), who erected it to commemorate a prize won in a musical 
I contest in the year 334 B. c. Though much mutilated, it is in all its 

ij essential parts still extant, but is better known by the title of the 

; ** Lantern of Demosthenes'' than by its own. The Monument of 

' I. Thrasyllas {Jigs. 8, 9; 320 B. c.) is more like a temple-fa9ade, yet sim- 

[ .' pier in form, and is allied in many ways to the Asiatic tomb-facades. 

\ ' ' Here a grotto on the south side of the Acropolis enclosed the tripod. The 

facade was destroyed in modern times. 

Transition of Grecian Art, — The political independence of the indi- 
vidual Greek communities could no longer exist after powerful states 
began to develop in Europe and there had sprung into existence 
grand ideas of world-domination to fight for, and to sustain which great 
authority must be wielded. The Persian war was, in fact, a war of sub- 
jugation which had it been successful would have given the Persians a 
world-wide sovereignty, and which rendered necessar>' a stable Greek con- 
federation in which the leadership of the other states should be given to 
a single one. The struggle for this hegemony marks the period after the 
Persian war until the Macedonians — a race dwelling to the northward, 
who until then had taken no part in Grecian development, and whom the 
(irceks even reckoned barbarians — acquired under King Philip (338 B. c.) 
the leadership of Greece. 

Alexander the Great then conducted the Greeks into Asia, and there 
began once more a struggle for universal dominion in which the Greeks 
overthrew the empire of the Persians and carried their conquering arms 
even to India. Thus there was opened through Asia a way for Greek cul- 
ture, which here began its world-wide domination. But there was also a 
relaxing of those restraints of delicacy, nobility, and harmony of fonn 
whicli until then had confined Grecian art within due bounds. While 
thus limited it reached a degree of perfection which previously it had not 
attained, and which has never been surpassed. The works of the flour- 
ishing period of Grecian art could not compare in area with those of 
Kgypt or Asia, nor in fancifulness of apjxrarance with the fairy-like fabrics 
of the latter; but Asia, while receiving the Greek culture, exercised an 
influence up<m its further development through the introduction of new 
eUincnts, and gave to it a soft voluptuousness and a heretofore unknown 
richness of forms. 

Corinthian Order, — We have already followed the decadence of the 
Doric and the advance of the Ionic; henceforward we must follow 
that lavish application of ornament which was evidenced by the intro- 
duction of the Corinthian capital. But the extension of the power of 
Greece over Asia and the admixture of Asiatic fonns with Hellenic also 
resulted in giving new purix>ses to Architecture. From this period it is 



I 



.i;^ 



TheGrklks.] classical architecture. 73 

no more the simple cella containing the image of a deity: the palace 
equal in grandeur and magnificence to that of the Asiatic monarchies, 
and works of luxury of everv- kind, henceforward demand our notice. 

Alexandria. — Alexander the Great built in Eg>'pt the metropolis 
which bears his name, and which is perhaps the grandest example of a 
city deliberately outlined and immediately built up in full artistic com- 
pleteness. Deinokrates, the first architect of his time, laid out the 
thoroughly-considered plan upon an excellently chosen site between Lake 
Mareotis and the sea. A magnificent harbor in the Mediterranean and a 
canal between it and Lake Mareotis, which served as a harbor for the 
Nile vessels, completed its connection with the outer world. The city 
was laid out in straight parallel streets and was intersected by two main 
streets, one of which, about loo feet wide, ran westward from the Canopic 
gate to the Necropolis. The principal streets ran north and south, allow- 
ing passage to the fresh winds coming from the sea. Canals ran through 
the streets and conducted the waters of the Nile into the cisterns of the 
houses. The latter were exclusively of stone, with vaulted storeys and 
terraces instead of roofs. 

Temples and Ihiblic Buildings. — Alexander himself erected the Temple 
of Poseidon, the theatre, with a stadium and hippodrome, a palace for the 
supreme court, and a gj^mnasium with extensive porticoes. The royal 
citadel, which included a fourth part of the entire city, contained, besides 
the royal palace, the museum with its porticoes and the world-renowned 
library and academy; to it also belonged the Tombs of the Kings, as well 
as the Soma, which Ptolemy Soter built to receive the remains of Alex- 
ander the Great. This was in temple-form with porticoes surrounded by 
columns. The following Ptolemies all contributed to the beautifying of 
the city with public buildings. The entire city and the citadel were dom- 
inated by an artistically-designed terraced pyramid which contained a 
grotto dedicated to Pan. A serpentine passage led to the summit. The 
entire structure was incontestably designed after the Chaldaeo-Assyrian 
model. Asiatic influence is also evident in the vaulting of the houses. 
Such vaulting occurred in the Assyrian buildings, which were only a few 
centuries older. We meet with it again in the ruins in Central Syria, 
several centuries later, and it is still conspicuous in the Orient. 

Vaulted Construction. — The Greeks were indeed previously acquainted 
leith vaulted construction; they had seen it in Asia, and furthennore they 
could not have been strangers to the works of the Etruscans. Though 
they did not adopt it into that sacred language of forms which, based on 
an ancient tradition, they developed in their temples, they showed their 
knowledge of it as soon as they turned their attention to buildings devoted 
to the needs of life. We know that the Romans manifested a predilection 
for Grecian architecture, and they would certainly not have employed the 
va^jlt in a manner so- extensive and so magnificent had it been opposed to 
the spirit of Greek profane architecture in the same way that it was 
opposed to the spirit of Greek temple-construction. 



Li';^. 




64 ARCHITECTURE. [The Greeks. 

ities ended in a gable. Some temples which have an entrance-hall with 
two columns, but no surrounding colonnade (//. 6, figs. lo, 14), are 
called (dies in antis. Those surrounded by a colonnade ^gs. 3, 5, 6, 7) 
were called peripteros; if there were two rows of columns, they were 
called dipteros. When a single row of columns occupied a double width, 
so that the plan was bimilar to that of the dipteros, the arrangement was 
called pseudodipttros. When a portion of the cella was parted off at the 
rear {Jig^ i ), this separated part was called the opisthodomos. The cella con- 
taine<I the image of the go<l, which, together with a small sacrificial altar 
and the sacred gifts, was elevated upon a throne at its rear extremity. In 
the pronaos stood a shell with holy water, with which each worshipper, 
as he entered bearing an offering or a sacrifice, sprinkled himself as a sig:i 
of the inward purification. The posticum was the receptacle for the 
golden ornaments and precious objects of the public treasure, as well as 
for the sacred utensils reser\'ed for great festivals. 

In large temples the cella is divided into a nave and two side-aisles 
by rows of columns, which latter bear a galler}*. The nave is in this case 
lighted by an opening in the roof; such a structure is a hypaethral teni- 
l)le (//. 7,y?ir- 4'- J^w^ though in its interior the temple contained different 
luills of varying size and for diverse j)uriM>ses, this arrangement was not 
evident on the exterior. The established fonn of the temple had become 
to a certain extent holy, and the Greek language of fonns recognized only 
the accustomed simple shajK as that of the temple; so that the exterior in 
no way expresses the interior arrangement. 

Doric Order, — When we describe the superstructure of the Doric 
temple, we must first of all notice the careful proportioning of the 
somewhat tapering columns, which were set upon the substructure 
without a base. The shafts were fluted, and the blocks which composed 
them so interlocked that the joints were entirely invisible. A strongly 
projecting roll-moulding (rr///>///A)fonned a simple capital, which supported 
a square slab (<i/;rtfr//j). The simple lintels (/jr/'r//////irr, ^•//>/)'/^r) stretched 
from column to column without any detail. Over them, separated by a 
small moulding, stood the frieze, which was composed of a number of 
larger projecting blocks called triglyphs^ the spaces between which were 
filled with thinner slabs, called tpictopes^ usually adonied with car\'ing. 
Above the triglyphs was placed the crowning cornice {geison\ formed of 
thick projecting slabs, which supported the margins of the roof and was 
adorned upon its inclined lower surface, above each triglyph and metope, 
with slightly- projecting ornaments {mutuli\ to which, three or six in a 
row, cylindrical drops were appended. Above this was the gutter (cyma\ 
behind which the rain-water collected and was conducted to the four 
angles of the stnicture, whence it flowed through spouts in the form of 
lions' heads. The inclineii lines of the pc*diments expressed the shape of 
the roof; along them extended the cornice and the cyma in a somewhat 
modified form. The triangle thus enclosed {iympanum) was adorned with 
sculptures, and sculptured acroteria stood upon the summit and both 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 65 

extremities of the pediment. The roof was of stone slabs, the imbricated 
junctions of which were covered with curved tiles corresponding with 
the palm-like ridge and end tiles upon the ridge of the building and over 
the cornices. It is believed that the whole was richly adorned with 
bright but harmonious coloring. 

The ancient wood structure is yet perceptible in the monumental stone 
edifice — of course not in the sense that each single form was existent in 
the rude wooden structure in the place in which we find it, with all the 
refinement imparted to it by the language of form, but in the sense that 
the outward form is in the main similar to that of the wooden temple, 
and that the constnictive ideas were derived from the latter. From the 
temple of wood came the sacred traditions which passed over to the tem- 
ple of stone. Even the form of the temple continued through all the 
ages as a sacred tradition — a form not necessarily linked to a compli- 
cated group of buildings, existing even where there is but a simple cella 
and portico, but which in a complicated group of buildings necessitates 
the omission of a part of the roof. Not^yithstanding the delicacy of the 
lines, we can yet see the tree-trunk in the column, so plainly is the 
wooden origin evident in single forms. For the triglyphs we can find no 
other parentage than the fastenings of the ends of the beams, which in 
the wooden building projected upon the long sides of the rectangle, and 
were also represented on the ends of the building by short pieces. 

Although in the monumental building the stone-linteled roof of the 
portico lies higher and is differently constructed in front, it is still a 
reminiscence of the wooden building. The mutules are survivors of 
the formerly-visible ends of the rafters, although in the monumental 
building they occur upon the ends of the structure as well as upon the 
sides, where alone real rafter-ends could occur. Plates 6 and 7 give a 
number of Doric temples, while Figures 6-9 of the latter Plate give the 
details of columns and entablature. 

Ionic Order. — The Ionic temple is more elegant than the Doric. The 
columns have more slender proportions; the architrave is lighter. The 
Ionic column has a base in which various mouldings find application. 
One of these forms — that called the Attic — was adopted by all the later 
schools of architecture. The delicate shaft has narrow deep flutings, 
alternating with fillets; the neck of the column is enriched with an 
ornamental frieze; between the echinus and the abacus lies a cushion 
rolled into volutes upon both sides; the abacus is enriched, as is also the 
architrave, which is divided into three faces; the frieze, of less height 
than the Doric, may be plain or adorned with carving, and the cornice 
is set with dentils. 

The entire order certainly does not exhibit a finer sense of proportion 
than the Doric, which, in fact, displays an unsurpassable refinement in 
the arrangement of its lines; yet the Ionic has greater softness and rich- 
ness of details. It may be compared with the Doric as feminine beauty 
with masculine strength. The Ionic bears also in its entire aspect some- 
VoL IV.— 5 



66 ARCHITECTURE. [The Grffks. 

• 

thifif; of the Asiatic, for in it crops out a feeling similar to that which 
breathes in the colnnined structures of the Persians, though the latter 
knew not how to bestow upon it the same artistic delicacy. The pro- 
portionally wider spacing of the columns and the laterally projecting 
cai>itals are related to the Persian cycle of forms, and the traditions of 
timlx^r-construction are simihir to tliose which appear in the Persian 
porticoes, and differ from those apparent in the Doric temple. As we 
trace the volute back to its prototype in the uprolled shaving of wootl, so 
can we trace, though its long wandering scarcely permits us, the fonn 
of the early Asiatic or Pelasgic wooden column to the marble column of 
the Krechtheion. A certain sanctity gives to tradition the power to pre- 
serve remnants of the primitive expression. 

Works lyf the Sixth Century /?. C, — After the above-mentioned oldest 
monuments of the Doric order, we come upon works which are of the 
highest artistic completeness, and which are described to us by the old 
writers as the pri<le of (»reece, and of the architectural historj' of which 
enough remains. The works of the sixth and the l>eginning of the fifth 
centurv' n. c. have still an uncommon austeritv. In Greece itself and in 
the Grecian colonies of Lower Italy the Doric order rules, and even in 
Asia Minor it is almost exclusive. It was probably about the middle of 
the sixth century n. c. that the Temple of Ilera at Samos was erected 
by the architects Rluekos and Theodoros of Samos, who are also men- 
tioned as famous bronze-founders. It was about lOO metres (328 feet) 
long. 

Temple of Artemis, — Still larger was that most immense of Grecian 
buildings the Temple of Artemis, or Diana, at Ephesos, which was 
probably commenced alx)ut this time by Chersiphron and his son Meta- 
genes, but was not fully completed until after two hundred years by the 
architects Demetrios and Paionios. This temple was a dipteros with 
eight columns on the ends, and measured 220 feet in width by 425 in 
length. Croesus is said to have presented this temple with monolithic 
marble columns, and all the Greeks of*Asia Minor contributed toward the 
expense of its erection. Not merely its artistic perfection, but also the 
overcoming of technical difficulties — the construction of the foitndations 
on marshy ground, the raising and transjwrt of the enonnous cylinders 
of the columns, which were about 20 metres (65 feet) in height, and of 
the lintels, which were more than K) metres (33 feet) long^-excited the 
wonder of contemporaries, who followed the erection of the structure 
with admiration and interest; so that Chersiphron wrote a work concern- 
ing this temple which Vitruvius quotes. It is similar to another work 
which TluMxloros comi>osod upon the Temple of Hera which was car- 
ried out under his tlirectiou at Samos. 

Ttmphs of Apollo and Zeus. — The celebrated Temple of AiX)llo at 
Delphi was built in the second half of the sixth centnr>* by the contribu- 
tions i>f the whole of Greece; Spintharos of Corinth is mentioned as the 
architect. The priotly family of the Alkmaionidce directed the construe- 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 67 

tion, and gained great fame because they employed Parian marble, where- 
as their contract only obliged them to use sandstone. Famous also is the 
Temple of Zeus at Athens, which was commenced under Peisistratos by 
the architects Antistates, Kallaischros, Antimachides, and Porinos, yet 
remained unfinished until the Emperor Hadrian completed it. 

The Older Parthe^wn^ upon the Acropolis — a peripteral temple of 
eight columns on the front and sixteen on the sides — though certainly 
of smaller extent, was yet famed as the more complete work of art. It 
was destroyed by the Persians, but enough of the old arrangement has 
recently been discovered beneath the later building to allow, in conjunc- 
tion with fragments found in the ancient wall of the citadel, a spirited 
restoration to be made, and also to show that it was never entirely com- 
pleted. 

The Temple of Athena at ^gina was probably built after the Persian 
-war, yet still in the earlier half of the fifth century b. c. It is a hypae- 
thral peripteros of six columns by twelve, about 14 metres (46 feet) wide 
by twice that length. Two rows of five columns (//. 7, fig. 7) part the 
cella into a nave and two aisles. The structure was partly of marble, 
and partly of sandstone covered with stucco. A temple in antis is that 
of Themis at Rhamnos. 

Works of the Fifth Century B. C — In Lower Italy and Sicily there 
are also a great number of Doric temples belonging to the fifth centur}^ 
B, c. ; among the most ancient are two temples at Syracuse. On the 
island of Ortygia have recently been found the remains of a Temple of 
Artemis, a peripteros of six columns by eighteen. The Temple of Athena 
at Ortygia was a peripteros of six columns by fourteen. At Selinus yet 
remain the niins of six peripteral temples. 

Temple of Olympian Zeus. — At Agrigentum are the ruins of seve- 
ral temples, of which that of Olympian Zeus {Jig. 5) is especially 
interesting because the columns are not detached; but the temple is 
enclosed by a wall to which half-columns are attached, seven in front 
and fourteen on the longer sides: these carry the entablature. So firmly 
established was the conception of a temple as a sacred tradition that the 
portico was here carried up as an attached screen, though the necessities 
of the construction demanded the erection of enclosing walls. The pedi- 
ment was formerly decorated with statues, one series representing the bat- 
tle of the gods with the giants, the other the surrender of Troy. The 
interior is divided into a nave and two aisles by two walls set on each 
side with pilasters; the upper part of these walls bears figures of giants. 
The dimensions of this temple are 104 metres (340 feet) by 52 metres 
(170 feet), and the height reaches 36 metres (118 feet). This temple had 
not been finished at the time when the city was destroyed by the Cartha- 
ginians, in the year 400 B. c. 

Not much smaller was the Temple of Zeus at Selinus, a pseudodip- 
teros with eight columns in front and seventeen along each side, each 
column nearly 15 metres (49 feet) high by 3 metres (10 feet) in diam- 



• 



I 



I- 



68 ARCIIirECTURE. [Thk gr*:kks. 

ctcr at the boltoni, and alx)ut 2 metres (nearly 7 feet) at the top. This 
temple also was left unfinished through the destruction of the city by the 
Carthaj;inians. 

Tanplc of Posiidon, — The ruins of several temples are still extant in 
Poseidoirs city of Parstum ( Poseidon ia). The most imix)rtant is that of 
Poseidon (pi, dyjij^- 7; //. 7* ft^^s- i, 2, 6), a dipteros of six columns by 
fourteen — smaller, indeed, than the great temples just described, but 
nevertheless impressive through the earnestness of its simple fonns and 
the hannony which reigns throughout. The interior is divided iiito a 
nave and two aisles bv columns, and there is a second row of columns 
upon the first. The centre of the roof was open. This is, on the whole 
the most complete Cireek temple now existing, and, judging from other 
specimens of the Doric style, can hardly be later than 500 B. c. 

At MetaiK>ntum, upon the Gulf of Taranto, are still standing the 
ruins of two temples, one of which is remarkable because it shows frag- 
ments of a fonner richly-jxiinted covering of baked clay. 

ArchitiCture of Athens, — In Greece, particularly in Athens, architec- 
tural activity received a new impulse after the close of the Persian war. 
Themistokles, and after him Kinion, restored the partly-destroyed walls, 
and by means of the **long walls'' united the fortifications of Athens 
with the harl)or of Peiraieus and the citadel of Munvchia. Kimon built at 
the north-west end of the market-place a magnificent hall the wall-paint- 
ings of which celebrated the heroic deeds of the Athenians; he also 
erected the Temple of Theseus at Athens (//. 6, fig. 5) of the Doric 
order, and a small temple in the Ionic on the Ilissos; also, probably, the 
small Ionic Temple of Nike Apteros (the Wingless Victorj) in front of 
the Propylxa. 

Under Perikles, Athenian art reached its climax. He finished the 
fortifications commenced by Themistokles and Kimon, built the Odeion, 
dedicated to the Muses, and restored with the utmost magnificence the 
sanctuaries on the Acropolis, which had been overthrown in the Persian 
war. 

Neiu Parthenon, — Above all, Perikles must be credited with the erec- 
tion of the new Parthenon {pi, (>yfigs, i, 2; //. "J.figs, 3, 8), that noblest 
and most harmonious of Doric temples, which the architects Iktinos and 
Kallikrates completed in the year 438 after sixteen years of labor. As 
is shown in the view of the Acropolis (pi, 6^ fig, 12), the stnicture rises 
high above the walLs, dominating the entire group of buildings. It is 
even to-day — at least, in its exterior — excei)t the Temple of Theseus, the 
l)est-preserved and most complete Grecian structure, and is distinguished 
both by the nobility of its proportions and by the delicacy of all its 
fonns. It is a peripteral temple of eight columns by seventeen, 69 by 31 
metres (226 feet long by 10 1 in width). The interior, indeed, does not 
now permit the ancient architecture to be clearly recognized, and the 
sectional view [fig. 2) rests only on conjecture. As in no case docs the 
hypo^thral arrangement of a temple now exist in a complete state, the 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 69 

attempted restorations differ widely from one another, and it may perhaps 
be questionable whether the arrangement corresponds to that shown on 
Plate 7 (Jig. 4). 

The Propylcea. — Perikles also built the Propylsea on the Acropolis 
(//. 6^ Jigs. II, 12) — that noble work in which temple-architecture was 
applied to a partially profane purpose; for, though the Propylsea formed 
a portion of the ramparts of the Acropolis, it yet constituted the entrance 
to the sacred temple-enclosure. As the entrance to the sanctuary, it was 
necessary that it should wear a sacred form, and as the gateway to the 
majestic buildings which adorned the Acropolis it had to be a noble work 
of art. The architect, Mnesikles, executed the work in 437-433 B. c. 
Although the exterior is Doric, the interior has Ionic columns. The 
splendid ceiling of the hall excited the highest admiration of contem- 
poraries by its immense lintels and its rich sculptural and painted 
adornment. 

The Erechtheion. — The Ionic order attains its greatest elegance in the 
Erechtheion, a small temple also situated on the Acropolis (//. 8, Jigs. 1-3), 
a picturesquely irregular group having a small temple upon each side of a 
central hall. Commenced just after Perikles' s time, it was not, according 
to an inscription, completed in 409 b. c. In more ancient times there 
here stood a place of worship enclosing the wooden image of Athena 
which fell from heaven, as well as that goddess's sacred olive tree and 
Poseidon's salt-spring, called into existence by these deities in a friendly 
contest of power. The ground-plan and the section (pi, 6^ Jig. 8; //. 8, 
Jig. 3) are given according to Hansen's restoration. Under the great hall, 
the roof of which is borne by Ionic columns {Jig* 4), are seen the trident 
and the sacred spring. From the temple access was obtained in the rear 
to a smaller portico, the roof of which was borne by six female statues 
(caryatides ;yf^. 5). This small temple is usually considered as the sanctu- 
ary of the nymph Pandrosos. According to Hansen's opinion, the middle 
part of the principal temple was open in hypsethral fashion, and in it 
grew the sacred olive, while the anterior room of the same temple was 
divided into three celiac, of which the middle one was sacred to Athena 
and the lateral ones to Poseidon and the nymph Pandrosos respectively. 

Other Temples. — Among non-x\thenian buildings which were erected 
at this date is the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnos (//. 6, Jig. 10), which, 
although it remains uncompleted, comes nearest in the fineness of its pro- 
portions to the works upon the Acropolis. In Thorikos, on the east coast 
of Attica, are the remains of a building which, notwithstanding its per- 
istyle, may have served ends other than those of worship. It has seven 
columns in front, but the centre intercolumniation and the two middle 
ones of the fourteen columns on the longitudinal sides are wider than the 
others. The interior arrangement is not preserved. Perhaps the Pro- 
pylsea and Temple of Athena at Sunion, as well as that of Demeter at 
Eleusis, are of this date {pi. S^Jig. 16). The latter is a structure of very 
peculiar plan, begun by Iktinos, architect of the Parthenon. It is a large 



70 ARCHITECTURE. [The Greek. 

square hall divided l)y four rows of Doric columns, which were erected by 
Korcrbos, into five aisles, the centre one of which, about 20 metres (65 
feet) wide, had an oi>cn roof, while above the four side-aisles rise upper 
series of columns, erected by Metagenes; Xenokles constructed the roof. 
Although quadratic in plan, the arrangement of the aisles is such that 
they have a longitudinal direction, and so the face upon which the 
entrance is placed must be considered as the longitudinal side.* In the 
year 318 b. c, Demetrios Phalereus added a portico of twelve Doric 
columns. 

Iktinos also built (430 B. c.) the Temple of Apollo at Bassse, near 
Phigalia (pL 6, y?4^ 6), a peripteral Doric temple of six columns by fif- 
teen, 14 metres (46 feet) wide and 38 metres (124^4 feet) long, the walls 
of whose cella enclosed Ionic half-columns on their interior faces (//. 
8, y?^. 12). A single column — which probably bore a votive offering — 
has a richly-decorated capital ijij^'-. 13). Little remains of the great 
Temple of Zeus at Olympia built by Libon, and which, though similar in 
dimensions to the Parthenon, had onlv six columns in front and fourteen 
on each side; yet enough is left to enable us to reconstnict the exterior 
(//. 6, y?4^ 4), while the interior, with its colossal statue wrought by 
Pheidias, had, according to a wall-painting in the new Museum at Berlin, 
the appearance shown on Plate 7 (Jij;". 4). 

About five miles from Epidauros stood a famous Temple of Asklepios 
in a thickly-woo<led grove in a beautiful valley between two mountains. 
This temple was distinguished for its splendor, and bore the inscription, 
*'Let only pure souls enter here.'' Some of its foundations can still be 
traced. The great theatre by the sculptor Polykleitos at Epidauros is the 
best-preserved ruin of its kind in .Southern Greece. 

At the close of the fifth and beginning of the fourth centurj' B. c. the 
Athenian sculptor Skopas built the Temple of Athena at Tegea, which, 
according to Pausanias, had Ionic columns externally, while in the 
interior the Corinthian order sunnounted the Doric. This is the first 
appearance of a new order with a tall, rich capital adorned with leaves, 
slender shafts, and an entablature still richer and more elegant than that 
of the Ionic. 

Wopks of the Fourth Century B, C. — To the fourth centur>' belong the 
great theatre of Megalopolis and that of Mcssene. The fonner, which 
Pausanias regarded as the largest in (irecce, was elliptical, with a circum* 
ference of fifty stadia; its ruins are still well preserved. The latter was 
surrounded with magnificent walls of ashlar-work with numerous rotind 
and rectangular openings; its stadium, with its Doric porticoes, is in great 
part still extant. 

The Temple of Apollo at Miletos was a dipteros of ten columns by 
twenty-one, commenced in the beginning of the fourth centur\* by 
Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos, yet was scarcely finished at 

* Fori; venom's plan >ho\\ « iht- icvcr-c of this. The entrance U at the end uf the central nave, as \\ 
uual. — Ed. 



The Greeks.] CL.4SS/CAL ARCHITECTURE. 71 

the end of the centur\'. The Ionic order was employed externally, while 
interiorly the cella was adorned with pilasters having capitals of various 
styles; near the entrance stood half-columns with Corinthian capitals (//. 

8)/^- 15)- 

The Temple of Athena at Priene mtist also be referred to this date; it 

was built about 340 B. c. by Pytheos, and was consecrated by Alexander 

the Great It was an Ionic peripteros of six columns by eleven {Jig- 14). 

Mausoleum of Halikarnassos, — In Asia Minor the Greek culture came 
into contact with the Asiatic. If in the Ionic order we recognize a series 
of Asiatic elements permeated by the Greek spirit, we must not think it 
strange if other Asiatic elements recur. Thus a work which in its day 
was widely famed, and which has given its name to a whole class of mon- 
uments, was linked to Asiatic traditions. This was the tomb which 
Artemisia in the year 354 b. c erected to the memor>' of her husband, 
Mausolus, king of Caria, in their capital, Halikamassos. The monarchy 
had more relations to the Asiatic than to the Greek cix-ilization, and so the 
monument assumed the arrangement of the many-staged pyramids of 
Assyria and Babylonia. Both in its execution and in the proportion of 
its details it is one of the noblest of Ionic buildings. The architects were 
Pytheos and Sat\TOS, the former of whom designed the Temple of Athena 
at Priene, and the sculptures are ascribed to Skopas, Br^-axis, Timotheos, 
and Leochares. A substructure of five stages, 36 metres (118 feet) long 
and 275^ metres (90 feet) wide, enclosed the burial-chamber. Upon this 
stood a cella surrounded by an Ionic perist^'le of nine columns by eleven. 
A pyramid of twenty-four steps, which upon its uppermost stage bore a 
chariot with the colossal statue of Mausolus, crowned the structure. 
Constructive necessities seem to exact that the cella, upon which the 
weight of the pyramid rested, must have been vaulted. The work existed 
until the Middle Ages, but in 1402 A. d. it was destroyed, and the stone 
was removed to build a fort; yet so many fragments remain that there can 
be no doubt concerning its original form. 

The Temple of Artemis at Magnesia, a pseudodipteros built by Her- 
mogenes, is also Ionic, as is likewise the peripteral Temple of Dionysos 
erected by the same architect at Teos and the Temple of Aphrodite at 
Aphrodisias, a pseudodipteral stnicture of eight columns by thirteen sur- 
rounded by a peribolus with Corinthian columns. 

The inner Propylaea at Eleusis is also Ionic. Yet even at this date we 
meet with the Doric order in the Temple of Demeter at Paestum {pL 7, 
fig. 9), but in a form unlike the solemnity and severity of the ancient 
period. The four columns of the pronaos have bases. The temple is per- 
ipteral, with six columns in front and thirteen on each side, and measures 
14 metres C46 feet) by 32 metres (105 feet). The so-called ** Basilica'' at 
Paestum is also Doric. 

Choragic Mofiuments. — Athens has a number of interesting minor 
memorials in the choragic monuments which were erected by individuals 
for the display of the tripod which they and their choir had carried off as 



72 ARCHITECTURi:. [Thi: Grekks. 



I 

I 

I ( 



the prize of a inusica] contest. Some bear the tripod upon a column, 

while others are built in the fonn of small temples. A street in Athens 

ij has so many of the.se memorials that it is named ** Tripod Street.'* 

Perhajjs the most l>eautiful is the choragic Monument of Lysikrates ( /^/. 
8, tia^s. ID, II), who erected it to commemorate a prize won in a musical 
contest in the year 334 B. c. Though much mutilated, it is in all its 
essential parts still e.xtant, but is better known by the title of the 
** Lantern of Demo.sthenes " than by its own. The Monument of 
Thrasyllos (fii^s. 8, 9; 320 B. c.) is more like a temple-fa9ade, yet sim- 
pler in form, and is allied in many ways to the A.siatic tomb-facades. 
Here a grotto on the south side of the Acropolis enclosed the tripod. The 
facade was destroy e<l in modern times. 

Transition of (Jttcian Ari, — The political independence of the indi- 
vidual (ireek communities could no longer exist after powerful states 
began to develop in Europe and there had sprung into existence 
grand ideas of world-domination to fight for, and to su.stain which great 
authority must be wielded. The Persian war was, in fact, a war of sub- 
jugation which had it been successful would have given the Persians a 
world-wide sovereignty, and which rendered necessar>' a stable Greek con- 
federation in which the leadenship of the other states should be given to 
a .single one. The struggle for this hegemony marks the period after the 
Persian war until the Macedonians — a race dwelling to the northward, 
who until then had taken no part in Grecian development, and whom the 
(ireeks even reckoned barbarians — ^acquired under King Philip (338 B. c.) 
the leadership of Greece. 

Alexander the Great then conducted the Greeks into Asia, and there 
began once more a stniggle for universal dominion in which the Greeks 
overthrew the empire of the Persians and carried their conquering amis 
even to India. Thus there was opened through Asia a way for Greek cul- 
ture, which here began its world-wide domination. But there was also a 
relaxing of those restraints of delicacy, nobility, and harmony of form 
which until then had confined Grecian art within due bounds. While 
thus limited it reached a degree of perfection which previously it had not 
attained, and which has never been .surpas.sed. The works of the flour- 
ishing i^riod of Grecian art could not compare in area with those of 
Kgyjn or Asia, nor in fancifulness of appearance with the fairy-like fabrics 
of the latter; but .\sia, while receiving the Greek culture, exercised an 
influence upon its further development through the introduction of new 
element*^, and gave to it a .soft voluptuousness and a heretofore unknown 
ricluu-ss of forms. 

Corinthian Oraer, — We have already followed the decadence of the 
Doric and the advance of the Ionic; henceforward we must follow 
that lavish application of ornament which was evidenced by the intro- 
duction of the Corinthian caj)ital. Hut the extension of the power of 
Greece over Asia and the admixture of Asiatic forms with Hellenic also 
resulted in giving new purjyoses to Architecture. From this period it is 



The Greeks.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 73 

no more the simple cella containing the image of a deity: the palace 
equal in grandeur and magnificence to that of the Asiatic monarchies, 
and works of luxury of every kind, henceforward demand our notice. 

Alexandria. — Alexander the Great built in Egypt the metropolis 
which bear* his name, and which is perhaps the grandest example of a 
city deliberately outlined and immediately built up in full artistic com- 
pleteness. Deinokrates, the first architect of his time, laid out the 
thoroughly-considered plan upon an excellently chosen site between Lake 
Mareotis and the sea. A magnificent harbor in the Mediterranean and a 
canal between it and Lake Mareotis, which served as a harbor for the 
Nile vessels, completed its connection with the outer world. The city 
was laid out in straight parallel streets and was intersected by two main 
streets, one of which, about 100 feet wide, ran westward from the Canopic 
gate to the Necropolis. The principal streets ran north and south, allow- 
ing passage to the fresh winds coming from the sea. Canals ran through 
the streets and conducted the waters of the Nile into the cisterns of the 
houses. The latter were exclusively of stone, with vaulted storeys and 
terraces instead of roofs. 

Temples and Public Buildings. — Alexander himself erected the Temple 
of Poseidon, the theatre, with a stadium and hippodrome, a palace for the 
supreme court, and a gymnasium with extensive porticoes. The royal 
citadel, which included a fourth part of the entire city, contained, besides 
the royal palace, the museum with its porticoes and the world-renowned 
library and academy; to it also belonged the Tombs of the Kings, as well 
as the Soma, which Ptolemy Soter built to receive the remains of Alex- 
ander the Great. This was in temple-form with porticoes surrounded by 
columns. The following Ptolemies all contributed to the beautifying of 
the city with public buildings. The entire city and the citadel were dom- 
inated by an artistically-designed terraced pyramid which contained a 
grotto dedicated to Pan. A serpentine passage led to the summit. The 
entire structure was incontestably designed after the Chaldaeo-Assyrian 
model. Asiatic influence is also evident in the vaulting of the houses. 
Such vaulting occurred in the Assyrian buildings, which were only a few 
centuries older. We meet with it again in the ruins in Central Syria, 
several centuries later, and it is still conspicuous in the Orient 

Vaulted Construction. — The Greeks were indeed previously acquainted 
with vaulted construction; they had seen it in Asia, and furthermore they 
could not have been strangers to the works of the Etruscans. Though 
they did not adopt it into that sacred language of fonns which, based on 
an ancient tradition, they developed in their temples, they showed their 
knowledge of it as soon as they turned their attention to buildings devoted 
to the needs of life. We know that the Romans manifested a predilection 
for Grecian architecture, and they would certainly not have employed the 
vault in a manner so- extensive and so magnificent had it been opposed to 
the spirit of Greek profane architecture in the same way that it was 
opposed to the spirit of Greek temple-construction. 



74 AKCifilKCTLKi;. [Thk Grekks. 

AIcxainIcT founclcil seven cities in Babylonia, Persia, and India, but 
j (if llust" citi;.s, as of ancient Alexandria itself, nothing now remains. 

1 J/*/*/i.ry(i\>:t"s 7\*nth, — A work which the fancy of the Orient imposed 

i !!ro!i (rfevk culture was t!ie j)yraniid of many staj*[es which Alexander, 

i fo'Iowii;^ Assyrian moilels, erected in Babylon as the tomb of his deceased 

:'.i\i)r:tt\ Hej>lKestion. Diodoros has left us a description of this structure, 
•A'hici: Dcinukrates raised t«) a heij^ht of 130 ells at a cost of twelve 
•hn:i>.ind talents. l'[K.in a suf)structure of brick it held thirty chaml>ers, 
lix- riM )fs of which were built of palm-stems. Around were two hundred 
lU'l t"»rty j^oldcn prows of ships decorated with colossal statues of kneel- 
::ij^ archers and slandinj^ warriors. The second storey was adorned with 
I'Tclics 15 ells hii;!i, which were ornamented on the handles with j^olden 
wreallis. i»n the f.ame with outstretched eaj^les, and on their bases with 
ii:.ii;i»ns, which rearjd their heads against the Ccigles. The third storey 
•AM-i K-dockcd with sculptures of the chase; the fourth displayed in gold a 
battle of centaurs, while the fifth bore golden lions and bulls placed alter- 
r.att'iv. On the hi,L,hest stage were* arrayed the weapons of the Mace- 
donians and of the conquered barf)arians, and the summit was crowned 
with siatue< o\ sirens, which were hollow, so as to contain the persons 
who s;;n;^ llie funeral dirges. 

In this inscription it is impossible to recognize a funeral pyre, although 
ni«.)d'>r'^'i Uses the word r:\tnd, for the preparation of the stnicture demanded 
c«.'ns;dcra!>ie lime. Dioiloros describes also a thick, purple-dyed draper>% 
M» that in this structure of a later date we have an imitation both of the 
tapestr>- covering and of the outward form of the Babylonian works. 

A simi'.ar lantastic work was the great goiden chariot which bore 
Akxandf-r^s remains from Bab\lon to Egypt. Alexander's universal 
• inpire did not outlast his death, but the love of display and the luxur\- 
which he intrtxluce^l into Ctrecian life remained under his successors, who 
n::t'.i the (Vreek kir.j^doms founded uix)n the ruins of the empire. Mag- 
::::"icence and luxur> became more and more rife in Greece itself and in 
the Greek colnnies in Italv, and buildings everywhere arasc. 

T/:e\rni \ S/mi:\7, th; — We mav here mention the various theatres — 
great OT«cn, semicircular, unroofed editices spread out in front of a roofed 
>ta;^e. Portion^ of these stnxctures exist at lasos, Argos, Sparta, Man* 
tir.e.i. ar.d Mc.:.-*Iop.i'i>, the last capable of containing forty thousand 
>:n.c:"i:'r<, cxW^ .it I.'elo>, Sikyon. Melos. Telmissos, Assos, Aizanis, Pessi- 
::■:-. S* t.,c.i-v. ?.::■! Sc-::e>ta, as well as the famous recentlv-excavated 
T'.vritTe «'f I >:.".-"> at Atl.eus. To the theatre was allied the Odeion, of 
v.hic:: ::ie '-i-.e :■:■.;.: ;^v Perikles at .\then< has already been mentioned 
:-. ^~ . < »:::er- ;-»re At Aperlre. in Asia Minor, and at Agrx and Catania, 
:r. >:c:>.- k :::> -.f rt.i'liri a!*-) «>ccur at Ias<i<, Aphrodisias, Ephesos, and 
or.. :.rA r'.:".\::> f :l;e <t.i.i:;im at .Vtheus have verv recently been 

:. Hi: •-> ■:•:-- ^rv i^Awvl :it Pes>iuons, Aizanis, etc. 
V :: *.• e ^'v.vr. *.ivre t::e ::rer.:or num])er of existing remains of the 
.:* *-:•-- Gr. :::!:; :.r:. aliii-r.:-'.: the r»ians of manv reach back to an 






r - 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE, 75 

earlier date. Athens had, in fact, lost its political importance; art no 
longer centred there, but was at home everywhere in the empire of Alex- 
ander and the Alexandrians. The princely courts drew to themselves 
rhetoricians and philosophers, yet the ancient fame of Athens ever 
remained, and what the Athenians themselves could not perform was 
done by stranger-princes who were inspired by her fame. Ptolemy Phil- 
adelphos built a magnificent gymnasium, Attalos I. built in the Ker- 
ameikos a hall for promenading and public assemblage, and Eumenes of 
Pergamum added a spacious portico to the Theatre of Dionysos. 

The Tower of the Winds, — A monument of this later period of Gre- 
cian art is the so-called ** Tower of the Winds" (//. 6,y?^. 9; pL "i^fig^ 
6), or the Clock of Andronikos Kyrrhestes, an octagonal building with 
two small porticoes supported by columns, and a semicircular apse. The 
figures of the eight winds are carv^ed under the cornice, upon a frieze, and 
under these, upon the walls, are the lines of a sundial, while a Triton 
upon the roof with a javelin in his hand serves as a vane. The capitals 
of the columns of the porticoes show an elegant calyx-form, and consist 
of a row of grasslike leaves with a series of acanthus-leaves below {Jig> 7). 
The little building contains a clepsydra, or hydraulic clock, the water for 
which flowed through an aqueduct borne upon a row of columns con- 
nected by semicircular arches. Part of these still remain, and show how 
the Greeks in their later days not only adapted to profane purposes forms 
which they had taken from their temple-architecture, but also used them 
in connection with vaulted construction. 



2. Roman Architecture. 

The Greeks recognized no culture besides their own ; all other races 
were barbarians. As such they looked upon the Macedonians, notwith- 
standing their widely-extended empire, and though it was through them 
that the world was opened to Greek culture and manifold new forms were 
introduced into Grecian art ; hence impotent attempts to free themselves 
from Macedonian domination. Nor did the Macedonians long retain their 
empire: another mighty people, occupying Italy — a people who by per- 
petual wars had won their own freedom and extended their sway, a people 
whose vocation was not the exercise of art, but that of battle and sov- 
ereignty — overthrew the Macedonians. Macedonia itself was made a 
Roman province 146 b. c, and two years later Greece fell also into the 
hands of the Roman barbarians. 

Early Period of Roman Art, — The Romans had previously employed 
Greek artists, so that, though Etruscan art was at first dominant upon 
their soil and their historians say that in early days all was Etruscan, this 
was quickly superseded, and later all was Grecian. They themselves had 
no desire, no talent, for the cultivation of art. Not that artists never 
arose among them, but that all learned in the Greek school and desired to 
be Greek artists. Virgil, the most illustrious poet of an age which may 



76 ARCIIITECrCRIL ' [The Romans. 

be coiiMdcred the most fionrishiii<; in Roman liiston', allows Anchises, 
while expatiating \\\yo\\ tiie greatness of Rome, to say: 

"I..: 'i.k.- : tt'cr i.;oiil'l ih-.* ruimiiiij mxsb 
or" :..t*.:'.s :;r. i mf-nii ihc brcnlhing bra-^M, 
An! ".•••.'.■: 1 :; t ' » licsh a ma rhl c face ; 
I!l-»: !->rtr .'.: ihc bar; »li'>cril)C the >kie>, 
A:: i w'ii:* :?ie -!.ir^ iloccml, ami when they rise. 
Lj:. K-.:n:' "ti"' ihinc alone wiili awful -.way 
1-. rule n..i:.i.iii i r.r.i make the worl-J «ihey, 
li.-;«.-:ii^ it.nct: ami war thy own niaje-tic way."* 

"l Bnt, though the Romans did not practise art, they desired to patronize 

I it. Foreign cities were comjxrlled to give up their cherished treasures, as 

! happened to Corinth when conquered ami destroyed (148 B. c), and also 

to other ancient art-centres of C}reece. Cireek artists were directed to 
j build in Grecian manner Roman works proclaiming the fame of Rome; 

j for of all foreign jK*op!es the Greeks were the only ones to whom the 

, proud Romans did not give the name of barl)arians. Thus in the works 

of the Romans we have but the continuation of those of the Greeks. 
j Doubtless many links are wanting. Nothing remains of the works of the 

I Alexandrians, and the prodigality and luxury of later Rome destroyed 

the older Roman pro<luctions; so that what remains belongs to a later age. 
We are comiK-Ued to ])a.ss over almost two hundred years and their devel- 
opments; and among a i>eople susceptible as were the Greeks, and at the 
same time sjnirred on by the grand ideas of the Romans, what must two 
hundred years have ]^roduced I Thus we cannot tell at what date many 
patterns which were pre-existent in Ktruscan art were received into the 
Grecian. We know, however, that vaulted construction l^elongs to the 
fourth century before Christ, probably to its commencement, though it 
j was as yet not employed in the building of temples. 

5 • Hut the magnificent results which Architecture then produced could no 

] longer find exi)ression within the narrow circle of forms which the temple- 

I architecture of the fifth centur>' b. c. had established. Vaulted construc- 

\ tion particularly, made visil)le exteriorly in the form of arches, obtained 

■ extensive application for profane purposes. Temple-architecture next 

adopted the scheme that had been derived from it, especially since the 
so-called ** Corinthian *' order enabled it to combine richness and elegance 
with imposing dimensions. 

Ttmplc of /.tH$ lit Athius. — We must now notice a single work in 
(ireece dating from alxmt the era when that country fell under the power 
oi Rome — namely, the restoration of the unfinished Temple of Zeus at 
Athens {begun in the i>almy days of (ireece) by Antiochos Kpiphancs, 
King of Syria 1175-1^3 w, c.\ under the direction of the Roman architect 
Cossutius; it was a di]Ueral structure corresponding to the original plan, 
yet with Corinthian columns. The edifice was not then entirely com- 
j'leted, but was finished by the Kmixrror Hadrian. On Plate 9 {Jig* 3) we 

. * bryticfi".- tian<«lation. .r.neU, vi. 116S-1175. 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 77 

give a view of the ruins, and in Figure 4 a restoration of the fagade, from 
which it is evident that even in this late age the fundamental form of the 
temple had not changed. 

About the year 150 B. c. the outer propylsea of the Temple of Demeter at 
Eleusis were erected in tolerably close imitation of those of the Acropolis 
at Athens. 

Temple of Jupiter Slator. — About this time there began a period of 
great constructive activity at Rome, and to this age must be referred the 
Temple of Jupiter Stator, which Q. Metellus Macedonicus built of marble 
according to the Grecian style. Within the same peristyle rose a prostyle 
dedicated to Juno; both temples were adorned with Greek statues. 

Aqueducts^ Bridges^ and Arches, — Next follows a series of utilitarian 
structures which are allied to those of the Etruscan period. In them 
skilful construction rather than external appearance was considered; so 
that they do not bear the stamp of any special style. The Marcian Aque- 
duct {Aqua Marcia\ thirty-eight miles long, was constructed in 143 b. c. ; 
for about six miles of its extent it was carried upon nearly seven thousand 
arches. The Aqua Tepula was constructed in 127 B. c. on the same series 
of arches that carried the Aqua Marcia, but at a higher level. About the 
year 142 b. c. the arches of the Pons Palatinus (Ponte Rotto) were con- 
structed. The Pons Milvius (Ponte Molle) was built in 126 B. c. Many 
triumphal arches rather plainer in style were also erected about that time, 
of which the one built upon the Via Sacra about 120 b. c. in honor of the 
victory of Fabius Maximus over the Allobroges remained standing for a 
long time. In the course of the second century the Basilica Porcia, built 
by M. Porcius Cato in 184, and the Fulvian, Sempronian, and Opimian 
basilicas, were built. Upon the form of the basilica we shall have some- 
thing more special to say farther on. 

Temple of Hercules. — In Pompeii there yet stands a Doric peripteral 
temple of decidedly Hellenic design, known as the Temple of Hercules. 
It stands upon a triangular plaza surrounded by Doric columns and 
entered from an Ionic portico. The Forum at Pompeii was surrounded 
with a Doric colonnade the execution of which exhibits in its decoration 
an entirely degenerate series of forms. An Ionic portico rises above this. 

Roman Tombs. — Arched gateways — simple semicircles without any 
special richness of composition — gave entrance to the city (Pompeii). A 
line of tombs rose beside the '' Street of Tombs," without the city (//. 9, 
fig. 8). Some are sarcophagi or altar-like compositions adorned with 
pilasters or attached columns, some of the Hellenic form of the third 
century B. c, and some in that phase of elaboration which is usually 
called Roman, but which is only a broader interpretation of Hellenic art. 

Similar streets of tombs stretched out beyond the gates of every city. 
Rome itself had in the Via Appia a most extensive addition of this kind, 
and in other places a series of similar monuments, some of which are 
of importance. One of the unique tombs of this age is that of the baker 
Eurysaces, outside the Porta Maggiore; it is built mainly of stone mor- 



78 ARCHITECTURE. [The Roman.. 

tars such as were used by the Ixikers for kneading dough. The Tomb of 
C. Publicius, in the liibuhis, now the Via di Marforio, upon the eastern 
hide of the Capitol, has the form of a small temple with Doric pilasters. 
One of the most niaj^nificent sepulchral monuments is that of Ca.'cilia 
Metella, on the Via Appia, which has a cylindrical supcrstnicture about 
24 metres (78^4 feet) in diameter upon a square base. A frieze of bulls' 
heads and festoons with a simple but effective cornice tenninates the 
cylindrical portion. The summit formerly consisted of a pyramid or 
cone. This tomb is well known through Byron's beautiful stanzas in 
Childc Harold^ the first of which is as follows: 

•* There In a >tcrn rouml tower of olher days, 
rirm as a forirevs, wjth i:> fence of slone. 
Such a.> an amjy'.s lattleM sticn{;t}i delays. 
Standing; with half it^ liattlenienis alone, 
And with two thousand ycart of ivy grown. 
The garl.uul i>f Kternity, where wave 
The ^jrcen leaves <»vcr all liy Time overthrown ;— 
NVh.i! wa-i this tower of s?rfn);lh ? within its cave 
What trci-ure lay m» locked, •»., hid ? — A woman's grave." 

The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was burnt in the year 83 B. c, and 
was rebuilt by Sulla. The power of traditions made sacred by religion 
was still so iK)tent at Rome that though (Grecian art liad there become 
acclimated, and though the fonns previously deemed sacred to temple- 
architecture had in their new home long been applied to all the purposes 
of ordinan' life, yet the Etruscan fonns revered by the Romans were 
adopted in this temple. 

Chanuieristies of Later Roman Art. — But neither at Rome itself nor 
in the extensive realms over which it ruled were temples the most splen- 
did examples of Roman architecture. When, toward the close of the 
Republic, immense lu.xurious buildings were erected in which storey 
towered over storey, in which neither the simple ground-plan of the 
temple nor its dimensions could be made serviceable, in which its del- 
icacy of form no longer found application; when the character of the 
building could no longer be expressetl exclusively by colonnades, but by 
stui)endous wall-masses to which life must be given by a wealth of detail, — 
then it became necessan- to connect by means of arches piers formed out 
of the walling. To break up and give life to these piers, a system of 
columns and entablatures Wiis applied as an external covering. The 
columns no longer had really to l>ear the entablatures: this work was jkt- 
fornied in a greater degree by the walls; therefore the intercolumniations 
were widened until they approachetl Etruscan proportions, 

Tiisean Order. — The details, used more for effect, lost the Grecian 
refinement of proix)rtion; the delicate and energetic line of the Doric 
echinus was no longer expressive, the tajK-ring shafts of the Doric 
columns stoo<l in loo severe a contrast to the i>erpendicular lines of the 
piers, and the absence of a base could in a many-storeyed building no 
longer be made to express energetic strength ; and thus the Doric order 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 79 

was iu a sense worked over and the Etruscan or Tuscan formed out of it. 
In lofty storeys parapets between the piers and arches were necessary. 
These on the one hand, and on the other the purpose of the structure, 
made it allowable to lighten the forms of the applied architectural frontis- 
piece. Thus the columns became more slender and the entablatures less 
heavy; in many cases the columns did not reach the full height of the 
storey, but were furnished with a stylobate^ or pedestal reaching to the 
level of the parapet. 

Thus storeys were built one over the other, and the modified Doric 
order applied to the lowest, the Ionic to the next, and the Corinthian to 
the third (//. \o^fig. 6). This system is usually considered Roman, and 
is contrasted with the Grecian — properly so, in the sense that the Greeks 
were no longer the ruling race, that their centres of influence were not 
in Greece, but that it was imperial Rome that decked herself with these 
monuments; but yet improperly so, since Greek masters and the Greek 
spirit erected those works for the Romans, and since every deviation was 
not a departure from the Greek sentiment of form, but was based upon 
the necessities of the purpose. • We do not see the union of Etruscan and 
Grecian architecture into a specific Roman style, but a wider phase of the 
Grecian, or, if we wish to use another term, of the classic. The influence 
of the Etruscan was so small that it cannot be considered as transforming, 
and Etruscan art itself had been influenced by the Grecian in its develop- 
ment. Grecian construction was as well acquainted with the vault as was 
Etruscan. Both may have derived it from the same Oriental source, with 
which the relations of the Greeks were certainly sufficiently near. 

The Tabularium, — The Consul Q. Lutatius Catulus built the Tabula- 
xium (73 B. c.) on the southern side of the Capitol, opposite the upper side 
of the forum. This was the Ha^l of Archives and Treasury of the State, 
.and consisted of a base 10 metres (32^ feet) in height, upon which stood a 
magnificent arcaded portico, the piers of which were set with Doric half- 
-columns, while above the arches ran a Doric entablature with four 
triglyphs in each intercolumniation. The attached columns are simply 
facetted upon their lower third, but fluted on their upper two-thirds. 

Theatres, — To the middle of the last century before Christ, when 
prominent men endeavored to gain power by flattering the people of the 
Capital, belong a series of magnificent structures which were erected for 
popular favor in the most costly manner — particularly theatres, which, 
though built of wood, had their stage-walls covered with ivory, silver 
and gold plating, and other more or less costly materials, while purple 
curtains spanned the auditorium. In 58 b. c, Marcus Scaurus built a 
theatre to contain eighty thousand spectators; in its costly decoration 
there were employed three thousand bronze statues and inlaid work of 
marble and gold. In 55 b. c, Pompey built the first stone theatre at 
Rome, seating forty thousand persons; above the seats rose the Temple of 
Venus Victrix. In 54 b. c, L. ^Emilius Paulus constructed the Basilica 
Pulvia, and also the most stupendous structure of the forum, the Basil- 



8o ARCHITECTURE. [The Romans. 

ica ^Emilia, which was completed in 31 B. c. ; to this Caesar subscribed a 
sum equal to about fifteen hundred thousand dollars. In the year 50 B. c. 
•a partisan of Cxsar, C. Curio, built two adjoining theatres of wood, which 
served by day for the drama, but in the evening were revolved, with all 
the spectators, on pivots, so as to front each other, and thus fonned an 
amphitheatre, the arena of which furnished new enjoyment to the people. 
In 46 B. c, Ca\sar himself built a wooden amphitheatre covered with a 
silken canopy; he also constructed a naumachia — a colossal edifice 
arranged to fonn a huge artistic reservoir for the display of naval 
combats. 

Temple of Venus Geuitrix. — Another splendid structure built by 
Ciesar at Rome was the Temple of Venus Genitrix, the tutelar)* goddess 
of his house, to whom he gave honor at the battle of Pharsalia, in 48 B. c. 
This temple was dedicated in 46 B. c, as was also the fonnn which Caesar 
constructed not far from the ancient Forum Romanum, and which bears 
his name. This forum is surrounded by colonnades; in its centre stands 
the temple, at its rear are apartments for the authorities, and on one side 
is the tribunal of justice. The completion of this edifice, as of another 
of Cxsar*s structures, was reserved for Augustus. 

Julian Course and Cireus Maximus, — To this epoch belongs the erec- 
tion of the stone Basilica Julia, as well as the construction of a second 
forum, a plaza five thousand feet square, on the Campus Martins, which 
until then had been little built upon. This forum was also surrounded by 
porticoes, and bore the title of Septa Julia (the **Julian Course"). To 
the epoch of Ciesar belongs also the rebuilding of the Circus Maximus — 
a structure which, according to the various statements of the age, must 
have seated from one hundred and fifty thousand to two hundred and sixty 
thousand spectators. ^ 

Bridges, — A well-preserved example of Roman bridge-constniction is 
the Pons Fabricius (Ponte de' quattro capi ; pL %fig. 7) over the Tiber, 
built by L. Fabricius in the last years of the Republic, and enlarged by 
Augustus forty-four years later. The aqueduct near Volci {Jig. 9) scr\'cs 
as both aqueduct and bridge. 

spread of Greeian Art. — Under Roman influence Grecian art per- 
petually extended its domain, since it not only held sway in Asia in the 
overthrown Alexandrian empire, but also penetrated where the political 
power of Rome had not yet accomplished the overthrow of the nations. 
Among these we must mention the Jews, who had no art of their own, 
but who, like the Romans, had adopted Grecian art To this epoch 
belong the tombs which exist near Jerusalem, and which exhibit more 
or less barbarized Grecian forms. These are in part rock-graves — as the 
so-called '* Tombs of the Kings,'' the ''Judges' Tomb," •* Jacob's Tomb," 
and that of ** Helena " — and in part detached structures, as those of Absa- 
lom and Zacharias. These names are entirely arbitrary and in no wise 
characterize the date of the structures, which belong to the last centur\' 
before Christ, and perhaps to the first century after. To this period also 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 8i 

belongs the restoratiou of the Temple, which Herod began to rebuild in 
the Greek style in the year 20 b. c. This is the Temple concerning which 
Christ said, *' Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left here 
one stone upon another, which shall not be thrown down '' (Mark xiii. 2); 
and it did not exist one hundred years ere the prophecy was fulfilled. 

The Augustan Era (27 B. C.-14 A. D.) was for Rome what that of 
Perikles was for Athens — the full bloom of culture and the culmination 
of art, inasmuch as it was then treated with most elegance. And yet what 
a difference! How can we speak of refinement where mere size prepon- 
derated — where even architectural forms were converted into an outer 
decoration? Yet relatively it was the climax of art, inasmuch as the 
remains of th« genius of the age of Perikles — a remnant which afterward 
disappeared — were not yet entirely lost. 

Temple of Forhtna Virilis, — Among the temples of the last period of 
the Republic is the Ionic temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome, the cella 
of which is set externally with half-columns that form a continuation of 
the columns of the entrance-portico, the architrave of which is carried 
along the wall of the cella; so that the entirety approaches that of an 
early Grecian temple, while it still bears sufficient traces of the old 
domestic temple-arrangement. Related to this is the Temple of the 
Sibyl at Tivoli. 

Other Temples of this Period, — To the Augustan Age belongs the 
Temple of Mars Ultor, which closely resembled the Greek manner, and 
of whose peristyle three Corinthian columns with their entablature still 
remain. Augustus also restored the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on 
the Greek plan. To his time belongs also the Temple of the Dioscuri — 
generally entitled that of Jupiter Stator — of which also three columns 
with their entablature still stand erect (//. 10, y?^. 11). Outside Rome the 
Corinthian Temple of Augustus and Roma at Pola in Istria belongs to 
this period, also the similar Corinthian temple at Assisi (now the Santa 
Maria della Minerva), as well as the remnant of a temple built into the 
Cathedral of Pozzuoli, besides many others. 

Cirailar Temple-structure. — The choragic Monument of Lysikrates 
(//. 8, fig. 10) shows the architectural system of the temple applied to a 
circular building. Whether larger structures, actually used as temples, 
had at the time of its construction a similar form cannot be asserted, on 
account of the lack of remains; but the severity with which the sacred 
traditions of the form of the temple was established makes it, however, 
improbable. After the transference of sway to Rome we find this shape 
adopted for the temple, and the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli (//. ii^fg. 1) 
— as yet in great part erect — is a striking example. 

The Pantheon at Rome {pi. 9, fgs. i, 2) has also the circular ground- 
plan, which, unless the surroundings gave occasion for its simple solidity, 
probably bore previously an external decoration with rich and elegant 
forms, while its attached portico repeats the Grecian temple-system, and 
thus by reminiscence characterizes the building as a temple {pi. 10, fig. 8). 

Vol. IV.— 6 



82 ARCHITECTURE. [The Romans. 

Erected in 27 b. c. by the architect Valerius of Ostia, it was originally dedi- 
cated to Ju;)itcr Ultor, and formed part of the Baths of Agrippa. 

ArchitcctHral Activity of this Ptriod. — The reign of Augustus, who in 
matters of art and knowledge was himself one of the most illustrious men 
of his time, gave its name to eixKhs of high culture, and was for Rome a 
period of the most develoixid architectural activity. Augustus himself 
vaunted that he found a citv of brick and left one of marble. We have 
mentioned (p. 80) that he completed the magnificent structures begun 
by Cesar. The erecti(m of new monumental public edifices stands 
in noticeable relation to the increase and constant development of the 
city. The public life of Rome exacted the extension of the sites set apart 
for these structures, and a forum which Augustus built bor<i his name. 

Basilicas, — As the citizens gathered in multitudes under the ojx^n sky 
upon the forum to talk of public affairs and to execute their busines.s, roofed 
and enclosed spaces for similar purix)ses became necessary. These were pro- 
vided in the basilicas, the name of which bears witness to their Greek origin. 
They were essentially immense lofty halls divided by ranges of columns 
into a nave and several aisles and furnished with galleries above the outer 
aisles. The multitudes swayed to and fro in this ample space, while usually 
from a semicircular i)rojecting addition upon one of the shorter sides, sei>- 
arated from the main room by columns, the jtidge dispensed ju.stice, and was 
always at hand to settle litigation. Vitruvius, an architect of this period 
to whom we are in<lebted for his Dc Architcctura — a vcrv remarkable work 
upon architecture — describes in the first chapter of the fifth book the plan 
of basilicas in general, which should be built near the forum, in the 
wannest places possible, so that they could be comfortably occupied by 
the merchants in winter. The length should be twice or thrice the width. 
He describes a basilica built bv himself at Fano which differed somewhat 
from the accustomed form, as an example of which he mentions that 
of Julia Aquiliana. 

The Basilica at Fano had a nave 120 feet long by 60 in width. Columns 
5 feet in diameter and 50 feet high, with capitals, separated the nave fnnn 
the galleries, which were 20 feet wide. Piers 20 feet high at the back of 
these columns bore the joists of the galleries of the side-aisles, and alx)ve 
these piers rose again to the height of 18 feet, bearing the roof of the 
aisles, above which light was admitted into the nave 1k*1ow the architrave 
of the principal columns. The columns on the longer sides were eight in 
number, and on the shorter sides four, reckoning the angle-columns. I'jkju 
one side the two middle columns were omitted, .so as not to hide the jxjr- 
tico of the Temple of Augustus. The tribunal-niche wxs not semicirculnr, 
but segmental, and had a depth of only 15 feet, against a width of 46 feet. 
The most i>eculiar part of this basilica was the arrangement of the high 
columns which in front of the aisles bore the roof of the nave, while in 
other basilicas two rows of columns were suiK*qx>sed. 

In Pom{Kui there is a basilica in which the tribune is not .semicircular, 
but by an internal projection on one of the short sides is situated in the 



THft Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 83 

gallery, which was here of double width. The attempted restorations 
also show here columns which extend the entire height, but without 
galleries over the aisles. Other basilicas remain at Aquino, Palestrina, 
Palmyra, and Pergamum. 

Arches. — To the characteristic decoration of the Roman city belong 
the great arches {pL 10), some of which were erected in especially con- . 
spicuous parts of the city as triumphal memorials in commemoration of 
glorious battles, while others formed entrances to the markets and com- 
mercial forums, and, as their facades faced both sides, were called 
** Arches of Janus." Arches were consecrated by Augustus at Susa, 
Rimini, and Aosta to commemorate his triumphs over the people of the 
mountains. 

Theatre Marcellus. — From the last years of Augustus's reign dates the 
theatre, built in 13 b. c, to which he g^ve the name of his nephew 
Marcellus ; it had a diameter of no metres (360 feet) and accommodated 
thirty thousand spectators. The existing remains of the outer walls 
show arcades the lower series of which is adorned with Doric, the 
upper with Ionic, columns. 

Tomb of Augustus. — As Augustus was great and powerful, a magnif- 
icent tomb was erected to his memory. The tumulus gave the funda- 
mental idea. A circular structure the diameter of which at the base was 
nearly 100 metres (328 feet), and the interior of which contained a mul- 
titude of vaulted chambers, formed a terrace, which was planted with 
trees, while upon the summit stood the colossal statue of the Csesar. 
Within this not only Augustus but also many of his successors were 
laid away for their last sleep. 

Architecture under the Later Emperors. — Under the successors of 
Augustus architectural activity went on uninterruptedly in Rome and 
throughout the extensive provinces of the empire, and we know that 
both Tiberius and Caligula erected imperial palaces at the Capital. 
Although the provinces were plundered that the splendor of Rome 
might thereby shine more brightly, there always remained opportunities 
enough to raise architectural piles in them also ; and the high Roman 
officers, the administrators of the provinces, as well as the generals, 
took care that the luxur>' and sumptuousness of the Imperial City should 
not be altogether wanting in their provincial capitals. 

Roman Cities. — The model of a provincial town in Italy has been 
well preserved. Pompeii, buried under the ashes of Vesuvius in 79 
A. D., stands to-day an exact reproduction of what it was in the earli- 
est period of the Empire. 

Dwelling-houses. — What particularly interests us is the plan of the 
dwelling-houses. Figure 7 (//. 10) gives a section of the one which is 
called the **Casa di Campionet," after its discoverer. The principal 
room is the atrium^ the roof of which, sloping from all sides toward 
the middle, leaves in its centre an opening, the impluvium^ which cor- 
responds to an excavation on the floor-level, the cofnpluvium^ for the 



84 ARCHITECTURE, [The Romans.. 

reception of the rain-water. A short entrance led from the street to 
the atrinm ; lx;twcen these were situated four smaller chambers, while 
there were other chambers between the atrium and a second court, 
which was probably planted with flowers and surrounded by a portico. 
A richly-decorated hall oi)enin^ on both courts formed the principal com- 
munication. There were also cellars beneath the garden-court, smaller 
iivinj^-rooms above the part which joined the two courts, and an open 
gallery above the porticoes wliich surrounded the rear court. (See 
Vol. II. p. 206 ; pi 31.) 

Rich decorations adorned the walls, and the entire appearance wore 
so poetical an aspect that we are surprised at the high development of 
culture and the refinement qf taste displayed. This house was evi- 
dently designed for one family only, probably a numerous one, which 
was served by a large staff of ser\'ants ; and it is likely that in Rome 
itself convenience may have required arrangements similar to those in 
the lofty stnictures of modern cities, where many storeys give accom- 
modation to a great numl>er of unrelated tenants. 

At all events, Rome must have had many closely-built and thickly- 
peopled quarters, and the speech of Augustus about a marble Rome 
must have been figurative. To remove these sections in the simplest 
manner, Nero set fire to the citv, bv which act several monumental 
public buildings were destroyed ; for these, however, he made rich resti- 
tution. His *' Golden House," a sumptuous palace such as before had 
not been seen in Rome, rose high over his other buildings. 

UWks of Vespasian, — Nero's successor, Vespasian, built at Rome the 
Triumphal Arch of Titus to commemorate the conquest of Palestine, 
accomplished in 70 a.d. 

The Coliseupn{pL io,y/^i. 5, 6), that stupendous amphitheatre, which, 
like the arch just mentioned, still remains, was also built by Vespasian. 
Elliptical in fonn, its ranges of seats are reached by passages in the 
substructure. Outside there are four storeys, the three lower of which 
have the customary pier-and-arch architecture with the half-columns and 
entablatures of the three orders. The fourth has an extraordinary height, 
out of harmony with the others ; it consists of a mass of wall which bears 
heavily upon the arched architecture and is only brought into relation 
with the piers and half-columns below by means of a system of pilasters. 
Particularly characteristic is the series of consoles which nms around the 
entire building about midway up the height of this storey, corresponding 
to openings in the cornice, through which were thrust poles, their bases 
resting \\\)o\\ the consoles, while a canopy made fast to their tips by cords 
afforded the spectators shelter from the sun's rays. We may well believe 
that in the first instance this upper storey was not present, and that it 
belongs to a later time, or is, at any rate, a modification of the original 
design, since \'espasian did not live to complete the building. 

Works of Titus. — Titus, the son and successor of Vespasian, completed 
the Coliseum, and built— or, at least, began — that imperial structure 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 85 

which, as the Flavian Palace, has recently been brought by excavations 
to the light of day, and which nearly corresponds to the ordinary idea of 
a Roman house, only with more magnificent dimensions and broader con- 
ceptions. The arch at St. Remy, in France, may also belong to the age 
of Titus, since it resembles in shape the Arch of Titus at Rome. The 
great Roman cenotaph at the same place, remarkable for its elegant pro- 
portions, may also be mentioned here. 

Domitian and Nerva, the successors of Titus, built several sumptuous 
temples at Rome and linked their names to a forum erected by them. 

Greek artists were most in demand in Italy and in the Greek and 
Asiatic provinces, and thus the proportions of the buildings in those prov- 
inces came nearest to those of the Greek works of the ancient period. 
But Rome had other possessions, where, outside the legions which upheld 
her authority, she had no workmen at her disposal other than the 
unskilled native barbarians, who were unacquainted with monumental 
construction. Yet even here such edifices were erected as not only served 
for the needs of the colonies, but also gave expression to Rome's love of 
pomp; for wherever the Romans went they set up their own monuments, 
in order to command the respect of the natives. In these structures Greek 
delicacy and proportions were entirely lost, and the Roman system was 
followed in the principal lines only. Of this class is the entire series of 
Roman buildings in Germany, of which the Porta Nigra, at Treves — 
which according to the most recent discoveries belongs to the first century 
— is one of the most important examples (//. %fig* 11). 

Trajan^ s Works: Forum and Basilica Ulpia, — The Emperor Trajan 
in the beginning of the second century displayed considerable archi- 
tectural activity. He erected the forum which bears his name, and with 
which is connected the Basilica Ulpia, the largest and most important of 
Roman basilicas. This had four aisles and a nave, the latter being 
25 metres (82 feet) wide and 80 metres (262 >^ feet) long, while the entire 
space, including the double side-aisles, which extended on all four sides 
of the nave, measured 58 metres (190 feet) by 130 metres (426^ feet). 
There were entrances on one of the shorter sides, as well as on the long 
side adjacent to the forum. The other short side contained the semicir- 
cular tribune of justice. The architect was the Greek Apollodoros. The 
Forum of Trajan was unsurpassed in the costliness of its decorations and 
the magnificence of its design; to this structure Hadrian added porticoes, 
basilicas, temples, and triumphal monuments. 

Arches and Columns, — At Ancona, Trajan's name is also linked to a 
magnificent triumphal arch which is constructed of Parian marble and 
stands on one of the two moles that protect the harbor. At Benevento 
there is also an Arch of Trajan, erected by the emperor in 113 A. d. 
to commemorate the restoration of the Appian Way. This arch is of 
Parian marble, of the Corinthian order, and is highly ornamented with 
basso- and alto-rilievos representing various events in the reign of the 
•emperor. It now forms one of the gates of the city {Porta Aured), An 



S6 ARCHITECTURE. [The Romans. 

Arch of Trajan stood also at Rome, and out of it was built the still extant 
Arch of Constantinc. Trajan is also honored in the column which bears 
his name (pL w^Jig. 3). This stood within an encircling colonnade at 
the side of the Basilica Ulpia. On the shaft are reliefs arranged spirally 
In twenty-three tiers, scenes in Trajan's victories, containing twenty-five 
hundred figures. The column, including capital and base, is 973^ feet 
!i:gh. The summit was formerly crowned by a colossal gilt bronze 
statue of Trajan, now replaced by a figure of St. Peter erectetl b>' Vq\^ 
Sixtus V. A temple dedicated to the emperor, in connection with a 
fonim, fonned the culmination of testimonials of honor. 

Otfur Works of Trajan, — Trajan was a Spaniard. A part of his archi- 
tectural zeal displayed itself on his native soil, where he erected numerous 
triumphal arches, as at Merida, Bara, and Caparra. To his age belongs 
the aqueduct of Segovia (//. 9, fij3[. 10), as well as the magnificent six- 
arch bridge at Alcantara (Arabic for **the Bridge''), with which was con- 
nected a triumphal arch to Trajan. In Africa, also, on what was once the 
domain of Carthage, a triumphal arch remains at Tucca which by its 
inscription is proved to belong to the last years of Trajan's reign. 

The importance of the Roman provinces increased more and more, and 
with it the erection of grand public edifices in all parts of the extensive 
empire. Many of the works of public utility, as streets and bridges, 
which adoni Central Europe, belong to the time of Trajan and his 
immediate successor. 

Hadriaft" s Works, — Hadrian, who held sway from 117 to 138 A. D., 
was himself an architect. But, jealous of his fame, he tolerated no 
rivals, and Apollodoros, who criticised his youthful works, was satisfied 
by sentence of death that the emperor saw in him a superior in art, since 
he dared to criticise the imperial attempts. During Hadrian's reign archi- 
tectural activity increased both at Rome and in the provinces. We 
have already, as regards Rome, mentioned his buildings on the Forum 
(p. 85). Particularly characteristic of his time was his villa on the 
Tiber, in which a number of architectural monuments were copied, and 
in which in particular the Eg>'ptian style was reproduced by the side of 
the Grecian. 

Influence of Ei^ypdan on Roman Art, — The expression of Virgil, 
that the Romans had no art of their own, but allowed others to erect their 
works, finds here an interesting illustration. What we have previously 
met with was not Roman art, but Grecian in the ser\'icc of the Romans. 
Wherefore should not Eg>'ptian art be made useful also? Rome had 
opened her doors to Egyptian as well as to Grecian gods. The Eg>'ptians, 
who held fast to their ancient culture and religion, were under Roman 
dominion, as well as the Greeks. The former lived in the same relations 
with Rome as did the latter; and if pure aesthetic proportions in the cre- 
ations of the Greeks so inspired the Romans that they became Hellenized, 
so the grandeur and overpowering earnestness of the wonderland of the 
pyramids must have brought the might of their magic to bear upon sus-> 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 87 

•ceptible spirits. No other art was so imposing and powerful, so earnest, 
and so awe-inspiring as that of the Egyptians; and if now even the ruins 
overpower and captivate our senses, what must have been the impression 
created by those works in the full splendor of their perfection, in all 
their wonderful consonance with nature's simplicity, upon an educated 
and thinking generation whose art, though displayed in such magnificent 
works, was not the outcome of their own inner consciousness, but was 
awakened by a foreign art ? What wonder that the tendency to the mas- 
sive and imposing at the cost of those more noble qualities, refinement 
and purity, should have been fostered into greater activity by the impression 
created by Egyptian art ? 

Temple of Venus and Roma, — Among Hadrian's buildings of another 
class must be mentioned the Temple of Venus and Roma, a Corinthian 
pseudodipteral structure 50 metres (164 feet) wide by twice this dimension 
in length, with two cellae, placed back to back, while the entrances, cor- 
responding to the pronaos and posticum of the ancient temple, were upon 
the opposite ends. Massive walls enclosed the cellse along the side-walls, 
on the interior of which were porphyry columns and statues in niches, 
and the whole carried a ponderous tunnel-vault. In the centre, the point 
of actual contact of the cellae, there were two apses, each of which was 
covered by a half-dome. In each of these apses was a colossal seated 
figure of the Deity. The plan was designed by Hadrian, who proved 
himself an able architect, and who contributed materially to the broader 
development of Grecian temple-art, since by means of the vaulted interior 
he succeeded in carrying out the monumental idea, which could not so 
well be expressed by the wooden roof. 

Other Works of Hadrian, — At Athens, Hadrian connected the old 
city with the new by a grand gateway still extant; it is an arch above 
which rise Corinthian columns. Of an aqueduct constructed by Hadrian 
there remained in the last century a series of Ionic columns the central 
intercolumniation of which was adorned with an arch resting on the archi- 
trave. This served for the decoration of the spring-house. A market 
upon the north side of the citadel exhibits also Corinthian pilasters upon 
its exterior; these stand upon pedestals, and above each of them the 
entablature projects forward. A contemporary of Hadrian, Herodes 
Atticus, built at Athens, upon the southern side of the Acropolis, the 
Odeion, named after his wife, Regilla; he completed also, on the Ilissos, 
the Panathenaic Stadium, which was constructed entirely of Pentelic 
marble. He likewise erected a theatre at Corinth. A beautiful gateway 
at Nicaea, according to the inscription upon it, dates from Hadrian's time. 

Jerusalem, which Titus had destroyed, was rebuilt by Hadrian under 
the title of -^lia Capitolina; and in order to despoil it of its sacred cha- 
racter he covered with a temple of Venus the site of the sepulchre of 
Christ, already become a place of pilgrimage for Christians. According 
to an inscription, an arch of triumph at Isaura is one of Hadrian's struc- 
tures. In Middle Eg>'pt, Hadrian built the city of Antinoe to the memory 



88 ARCHITECTURE. [The Romans. 

of Antinous, who, in obedience to the oracle, prolonged the emperor's 
life by drowning hiniscir in the Nile. This city was laid out according 
to a regular plan, with colonnades at the sides of the streets, those of the 
principal street being Doric; it was also adorned with a triple-portalled 
triumphal arch and other monumental buildings. To the same date 
belong the Corinthian temple at Ximes — still well preserved and known 
as the '*Maison Carree,'' — and another temple, generally called the 
** Temple of Diana,'' which served the purpose of a basilica, and was 
erected in honor of the Empress Plotina, wife of Trajan. 

The Mtiusohuffi of Hadrian (^pL ii,^?^^'. 2), the remnant of which, 
known as the Castie of St. Angelo, ranks as one of the most important 
buildings in Rome, appears again as a member of that chain of burial- 
monuments which are connected with Assyrian stepped-pyramids, and 
which since Artemisia erected her famous tomb in honor of her husband 
have been called ** mausoleums." 

Works of Antoninus IHus, — Under Antoninus Pius the Temple of 
Antoninus and Faustina at Rome was erected in a rich Corinthian 
style, near the forum, in 150 a. d. As in some before-mentioned single 
cellae, the side-walls are decorated with half-columns, which are a contin- 
uation of those of the portico; and thus it exhibits a certain approach to 
the Etruscan syr^tem, without departing as a whole from its Greek propor- 
tions, since the cella is entirely surrounded by the equivalent of a portico. 
The walls externally are adorned with marble slabs, and the unfluted 
marble columns are entirely of costly cipolin. The frieze shows a row 
of griffins, with candelabra standing between each pair. To the time 
of Antoninus Pius belong the well-preserved theatre of Patara at Lykia, 
a city gate with three arches sunnounted by a Doric frieze, many fune- 
ral monuments, and the ruins of a temple. Other theatres of the 
same period remain at Telmessos and Myra in Lykia, and at lasos in 
Caria. 

IVorks of Marcus Aurelius, — A memorial column of Antoninus Pius 
at Rome is still represented by a fragment in the Vatican Garden, while 
another, similar to that of Trajan, erected by Marcus Aurelius, the son 
of Pius, and commemorative of the victorv over the Marcomanni, still 
exists; but in place of the statue of the emperor it bears that of St. 
Peter {pL w^fig. 4). The Temple of JEsculapius, as well as the so-called 
•*Pnetorium" at Lambessa, in West Africa — the latter a basilica-like 
design — dates from the period of Marcus Aurelius (162-175 A. D.). 

To the end of the second centur>' belong the Temple of the Pythian 
Apollo — which has two Doric-like columns in ands and an Ionic frieze 
— a magnificent arch of triumph at Orange, in France, the principal 
temple at Knidos, in Caria — which has Corinthian columns — a Corinthian 
temple at Alabanda and another at Ephesos, the theatre at Laodicea, and 
a unique gateway and a magnificent tomb at Mylassa, in Caria, the last 
a square temple-like structure of two columns between square angle- 
piers placed upon a lofty base and sunnounted by the remains of an eight- 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 89 

sided pyramid. The circular Temple of Vesta at Rome, copied from that 
of Tivoli, and the Corinthian columns of which still stand erect, lyas 
constructed also at the close of the second century. 

IVorks of the Third Century: Arch ofSeverus, — The triple Arch of Sep- 
timius Severus (//. 10, fig. 3), richly bedecked with sculptures, belongs to 
the beginning of the third century, as does also a small gate of honor erected 
to the same emperor by the goldsmiths at the entrance of the cattle-mar- 
ket Of this date are also the ruins of a temple usually designated as that 
of Jupiter Tonans and situated not far from the great Arch of Triumph. 
A quadrangular arch erected in memor>' of Severus in the year a 14 at 
Thebessa (Theveste), in Numidia, also remains, together with another at 
Attura (Sanfur); and the huge amphitheatre of Nlmes dates also from the 
beginning of the third century. 

Baths of Caracalla. — Among the mightiest architectural monuments 
of the third century are the Baths of Caracalla, at Rome (211-227 a. d.). 
In the later days of the Imperial City, when public opinion gradually lost 
-weight in politics save when the legions of the provinces mutinied and 
tilled emperors, public baths, or thermcB^ served more and more as the 
centres of the business which had previously been confined to the forum. 
At the time of Constantine, Rome possessed fifteen such thermae, of 
-which those of Titus have already been mentioned. The Baths of Cara- 
calla consisted of an outer structure, which enclosed a court about 350 
metres (i 148 feet) square, and contained two rows of single bath-rooms, 
ivhile in the court stood the main building, in the immense halls of 
which were great basins of cold water for swimmers, halls for sweating 
{sudatoria)^ for rubbing, for games of ball, etc These enormous halls 
were in part vaulted, while others were covered with flat roofs of beams; 
the cold bath {frigidarimn) was probably open. We give on Plate 12 
{figs. I, 2) the present condition and a restored interior perspective of the 
frigid arium of Caracalla' s Baths. 

Other Works of the Third Century. — The Column of Alexander 
Severus (221-235 A. d.), at Antinoe, was Corinthian, and had immediately 
above its base a crown of acanthus-leaves, from which sprang the shaft 
The well-preserved amphitheatre of the ancient Thysdrus, in the province 
of Carthage — now El-Djemm, the largest of Roman ruins in Africa — 
dates from the reign of the elder Gordian (about 238 A. d.). It resembles 
the Coliseum in having five galleries or corridors in the first storey. From 
an inscription upon the Porta de' Borsari, at Verona, we learn that this 
gate was erected 265' A. D. It has two portals with two galleries above. 
Similar and of the same age is the Porte d'Arroux, at Autun, France {pi. 
10, fig. 2). Germany has an example of a huge sepulchre in the Tomb 
of the Secundines {fig* i), at Igel, near Treves; it is 20 metres (65^ feet) 
high. The fine triumphal Arch of the Sergii, at Pola, the amphitheatre 
there, and that at Verona, as well as the theatre at Aspendos, in Pam- 
phylia — which is still preserved almost entire — perhaps belong also to the 
third century. 



90 ARCHITECTURE. [Thb Romans. 

Period of the Decline. — At Rome may be seen the remains of an Arch 
of Gallienus (260-268), the rough workmanship of which, as well as the 
remarkable degradation of its details, may be noted. The age of Rome's 
splendor was over; her authority had begim to weaken. Ever since the time 
when the Gauls had threatened the Capitol, and since Marius, in the year 
102 B. c, had conquered the Cimbri and the Teutones, there had been no 
serious danger that the city would have to defend herself against any 
foreign enemy. In the second half of the third century Rome again found 
her ramparts useful, and Aurelian in 270 A. D. built a new fortification, 
the Germanic people having already attained such importance that Rome 
had to negotiate with them, and assigned them certain lands. Aurelian's 
great work, though it did not stay the fall of Rome, has withstood the 
wear of ages, and it still exists (//. 9, fig. 6). 

The Temple of the Sun at Rome {fig. 5) is also Aurelian's work. 
Though the Greek temple entirely supplanted the Etruscan, yet the 
memor>' of the latter retained some vitality even in the midst of relics of 
ancient Rome that had come down from the days of the Empire, and his- 
toric traditions clustered around these oldest designs and hallowed them; 
so that Sulla rebuilt the CapitoHne Temple in antique Etruscan form, 
though perhaps with Greek details, and in many other temples the 
ground-plan remained more or less Etruscan. Thus, Aurelian's Temple 
of the Sun has a cella that is less oblong than the Grecian, and the inner 
colonnades which surround it on all sides support a gallery. The temple 
is entirely closed in the rear, and colonnades are attached to it on three 
sides only, while the character of the principal facade exhibits the Greek 
system, like the temple at Athens and other buildings. 

Temple of the Sun at Palmyra. — The more Rome declined, the more 
the East grew in importance; and in the course of the third century we 
find a series of buildings in Asia which degenerate more and more into 
eccentricity or into caprice and irregularity. Palmyra, an oasis in the 
Syrian desert, has a number of monuments. The principal is the Temple 
of the Sun, a Corinthian peripteros the capitals of whose columns had 
thin bronze plates attached; it was enclosed by a court the entrance to 
which was formed by the building shown on Plate 11 {figs. 5, 6). We 
also find here quadniple colonnades which, broken by portals and tri- 
umphal arches, extend from it along the principal streets of the city. The 
gate {pL 12, fig. 8; pi. 11^ fig. 7) forms the entrance. 

Ruins of Baal bee: The Great Temple. — We doubt whether a more 
extensive collection of ruins can be found than at Baalbec {pL i2y figs. 3- 
6). Here also the principal edifice is a Temple of the Sun, the florid st>'le 
of whose details is shown on Plate 10 {figs. 9, 10). The Great Temple 
consists of four large divisions, situated on a spacious platform of a 
total length of 1 100 feet. Behind a propylon a magnificent flight of steps 
conducts to a columned entrance-portico; the second division is a hexag- 
onal structure enclosing a large open court surrounded by pillars; entering 
through a grand portal, the third division is an immense quadrangular 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 91 

open court surrounded on three sides by columns; and in the rear or 
fourth division is the Temple of Baal, a peripteral temple with ten Corin- 
thian columns in front and rear line, and nineteen on each side. 

Temple of the Sun. — By the side of the Great Temple stands the 
Temple of the Sun, a peripteros of two rows of eight columns in front, 
one row in the rear, and fifteen columns on each side. The temple is 
believed to be a work of Antoninus Pius, but the fore-court and the 
adjoining buildings belong to the close of the third century. Figure 8 
(//. 11) shows a portion of the coffered ceiling which adorns the peristyle 
of the temple. The extreme degeneration and caprice which these 
edifices had reached are shown in the circular temple on Plate 12 

(/^- 7)- 

The Temple of Virtus et Honos at Rome (now the Church of S. Ur- 

bano) belongs to the third century. It has a four-columned portico, and 

a high, heavy-looking attic above the entablature. 

Works of Diocletian: Baths. — At the beginning of the fourth century 
Diocletian erected those immense thermce which in extent and magnif- 
icence surpassed those of Caracalla. The principal hall, converted by 
Michelangelo into a church, exists still in Sta. Maria degli Angeli. It 
is similar to the frigidaritnn shown in Figure 2, but is roofed with 
three great transverse vaults that spring from the entablature of the eight 
columns, which entablature serves also to support groups of statues. The 
eight shafts are monoliths of Oriental granite. Two circular structures, 
one of which is now the Church of S. Bernardino dei Termini, likewise 
belonged to these thennae. 

Pompeys Pillar. — The so-called ''Pompey's Pillar" at Alexandria 
was set up in 302 A. D. by the Diocletian prefect Pompeius. It stands on a 
mound of earth about 40 feet high, and has a height of 98 feet 9 inches. 
The shaft consists of a single piece of red granite, and is 73 feet long and 
29 feet 8 inches in circumference. The capital is Corinthian, 9 feet high; 
the pedestal is a square of about 15 feet on each side, and bears a Greek 
inscription in honor of the emperor Diocletian. 

Diocletian^ s Palace. — When Diocletian retired from power, in 305 
A. D., he erected at Spalato, in Dalmatia, a magnificent palace which still 
remains an object of wonder. It is a rectangle of 630 feet by 510 feet. 
The end facing the sea contains the emperor's apartments, which open 
to the sea by a portico, and upon the opposite end is the grand entrance, 
or Porta Aurea. Two intersecting streets divide the interior into four 
sections. The colonnades which lead to the vestibule of the residence 
have no architrave, but semicircular arches spring from column to 
column. (See Vol. II. pi. 31.) 

Connected with Diocletian's palace was a domical temple dedicated to 
Jupiter, of which a cross-section is given in Figure 10 (//. 11). Another 
temple, that of .Esculapius, is a four-columned prostylos. The details, 
especially the profile of the cornice, are completely barbarous, yet the 
entire design is original and suggests mighty energ}\ 



92 ARCHITECTURE. [Thr k.»mans. 

Circus of MiixcPiiius, — The architecture of Rome itself was less fan- 
tastic. The Circus of Maxentius (303-312), near the Via Appia, is an 
elonj^ated structure in the centre of which stands a straight parajx^t wall 
around which the contestants drove, and the two ends of which were 
marked by a terminal pilhir. One of the short sides is a semicircle, and 
here, under the seats, is the richly-decorated Porta Trinmphalis. The 
other short side, through which the contestants entered, was shut in by a 
segmental edifice which contained stables and rooms for the chariots. 
Around rose seats in amphitheatral fashion, with the place of honor fur 
the emperor and his suite on one of the longer sides. 

The liasiliia of I\uict\ built in the place of one constructed by Ves- 
pasian and burned in the time of Commodus, was also the work of this 
emperor. Like the principal room of Diocletian's Baths, it was roofed 
with three transverse vaults which sprang from massive columns (//. 11, 
y?C. 9). A terrace surrounded the structure. 

Ancient heathen culture had taken its last flight. Its inward truth 
and moral earnestness had long since expired; now its outward steadfast- 
ness Ix'gan also to fail. Caprice Ix^came the only law; and the more this 
caprice made itself felt in progressing eastward, and the more it impressed 
itself upon the groundwork of the ancient voluptuousness and luxur\*, the 
more extravagant it became. There are, in fact, in Asia other works which 
surpass both those of Baalbec and those of Palmyra in eccentricity; such are 
all the temples, theatres, triumphal arches, buildings, and tombs at Petra, 
in Arabia, most of which are hewn out of the nx:k. Pilasters and columns 
are placed in the strangest positions, parts of buildings arc toni away from 
one another, and we even find a round, tower-like stnicture set between 
the two parts of a broken i>ediment. The capitals have lost their classic 
form; they are mere blocks the projections of which simulate the form of 
capitals. Remains which are of this late age, and ujwn which we obser\e 
winding flutes, may also be seen at Kandahar, in Persia, and at Aphrodis- 
ias, in Caria. 

Works of Constantinc^ s Time. — The buildings in Treves which date 
back to the time of Constantinc are at once more earnest and simple in 
style. Among these must first be mentione<l the great l)asilica, which has 
two rows of large windows, one over the other, and pilasters both inside 
and out. It is an oblong hall 73 metres (240 feet) by 27.8 metres (91 feet), 
with a .semicircular tribune at one end; it was restored in 1846, and in 
1S56 was consecrated as a Protestant church. The remains of an amphi- 
theatre and of an imjKrial palace — in connection with which we may also 
mention the remains of certain villas at Pliessem and Xennig — must not 
be forgotten. Quite similar to the Basilica of Treves, but smaller, is 
that of Pergamum, in Mysia, which still exists as the Church of St. John, 
and which shows that there were present inner and outer columned por- 
ticoes, of which that at Treves affords no traces. To the time of Con- 
stantinc also belongs the tolerably well-prcser\'ed theatre at Orange, 
France. 



The Romans.] CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE. 93 

Among Constantine's buildings at Rome is the arch which bears his 
name {pL 10, Jig, 4), and which, as already stated (p. 86 ), was composed 
of fragments of the Arch of Trajan, and also borrowed its entire design 
from the same source. A four-sided Arch of Janus, rebuilt by Con- 
stantine, on the Forum Boarium, was hastily and defectively constructed 
from fragments of the older one. Similar imperfection is exhibited in 
the remains of the Ionic Temple of Concord on the Forum Romanum, 
whose columns are composed of various fragments and have differently- 
shaped bases. 

Although the materials of more ancient works were utilized, yet even 
at that time Rome undoubtedly presented a spectacle of the greatest 
splendor, far surpassing the seats of ancient Oriental culture. But 
her day was over. Constantine transferred his capital to Byzantium 
(330 A. D.), which he sumptuously rebuilt and named after himself The 
Constantinople of to-day contains no monument of its founder* s time, 
and histor>' gives us no clear picture of the city. With the removal 
of the capital Rome's period of architectural activity closed, and, though 
she still remained the world's centre, her power was lost, and the exten- 
sive destniction of the grand old monuments then soon commenced, 
being partly carried on by barbarians who destroyed for destruction's 
sake, and partly by other barbarians who used the fragments of the 
ancient structures for new purposes. 

3. Application of Color to Architecture. 

Polychromy is the term applied in the history of art to the ornamenta- 
tion of sculptured and architectural works by means of varied colors. In 
buildings these colors were made to cover both flat spaces and archi- 
tectural details, while in statues or individual portions of the human fig- 
ure and of drapery, and in other products of plastic art, separate features 
of a sculptured ornament were colored in a manner characteristic of the 
subject 

Egyptian. — As regards Architecture more particularly, we find Egyp- 
tian monuments of oldest date covered both on wide wall-spaces and on 
separate details, such as columns, capitals, bases, cornices, etc., with 
extensive series of highly-colored designs in low relief consisting in the 
main of figures and hieroglyphs, and often with purely decorative orna- 
mentation. 

Assyrian and Babylonian palaces and temples were similarly orna- 
mented, the effect, however, being produced by the use of colored bricks 
whose surface was protected by glazing. The interiors of these buildings 
were likewise ornamented, together with the further addition of wall- 
paintings and the coloring of ornamental details. 

Phoenician Architecture employed for the same purpose metallic cover- 
ings, sometimes of the precious metals — a practice evidently derived from 
Mesopotamia. From this source also may be traced a similar use of bright 



94 ARCHITECTURE. 

metals as applied by the Greeks of the Heroic Age, who learned the art 
from Oriental examples. 

Grecian. — In Greek architecture a complete system of coloring had 
been developed at an early period, particularly as applied to Doric tem- 
ples, upon numerous remains of which traces of this coloring are still dis- 
tinguishable. These traces are most clearly manifest upon friezes, where 
the triglyphs are generally colored blue, the gutter^ above and below, 
gilded, the mcUypcs red, the cornice, which was often ornamented with 
foliated tracery, being variously colored, usually blue, red, gold, an<l 
green. The decorations of the pediments also show clear remains of 
color, the background being usually either blue or red; and the same 
is true of the capitals of columns. We are left more in uncertainty 
regarding the exterior halls of the cella, whose interiors, according 
to the distinct statements of ancient authorities, were extensively orna- 
mented with large historical wall-paintings. The same uncertainty exists 
regarding the architrave, upon which gilded shields or other metallic 
ornaments were often applied, and also regarding the shafts of columns. 
In general, it is sufficiently established that polychrome ornamentation 
was widely prevalent in early Greek architecture, and that coloring was 
practised upon all portions of temple-structures, including not only such 
as were built of tufa or brick, but also buildings of marble. (See 
Froutispiece. ) 

Roman. — In Roman architecture the extensive application of sculp- 
tured ornament even upon the smallest details, such as we find on the 
capitals of Corinthian columns in Greek temples, had displaced colored 
decoration — ^at least, upon exteriors; but wherever stucco was used as a 
covering of walls, ceilings, columns, and pillars — thus, especially, on the 
exteriors of thermae, palaces, and private residences — polychrome orna- 
ment again finds application. Closely connected with this phase of the 
subject is the employment of large brilliantly-colored mosaics for floors, 
a practice which in the declining period of Grecian art obtained exten- 
sively in Alexandria and Pergamum, and which was later introduced at 
Rome. This practice, however, was not confined to these centres of cul- 
ture, but extended throughout the ancient world, as is evidenced by 
numerous remains. It found various applications, and in time came to be 
utilized for the ornamentation of walls, columns, and other interior fea- 
tures. This was succeeded by the introduction of Mural Decoration, in 
the modem sense of the term, by paintings and colored windows, the sub- 
jects of which, often ver>' mechanically executed, consisted mainly of 
symbolical and other fanciful compositions. 




ul)7i 



'■M' 







I. CrDii-iCClion i>t ihi- 1 
irc-oiurt iif till- IVmi'lv at I 
iL- Teni|ili.- .It i:-ni-li. 



11.1 of Chmii.. 2. lyami'U cif CTii'wp.. cTio].hic!i, ai> I Min 
I1.in of ihr 'l.:m|<lv uf Khi>n> at Kinuk. 6. Kclicf h:ni 11 




itOiu-h 3-5 Rock Temple at Ipromboul: 3, Facade; 4, Ixtngiludiiul section 1 5. 'Ian. 6. Han of the 
imLnl rruni 1 cornice of Ihe Great Temple nl Iliila;. lo. Capital of a column at Tl)i:liv«. 11. Kdicf frunt 



KCVI'TIAX 




. I...tu.-..iiMl..]. >.rihi-(jr<.'.u 1,1 



temlcnh. i. MmI i 
it K^rnak. 8. Capiijl 



1 rhiLc. 9, Cjl)-x-:.ipillll lT»i 




real Temple nl Philx. 4. Small temple on the ulantl or Elephnntitit. 5. Loius-capiul fmrn Beni'Hissan. 
,k. to. Cniiiul from a temple u Dentletah. 11. Palm-capital from Esneh. 13. Normnl-joJnletl comer and 




I liifii I till i.f Xi-ntts-ii riT^;.li(, i. Ficade i>r thf roek-inmh ..f Dariuiu Peraqjoli*. 3. Tom^i ■■< Tj 
il lii i>r Xvrxct. S. Wini;vrl l.iul. ]■ tr.:,',l\);uri: at Khnn.iliid, <), to, DuUiI* of cajiilil ami Kii« of 1 c>iiumii .1: V- 
I'.il.iiiiii ]l.iir'.-it lv..<-i»]i<. 13. lVr.i.iii |<:aiti .onjw-iu -'• Trve .<f Life" 



Platb 3. 




ia. 4. Ruins of the Propylsw of the Great Hall of Xerxes at Pereepolis. 5-7. Persian column! from the Great 
Side-portal of the " HuDdred-column Hall " al Persepotia. 13. Sculptured relief in the portal of the " Hundred- 



PKi,.\s<;iA> 








1-3, 1.1',-n inciii.imhi: 1. It ic'i Tnni'<> a! Myn, A*u Minor; 1. F.ieideor a mek>lamh a; Myn; 3, Fievi 
(>, P:i;.. 7, C: iiuiil'we. 8-10. I.1I1..111- ..f lM.i4gi.tn oni.i merit. 11 (i.ne uf the Lmn* .it M)iiriur, i..il.^ 



:ITECTURE. 



PlATE 4. 





Pm. 


Vw 


IKu 'lis?'"" 


~^*^X] 


linHb^MP^rjiiii 


Ksi" ' T 




att 



^- 




l5g^ 



m 



nb U TelmtiMW, Ask Minor. 4^7. Trewmyof Atreoi st Mykew^OrcecCi 4. Gntrsnce-door 1 5, CroM-teclinn 1 
n will M Hykeue. 13. Gate at Phigalia, Greece. 14. Gatv at Aiiiphi:»a (Salona), Greece, .rj. Pissagewny 



ETRUSCAN' 




L 1 








-./■<■"■ 
t i 


1 



1-3. Rock-ltmilM al Ctrvetri (rxrc), tialy. 4. Tomb of the lloratii and Curiatij U AHBiin, Italy, j. l'i>nil 
(accimling lo Viinivju<). 8. Uaie 31 Fikrii, luljr. 9. Culunin-l«je of the Cucumdia, atu Volci, li.iU. I 



ITECTURE. 



Plate 5. 




lorchia, Italy. 6. Facade of an Etruscan Temple (complete in all its details). 7. Facade of an Etruscan lemple 
the Tomlia de' niaitri at Cervetri, Italy. II. Column -capital of the Cucimella. 12. Pi liar- capital of the 



OREKK Al. 



4 — V 




lii iiRi r 



n 



i 



Maiji i iitiui i aauj'luu i i iii 



ST 



1 



>.r-r - 





n <if ihi' I'anhcnun al Alheni. a. hcmptadmal lection of the Puthraim. ]. Flan uf the IVmt'Ii; . 
at lU-s-i. iii-ar ]'lii|;.ili.i, (irL-ece. J. I'l.-in iif tlie Temiilc oT Tihciiloa m I'Mtum, luly . ti. I'l.in . 
1 ai Khaiiiii"-, tiii-rcLv II. Plan uf ihc I'TupfUk uD the Aminlii u Atheni. lA, I'TupyU-a with : 
I ErpitiniMi al Kluronce, Italy. 



iftSSt^ 




[ui. 4. Temple of Zcos at OtympU. 5. Hon of the Temple of Theseus at Athens. 6. Plan of the Temple 
on on Ihe Acropolis at Athena. 9. Plan of the Tower uf (he Winds at Athens, la Plan of a smalt Temple 
13. Sujqxtsed fafade of an old Grecian temple (according to Keber). 14. Temple-faeades, from the vase of 



(iRKKK Ai 




I. Roim nf Ihe Tcm|^tc of rpsriilon it nntiini, tialf. i. Rcstoniion of the Temple of Pnwi'I'-n .it I 
Sicily. 6. EnuUuurc fmrn llic Tein|iic uf Poncidon al PmluiiL 7. EtuabUiUTe from (he Temple uT Zeu. 11 



Plate 7. 




cnon at Atheiu. 4. Interior of the HjTKCthral Temple of Zeus at Olympia. 5. Temple of Zeos at Agrigentum, 
Ij. Entablature bom the Parthenon tU Athens, g. Entablature from the Temple of Dcineler ol Pxstum. 



Immc anh C"iu\TinAx Okdkks. 



(;ki;i:k a 








frrnnrrm 



i 


^ 


r 


r 


V ^'-^B 


1 


tMammm 




^ 

i: 

& 




I, 2. En-cUllniiin i-n tlic Actnpnli- m Atlii'n<. 3. Cim^-^wtion of ihc Erechtheion. 4, Innit ci)pi!.i1 fi"i 
«f ihu Eri;i:lillit.-ioii. 6. 1''.u-c.-r -I tliv WiiiiU at Al>ivn<. 7. llnuliUlun: aii.l C^iriiilhian C.i)>iIaI ..( iIil- I iw i 
10. t"h.ir;mk- Monimifiil nf l,y-ikr,ili- [l^nu-m ..f DviiKMtii.-nc-'l lU Alheni. tl. EnlaMAluru h.-m i'.' .u .1 
Ti'uiliic uf I'Alb-i Aihi^iu ai I'ri.-iitr iC.uiai, A^ia Mimii. IJ. KuliateJ (Uvinitiian) u]>iLil fi»ui [he Iliu) ;>. ' 




naos of the Erechtheion. 5. EDtablatnre,wilh caryatides, from the portico of the Hall of ihe Nymph Pandrosos 
8. Chonigic Monument of Thrasyllos at Athens. 9. Entablature from the chorogic Monument of Thrasyllos. 
if Lyiiikrates. 11, 13. Ca|iitals from Bass.^, near Phigalia, Greece. 14. Entablature aod Ionic capital fmtn the 
aos at MileioB, Asia Minor. t6. Capital from the Great Templu at EJcusis, Greece. 




%N 1 P»^ 


^N^ 




i> 





I. r.-tnh."ti .It lioiro. :. Crn- iccri.T of ihc I'-inlhcnn. .1. Rtlin* rif ihc Tcmi.Ir ff /. i:- .i! A-(-..-; 
Aurili-iii .11 l;..iiiv. 7, Tun. r.il.iici-.i- .11 U.im.-- S. Stri'it ..f T.rtlil^ .« l-..miw:ii. •). I'.-nU- .!.!:.. Il ' . I 



Plaih 9. 




f the Temple of Zeus at Athens. 5. Rcstorotitm of the Temple of Ibe Sun at Rome. 6. City-wall liuili by 
jLihict neai' Vulci, Italy. 10. Romau aqueduct at Segovia, Spain. 11. Vona Nigru at Treves, rrus^a. 




liiBi;!\!ii 



Svi^e^gE 






■C^>/.»f 




I. Monument or the Secundini si I|^l, near TTCvet, IVnuu. a. Pofle d'Anoat : Roman ri(y-|;nir » .\' 
H wen from the t>>|ui1tnc, « Rome. 6. Original architecture o( the Callicnm u Rome. 7. 1j>ni;iiU'1in 
9, la Enublatuies and capitals of the Temple of the Sun bI Bulbec (llcliopolii), Sjria. 11 Kiit«lilaiurc 1 





^iMBmJaL 



•T 1 — -r T 



^..: 



x^ 






J. fi. -. 



TJ 



11 J I] 



rr 



v^ji 



3. Triumphal Arch of Sep m us Sevcru Rome 4 Tnumph I A h of C niaan ne a Rome 5 Col leum 
he Cosa (li Camp one a Pompc 8 Lnlabiu c and p f m pon 00 he P nheon a Rome 

le Temple of Jupiter Stator at Rume. 



ROMAN A 




1 ^ 




.^ 


N»^ 




M 


ffIT 


W 




M |H 






1 


a 


1 


■#¥=* ' , ,'rr',-'.-T 





I. Kuint of the Temple of Ve<l« at Tivoli, lUly. 3. MaMoleam nf IladrUn U Rome. J. Tnian'> C.li 
Iniuif. <;.i|iji.il, anil bate ^^lm ihe Tcni)>lc of the Sun at Talmyn. 7. Cijiiial uid cauLUtuic frnm ihv ciic li 
9. Ilj>iliM uf Peue lijr Maxentiui ai Kiime. lo. Crou-MCIioB uf Ihe eircniir Temple of Jupiler in Diuclriuii 




4. Column of Harem Aurtlius at Rome. S. Portal of the Temple of the Sun at Palmyra Syna 6 Entab- 
retnple of the Sud at TUmynu 8. Coffered ceiling of the Temple of the San at Baalbec (Heliopolit) Sjna. 



<c 




l.i UvlKnf Cincilli V R.>n 



I. Prescnl conilitinn of ihe Frieitlaiiuro ; J, Kt-iliiraiiim nf th.- !'t;^. lir 



ECTURE. 




> Vionet-le-Duc). 3-6. Ruint at Boolhoc (Ileliopolis), Syria. 7. Circular Temple at BatUtwc. 8. Gate leading 



PART II. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN, MEDIEVAL, AND 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. 



PART II. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN, MEDIEVAL, AND 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. 



I. EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 

WITH the accession of Constantine new demands were made upon 
Architecture; he had embraced Christianity, and edifices for pub- 
lic worship were to be constructed. As the Christian church is the 
meeting-place for a great assembly, the temple furnished no model for it. 
The congregations were compelled to use existing assembly-halls, and 
the basilicas supplied both the model and the name for the structures 
which were dedicated to the King of kings. Even before this time 
Christianity had its places of worship; it had not always been persecuted 
during the three hundred years of its existence, and in the days of 
persecution hidden places were made to serve as asylums and assembly- 
rooms. 

There still remain at Rome and at other cities the catacombs, which 
served as cemeteries and places of refuge, and also for the service of 
the proscribed worship. But, although tolerated for a long time, Chris- 
tianity had no tendency toward display, nor did the greater part of the 
new communities possess the means with which to erect large buildings; 
they assembled in the houses of well-to-do members, and only excep- 
tionally in structures erected for the purpose, which were modelled 
after the reception-halls, and partly, perhaps, after the basilicas. (See 
Vol. 11. p. 327; Vol. III. p. 87.) 

Early Christian Churches, — It is doubtful whether any Christian 
place of assembly built prior to the time of Constantine is now extant. 
At Omm-es-Zeitun, in Central Syria, there is a chapel which bears 
the date 282 A. d. ; probably this building, as well as certain others, is 
really Christian and dates from the time of the inscription. A small 
chapel at Chagga, in the same country, may also belong to the third 
centurj'. 

Basilicas: The Sessoriana. — Constan tine's churches are of the first 
importance. At Rome he built the Basilica Sessoriana, which, in 
honor of the Cross of Christ found by the Empress Helena, was erected 
in a previously-existing structure, the so-called Sessorium. After an 
alteration in the twelfth century the building was entirely modernized 
in 1743; yet critical examinations of the church bearing the name of Sta. 

Vol. IV.— r »7 



PART II. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN, MEDIEVAL, AND 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. 



I. EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 

WITH the accession of Constantine new demands were made upon 
Architecture; he had embraced Christianity, and edifices for pub- 
lic worship were to be constructed. As the Christian church is the 
meeting-place for a great assembly, the temple furnished no model for it. 
The congregations were compelled to use existing assembly-halls, and 
the basilicas supplied both the model and the name for the structures 
which were dedicated to the King of kings. Even before this time 
Christianity had its places of worship; it had not always been persecuted 
during the three hundred years of its existence, and in the days of 
persecution hidden places were made to serve as asylums and assembly- 
rooms. 

There still remain at Rome and at other cities the catacombs, which 
served as cemeteries and places of refuge, and also for the service of 
the proscribed worship. But, although tolerated for a long time, Chris- 
tianity had no tendency toward display, nor did the greater part of the 
new communities possess the means with which to erect large buildings; 
they assembled in the houses of well-to-do members, and only excep- 
tionally in structures erected for the purpose, which were modelled 
after the reception-halls, and partly, perhaps, after the basilicas. (See 
Vol. II. p. 327; Vol. III. p. 87.) 

Early Christian Churches, — It is doubtful whether any Christian 
place of assembly built prior to the time of Constantine is now extant. 
At Omm-es-Zeitun, in Central Syria, there is a chapel which bears 
the date 282 A. d. ; probably this building, as well as certain others, is 
really Christian and dates from the time of the inscription. A small 
chapel at Chagga, in the same country, may also belong to the third 
centurj'. 

Basilicas: The Sessoriana, — Constan tine's churches are of the first 
importance. At Rome he built the Basilica Sessoriana, which, in 
honor of the Cross of Christ found by the Empress Helena, was erected 
in a previously-existing structure, the so-called Sessorium. After an 
alteration in the twelfth century the building was entirely modernized 
in 1743; yet critical examinations of the church bearing the name of Sta. 

Vol. IV.— r »7 



9S ARCHITECTURE. 

Crocc ill Gfrusaleminc eiiiiWt.' lis to disttiij^iiisli the pre-Christian parts 
of the biiil'iiii;; from thosf of Constantiuc's period. 

liasilkiii of Si. Piter and St. John Laliian. — Two iiiaKiiificciit Ixisij- 
icas, those of St. IVier on the \'aticaii and Si. John Lateran, were built 
as witnesses of the trininph ol" Christianity — that of St. Pcl(;r, upon the 
foundation-walls of Nero's eirt-ns. the place of the .saint's martyrdom. It 
stood until 1,506, when it was removed to make way for the new Cathedral, 
hilt not until correct I'lans had been made which show it to have been a 
columned basilica of four aisles and a nave, with a f^reat cross-nave, or 
transept, and a simjde ajjse. A colonnade shut off the ap.se from the 
transept; a rectan{;ular fwrc-court was surrounded by a jxjrtico. Various 
outbuildinj^s which existed at the time of the demolition apjjear also to 
have belonged to that early date. The nave was separated from the aisles 
by two ranges of twenty-three Corinthian columns, alwve which stretched 
a complete entablature bcariufi the upper walls, wliicli were more than 
20 metres (65 "j feet) high and in their upper jiortion were broken with 
windows and decorated with rich mosaic. The inner and outer .side-aisles 
were divided by a row of columns which .stood on stylobatcs and were 
connected by arches. St. John Lateran was rebuilt in the ninth cen- 
tury, and later entirely modernised {pi. \.\,Ji_^. i), so that its fonner plan 
can only be guessed at; yet it is prolwbly .similar to the church rebuilt 
in the ninth century. 

Othi'r BasiliiTiis. — The small Basilica Pudentiana at Rome belongs 
principally to the ajje of Coiistantine. That emperor also erected many 
churches in the East, particularly a basilica at Jeni.salem above the Holy 
Sepulchre, upon the site of which Hadrian had built a Temple of Venus. 
This basilica had a nave and four aisle.s, with an aisle around the apse; a 
columned court stood before the entrance. Fij^ures 8 to 10 { />!. 13) 
show the various alterations which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre has 
passed through. The basilica with a nave and four aisles which Con- 
stantiue built at Bethlehem in honor of the Blessed Virgin is still tolerably 
well preserved; in this twelve columns connected by an architrave separate 
the aisles. Nothing is left of the basilica built by Constantine at Tyre. 

Domical Clmniifs. — The basilica was, however, not the only model 
for the Christian church: already the two small Syrian chapels before 
mentioned (p. 97), built before Constantine's time, had adopted the 
ancient (.)riental dome, and it was evidently in olx^diencc to some local 
tradition that Constantine btiilt at .\nti<H-li the octagonal church which 
was long ago destroyed. Another domical church of this date is St. 
{".eorge at Salonica (Tlicssalonica', and the church erected at Ncocrc.s.-'.Te.i 
by the father of St. Grcgorj- Nazianzcn WiLs an octangular d<>nit*.'.(! 
s'.nicturc. 

Cliiirch of Sta. Sophia. — Constantine also built Chri.nian churches at 
his new residence, Constantinople — among tlicni, that of Sta, !>ophi.~. 
about which all wc know is that it was oblong, that it wa.i considcrahK* 
enlarged about the middle of the fourth cen;ur\\ that at the beginning of 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 99 

the fifth centuty its roof was burned, that it was then covered with a 
vaulted roof, and that in the sixth century it gave place to the present 
Church of Sta. Sophia (//. ^S^/igs. 6-8). As his burial-place the emperor 
built the cross-shaped Church of the Holy Apostles, the rich gilded ceil- 
ing of which was famous. This was also renovated in the sixth century. 

Churches 0/ North Africa. — Many remains of churches still exist in 
North Africa, as the Basilica of St. Reparatus, at Orl^ansville, built 326 
A. D. Though only 15 metres (49 feet) in total width, it had a nave and 
four aisles, with galleries above the aisles; the aisles are separated by piers 
instead of columns. Similar is a small basilica at Tefaced. 

Archiieciure of Central Syria. — A series of interesting monuments in 
Central Syria give us an idea both of the architectural activity and of the 
ordinary life of that period wherever Christianity had become the state 
religion. In this region classical elements were combined with Asiatic 
traditions; whence we may conclude that a very ancient traditional man- 
ner of building existed here and formed the model of the works which 
«till exist in tolerably good preservation. These buildings serve to explain 
many older ones, and may help to show us how in the Alexandrian build- 
ings the vault was combined with the Greek secular structure. 

Vaulted Construction. — We have, especially so far as private dwellings 
are concerned, a local school before us, but, since this arose from the needs 
of the climate and the habits of life of a people, it probably retained its 
character through all ages; and thus these structures give us a right to 
judge of what seem similar forms in earlier periods, and particularly to 
glance back upon the vaulted construction, the domes and terraces, of the 
ancient Asiatic peoples. But the local tradition had not sufficient vitality 
to preserve itself from the influences of cosmopolitan culture, and, again, 
it offered, in connection with an extended circle of local schools, more or 
less closely related elements which were acceptable to the universal 
classical culture, and after having been appropriated by the latter in Asia 
were dispersed everywhere. 

If we assume that the Greeks were acquainted with the art of vaulted 
construction as far back as the time of the development of the Greek 
liabit of thought from the Pelasgian and that they used it for secular 
purposes, and if we admit that in the time of Alexander it was ver>' 
extensively employed, we are quite justified in calling this a transfer of 
local Asiatic elements to the classical cosmopolitan culture. These ele- 
ments had gained so much ground that even in the timesof which we here 
treat we are forced to recognize in them somethipg more than mere local 
tradition, and must regard the cupolas and other vaults with much the 
same sentiments as if we met with them in any other district of the 
wide Roman Empire. 

Syrian Tombs. — The first works of this age which in this region 
present themselves for consideration are a series of tombs, part of 
which, dating from the second centurj', the third, and the beginning 
of the fourth, are those of pagans; the latest of these dates from 324 



lOO ARCHITECTURE. 

A. D. From this time forward Christianity supplanted heathenism in 
the district, and Christian emblems show upon the facades of the 
tombs. 

Syrian Cities. — If we go from these mortuary abodes into the cities 
of the living — which in those parts of the world are as well preserved 
as though the inhabitants had just left them, even though these cities 
too have passed away — wc meet with streets laid out as they are to-day, 
and perhaps as they have been for many thousand years in the East, 
narrow and crooked, and shut in by the houses whose bald outer walls 
are pierced only by the entrance-door. This door gives access to an 
oblong quadrangular court which on one or two sides is enclosed by 
superposed arcades, with which the other rooms communicate, just as 
the houses are now built in Syria, where porticoes are placed in front 
to keep the hot rays of the sun from the living-rooms at the rear. 
Balustrades with stone slabs bound the upper arcade between the columns. 
We find no clianges in the plan to aid us in fixing the date. The several 
centuries during which this mode of building was practised can be deter- 
mined only tlirough the details; yet inscriptions and Christian emblems 
infonn us that these buildings may be referred to the time of Constantine 
and his successors. In 331 there lived in Nefadi a Christian named 
Thalasis who when he had built for himself a house wrote his creed over 
the door. 

Construction. — Among these well-preser\'ed groups of buildings two- 
quite different schools may be distinguished. The most southern of 
these is located in the Hauran, where there is no timber; here the struc- 
tures are roofed in the most original manner with arches which cross the 
room diagonally, the spaces between them being ceiled with stone beams 
whose span is diminished by corbels. Both secular buildings and Chris- 
tian churches are roofed in this wise, as the basilica at Tafkha, the two 
churches at Qunawdt, and the five-aisled basilica at Sueideh, which has 
porticoes with mouldings, a three-aisled choir, a principal apse, and two 
lateral apses. These latter are somewhat richer and more recent, and 
were erected under the influence of the completed basilica style. The 
northern of the two groups alluded to, in which a richer display of details 
is the consequence of more favorable materials, consists of columned 
basilicas of the fourth and fifth centuries at Kherbet-Hass and El-Barah, 
which are also to be noted for the rich details of their exteriors. 

Churches of the Fourth Century. — We will now return to some slightly- 
later plans, that we may consider and properly appreciate these in con- 
nection with other interesting efforts in church-architecture. Therefore 
we will now trace the development of other regions. 

In Germany, Treves was one of the earliest seats of Christianity, and 
the plan of its cathedral is ascribed to St Helena, the mother of Con- 
stantine. 

The Tomb of St. Helena in the Campag^a, about two miles outside 
Rome, is a circular domed structure having in its walls eight niches 



■IfalL. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. loi 

above which are eight windows; it is now known as the Torre Pig- 
nattara, from the pignaitey or amphorae, built into the concrete dome to 
lighten it. 

The Tomb of Sta, CostansUy Constantine's daughter, built about the 
middle of the fourth century, is a circular building in the interior of 
which are twelve coupled columns bearing entablatures and connected by 
semicircular arches. Above these rises a superstructure pierced by win- 
•dows; it has a domed ceiling, and the circular surrounding aisle, or ambu- 
latory, has a tunnel-vault and niches in the wall. 

Near the Lateran Basilica exists an octangular baptistery in which an 
interior range of columns separates the higher central space from the 
lower circular aisle. The columns, taken from older structures, have 
porphyry shafts with Ionic and Corinthian capitals united by an architrave, 
above which rises a second shorter range of columns. The central part 
is covered by a dome {pi. 15, fig. 9). 

Sta. Maria Maggiore at Rome, a grand basilica with a nave and two 
aisles, is a work of the fourth century; it was built by Pope Liberius 
{352-366). The upper wall of the nave is borne by Ionic columns and 
architraves. 

►S". Paolo fuori le Mura (St. Paul's outside- the-walls) was built in 
386 at Rome by Theodosius (345-395), the last real emperor and a strong 
supporter of the Church. This edifice was completed 400 A. D., and, with 
the exception of the ceiling, existed until 1823, when it was burned, but 
has since been rebuilt. The modem basilica is in shape similar to the 
older edifice, of which in other respects it is but an erroneous imitation. 
Figures 2 and 3 {pi. 14) give an interior view and ground-plan, the former 
according to Hiibsch's restoration. 

Sta. Maria Rotondo at Nocera de' Pagani belongs to the close of the 
fourth century; it is circular, with a double row of columns, and serves 
as a baptistery. The dome rests immediately on the columns without an 
intervening ring of walling. 

San Lorenzo at Milan is another building of the close of the fourth 
•century, when that city was the imperial residence. In the sixteenth 
century this church was rebuilt; yet its ground-plan {pi. 15, fig* 11) and 
previous architecture can be made out. 

The Fall of Rome. — ^We must now speak of political history, which in 
the course of a century entirely changed the stage upon which the devel- 
opment of art proceeded. Theodosius at his death, in 395, divided his 
empire into an Eastern and a Western. The seat of the latter was in 404 
removed from Milan to Ravenna. In 408 the Visigoth Alaric stormed and 
plundered Rome; in 455 it was again sacked by the Vandals under Gen- 
seric, and in 473 by the Visigoth Ricimer, who as Roman marshal had 
made and unmade several emperors. Odoacer, King of the Heruli, in 476 
removed the last shadow of an emperor, Romulus Augtistulus. The 
Western empire had ceased to be; the German barbarians had parcelled it 
among themselves. Rome itself, a heap of ruins, its political importance 



I02 ARCHITECTURE. 

lost, remained only the metropolis of the Church. Among the barbarians 
who spread themselves over Italy the Ostrogoths had won the chief place, 
and in 493 they made Ravenna their capital. 

Churches of the Fifth Century. — Whatever Italian buildings were 
executed in the fifth centur>' belong almost exclusively to ecclesiastical 
architecture. While Rome was plundered and its monuments overthrown, 
new churches were ever>'where set up through the zeal of the bishops. 
Early in the fifth centur>' Bishop Paulinus was active at Nola, in Cam* 
pania, and built, besides several small structures — monumental churches 
in honor of St. Felix — a large and fine basilica the wall of whose nave 
was carried upon an arcade. The nave had a flat panelled ceiling, and in 
the aisles were separate chapels. A transept with a principal and two side 
apses fonned the east end. A baptister>' and some other buildings were 
connected with the basilica; so that the whole group, according to Pauli- 
nus*s own saying, looked like a little city. The richly-painted decora- 
tion which the poet Paulinus gave to his building, together with a wealth 
of poetical inscriptions, has been preserved to us in his letters and poems. 

The Cathedral of Ravenna, first built at the beginning of the fifth 
century, is a basilica with a nave and four aisles; it was completely 
remodelled in the eighteenth centur>'. The octangular Baptistery of 
S. Giovanni in Fonte still exists. Galla Placidia erected in 425 A. D. the 
Basilica of St. John the Evangelist. It has twenty-four antique marble 
columns, and its apse, though semicircular within, is polygonal exteriorly. 
The Church of the Holy Cross and the mortuary Chapel of Galla Placidia 
are both cnicifonn structures; the latter is still extant as SS. Nazario e 
Celso, in which church the arms have tunnel-vaults, while a cupola rises 
at the intersection. The rich, awe-inspiring wall-mosaics still exist. 
Two other basilicas at Ravenna — Sta. Agata, with one apse, and S. Fran- 
cesco, with three — also belong to this period. In S. Francesco the arches 
do not rest immediately on the capitals, but a cushion-shaped impost 
wider above than below is interposed between them. This is a reminis- 
cence of the sections of entablature which in older buildings supported 
the columns below the arches. 

The Basilica of Sta. Sabina on the Aventine at Rome was erected 
under Pope Celestinus (422-437); it has twenty-four Corinthian marble 
columns taken from older Roman edifices. S. Pietro in Vincoli was built 
under Pope Leo I. (440-462); it has twenty Doric white-marble columns. 
Somewhat later is S. Martino ai Monti, the twenty-four marble columns 
of which are imited by an architrave; underneath is an old Roman vaulted 
three-aisled cr>pt. The Basilica of St. John at Constantinople was built 
in 463 A. D. ; as in pagan basilicas, there is a galler>' over the aisles. Many 
Christian basilicas at Rome are thus arranged. 

Circular Churches, — Side by side with the basilica plan we have the 
circular one, principally used for smaller chapels and for subordinate 
structures set aside for some particular purpose, as baptisteries and mor- 
tuary chapels. The shape was also exceptionally employed in earlier 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE, 103 

pagan times, when there were special reasons for so doing, although we 
cannot now tell what these reasons were. Sometimes in an earlier period 
this form had been used for secular buildings, since the thermae and 
Diocletian's palace at Spalato enclosed such structures. These became 
more general now that the great churches were united with the bishop's 
palace, with the dwellings for the clergy, and with rooms for other secular 
purposes. The circular mortuary chapel is a reminiscence of the ancient 
tumulus and the mausoleum. In the fifth century, and still more in the 
sixth, the circular form and the central lantern obtained widespread 
application in Christian churches, both in the East and in the West, 
though we cannot always see the motive which inspired their use. 

5". Stefano Rotondo at Rome, built under Pope Simplicius (468-483), is 
a circular church of the largest dimensions; the ground-plan is given on 
Plate 15 {fig. 3). The middle circle of Ionic columns has an architrave 
and bears a wall which rises high above the roof of the aisle and is 
pierced with a circle of windows. In the surrounding system of columns 
eight radial rows of columns and arches describe the cross-shape, which is 
also visible externally. The clear diameter of the central circle, which is 
covered, not by a cupola, but by a wooden roof, is 22.8 metres (75 feet). 
Similar to this is S. Angelo at Perugia, whose lofty centre is borne on 
sixteen Corinthian columns, 

Syrian Churches: St, Simeon Stylites at Kalat-Seman, in Syria, is a 
work of the fifth century in which the circular and longitudinal forms are 
combined (//. 13,7?^. 11), and is said to be an exact copy of Constantine's 
Church of the Apostles. Four complete three-aisled basilicas terminate 
in an octangular centre, of whose former roof we know nothing certain, 
though it was probably of wood, if indeed it were not left open. The 
eastern arm particularly, which terminates in three apses, is a complete 
basilica. A smaller round church is that of Ezra, completed about 510 
A. D. {fig- 13); a larger example is the cathedral at Bostra {fig, 12), 
finished in 512 A. d. Both of these are in Syria, as is also the originally- 
designed small church at Moudjeleia {fig, 14). 

Structures of the Sixth Century: Works of Theodoric, — Great architec- 
tural activity prevailed at Ravenna, which in 493 became the spoil of the 
Ostrogoths. Theodoric the Great was deeply imbued with the spirit of 
classical culture, and, strongly impressed with the majesty of the ancient 
monuments, did what he could to protect and restore them to his king- 
dom. Not content with this, he longed to re-establish the splendor of the 
ancient Empire, and constructed in Ravenna a series of great buildings. 

Theodoric's Palace^ of which a small plain portion still remains, was a 
grandiose design decorated with splendid works of art. The church of 
this palace, now S. Apollinare Nuovo (originally S. Martino in Ccelo 
Aureo), is still well preserved. Its rich and exquisitely-designed mosaics 
are among the most magnificent and dignified works of Christian art. 
Twenty-four marble columns with capitals which show traces of the 
Corinthian style, and those imposts which are the reminiscences of the 



- ~*'m. 



ARCHITECTl 'R£L 



ciu'in:' *-r*-i-'v'L:rr* art rsrtcc b;^- arches and mppcn the upper walls 
'J '.UK i.i;v»: uLiil'- icrt pierord viih large irindows abcn-e the roof of 

i-i^t-i-iij*^-. TIk: OKtroigrdiii' irtrre Arians, and liis was ibcir principal 
TL*r:r ^T-cst-jpiJ cbrrch was S. Teodaro cc S. Spirilo, a smaller 

-'-<; r*f::cr « Lid wai iIm: Arian baptisien , now Sia. Maria in Cos- 






v; : 






7a> 7c^.'y •'/ 7^.<^:'ric. which be built dnring; his life and in which he 
vfcj "vj'i^r: :r. fiK.. it e drmliLr chapel whose 3ai dome is formed from a 
; -,>-•: v.'r.'c vf b-.^oc — ar imiiation of the massix'e blocks with which the 
^>rr:z;i^2^ 'jvvtred the brnai-chambers of their heroes. A row of colnmns 
^vrrvv:i'i*:C tht Ftructnre, which stc»od tipon a ]oft>* snbstmcmrc: containing 
v>«: 'rry.y/:^: Mrpujchre. hz^j^i flights of steps led np to the chapel. 

//^ ^ hitrch of S, I'uak at Ravenna was commenced in n26, the vcar 
•/. T''i^'A'jT'y:'h death. It was finished in 547, thon|:h the rule of the 
^Jx:^.r'r//.^}lh iiad ended in 54a It is an ociangnlar domical stmcttire with 
^ ••ii'j^.fr'j aible around it and a vanlted g-aller>- above the aisle 1^/, i>yir^. 
4 . J-L:/:;t en'-irmous piers, with their arches, bear the cnpola. The east- 
•^rj inVr-^'ol-iniEiaticin if lengthened into a chancel, while the other se\'en 
}xa\>' 'Irj::.'"- ];l:e those which in the thermae are set between the piers in 
•ri*- :/r:rr Tja' room comp. P/. 12, fij^. 2U and which are especially common 
:rj ' u- ' ar-.hitecture. The arran;jement is similar to that found in the 
Tv:::plt of Minerva Medica at Rome, except that here the half-domes 
v.ano ab'jv e a double series of arcades, which bear the ihmst of the vaull- 
i:y^ of V//n iipper Jind lower aisles. Jnlianns Ar^^nmtarins directed its con- 
^-.ruf.•tion. and also built, in 534, the great Basilica of S. Apollinare, in 
the buh^rh of Ciassis, finished in 54c). The exterior a«d a section of this 
lar;^evt of the Ravenna basilicas are jjiven on Plate 14 ( ^c^. 4, 5 1 

li'f'rks of Justinian. — A grand building-era opened in the war 527, 
M'lien ]-:«?*in:an ascended the throne of the East, The scene of greatest 
acti*. itv wa's Constantinople, where Justinian in this vear becan the con- 
ttraction of SS. Sergins and Bacchus \pL j>,, fic> 5V 

CliurJi of St a. S'phia, — One of the most magnificent architectural 
Mructures — ^wh(Fse spacious area, doubtless, is not equal to that of the 
;rre:it baFilicas of Rrme, but which in its design and in the grandeur of 
its jJiirts is arran,:::cd with such extraordinan' harmony that the majestic 
inipTcc«>.i'«n ]iu»d!iced b^ the interior is not surpassed bv anv other church 
— i*; Sta. SoT.hia a*. Constantinople, which as a movcue is still the chief 

• • • 

place of worsliii) of that city \nj:s, fv-Sl The church b;:ilt by Con- 
stantine iMre p. q^j) wa«i in 552, duriug a popular riot, dcIiN-ered to the 
flime^: and fortv days after^-ard the cmpon^r had laid the comer- 
Mone of a new edifice. Thousands of artisans toiled at the structure, 
which wa<i carried on under the direction of the architects Isidoros of 
Miletrjs and Anthemios of Tralles, fnuied for their abilities and for their 
:nechan!cal iiH phvsical knowletlge. It w.is completctl in 5^7, and at 
the '^ijjht of it the emperor jovfullv exclaimed that he had surpassed Sol- 
omon. A few years afterward an earthquake ]iartially oxxrthrew the 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 105 

edifice, but the emperor set to work with renewed zeal, and under the 
direction of the younger Isidoros, the grandson of the now-deceased archi- 
tect, it was strengthened, beautified, and improved. 

The building was destined to be monumental; no wood was allowed to 
enter into its construction, and thus naturally a grand dome formed the 
centre of the design. But the circular form was not desired, and there- 
fore the dome was by means of four pendentives set upon a square base, 
which on two sides was enclosed by half-domes of less elevation. From 
these half-domes small semicircles projected; so that a nearly quadran- 
gular nave resulted, from the eastern extremity of "which the chancel 
apsis projected. 

Wonderful is the intelligence displayed in the statical system that 
supports the lofty dome, bewildering and charming the eflFect produced by 
the many-colored pillars down to the mosaics and inscriptions on the walls. 
The edifice was a work of wonder; its fame spread from the East to the 
West, casting into shadow the greatest deeds of the emperors. Not only 
did it exercise the architects and the emperor, it was also a public affair. 
All classes took part therein; public prayers were offered for the success 
of the undertaking; the materials were brought from all parts of the em- 
pire: Rhodes furnished tiles for the construction of the dome, while Rome, 
whose ancient monuments at that time served as a quarry in spite of Thcr 
odoric's prohibition, contributed its marble columns. Justinian did not 
omit to beautify the surroundings. A fore-court with porticoes led up to 
the structure, and on the south — which in our illustration is left free in 
order to display the outline of the building — extended the Augusteum, a 
plaza surrounded by porticoes, set with magnificent public buildings, and 
adorned in its centre with the equestrian statue of the emperor upon a 
mighty column. 

Justinian's activity extended throughout all parts of his wide empire; 
Procopius has filled an entire book with descriptions of the emperor's 
buildings. He sought also to extend the limits of the empire. Italy, the 
mother-land of Roman authority, must no longer remain in the hands of 
the barbarians, but the Eastern Empire through its addition must again 
become the Roman Empire. Although a certain part of Italy was con- 
quered, since Ravenna, the capital of the Ostrogoth Kingdom, fell into the 
hands of the Eastern Romans and became the seat of the exarchs, the 
representatives of the Emperor, yet the Lombards resisted the power of 
the Greeks until the eighth century. To the sixth centur\^ belongs the 
Basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura at Rome, as well as the Cathedral 
of Parenzo in Istria, which is also a basilica w^ith a fore-court and 
baptister)\ 

In Syria a series of columned and pillared basilicas of the sixth centur\' 
is preserved, the character of which is apparent from Figures 1-4 (//. 13). 
The most important are those of Kherbet-Hass, El-Barah, Deir-Seta, 
Tourmanin, Baquoza, Behio, and Qualb-Iyouzeh; the latest of these build- 
ings bears the date 565. Soon after this the population abandoned the 



io6 ARCHITECTURE. [The sxsXman style, 

land before the onslaught of Islam, and ver>' recently those ancient struc- 
tnres have been discovered almost intact 

If we cast a glance at the ornamentation of this period, which as 
Christian-Roman we may contrast with the eariier Pagan-Roman, we 
shall see still more that decadence of the sense of form which we have 
noted in the works of the Diocletian period (p. 91). At the same 
time, a multitude of new forms and moii/s springs up; the capitals of 
the columns in particular acquire manifold variety (//. 13, Jigs, 5, 6; 
pi. 14, Jigs. 7-10). In general, we can say that the Greeks still remained 
the proper possessors of architectonic sculpture, and that wherever they 
worked the fonn -sense did not diminish; that though the ancient repose 
and regularity which were breathed by the conventional decorations 
created eight hundred years earlier had given place to florid fancy, still 
a certain nobility and a fine energy of outline were not lacking {pL 
13, /ig. 7). Where other influences were as powerful as the Grecian, 
where the descendants of a generation which had only lately received 
its culture were active, there, certainly, the ornamental detail was often 
dr)', rough, and crude. 

The more the Germanic races fortify themselves in Italy during 
the seventh and eighth centuries, the more degraded becomes the once- 
classical culture of the coimtr}'. Ruins multiply; whatever is newly 
fashioned stands, both in an artistic and in a technical sense, far beneath 
the works of the earlier centuries, the mighty ruins of which are made 
to serve for the erection and adornment of new structures, Rome pre- 
serves from the seventh and eighth centuries the basilicas of Sta. Agnese, 
S. Giorgio a Porta Latina, and Sta. Maria in Cosmedin; at Torcello, near 
Venice, stands the cathedral, erected in the seventh centur\', a basilica 
with eighteen columns of Proconnessian marble; and the Old Cathedral 
of Brescia, a circular structure of nearly 12 metres (39 feet) diameter, 
of sufficiently crude execution, is of the same period. The ornate 
Church of Sta, Fosca, on the island of Torcello {pi. 15, Jig. 10), may be 
somewhat later. 

II. OFFSHOOTS OF CL.\SSIC ART. 

I. The SAsAniax Style. 

Historical. — After the dismemberment of the Macedonian empire the 
Seleucids ruled Persia until 246 B. c. ; after them came the Arsacids, 
who founded the Parthian Kingdom, which lasted until 229 A. d. Its 
relations with the Greeks, and afterward with Rome, made the land 
accessible to the Greek culture of the age, though it did not become a 
province of Rome. But under the Sasdnians there was developed a 
peculiar art of which we must take some notice. The Sdsdnian mon- 
archy, the romantic ejxx:!! of Persia, lasted from 229 A. D. to 636 A. D., 
w^hen the Arabs brought the land under t ir f^'sy^ at '^••cc put an end to 
the fire-worshipping cult, which had t SArfnianS| as 



ix. 



The SXsXnian Style.] OFFSHOOTS OF CLASSIC ART. 107 

well as to Sasanian art, and, together with the sway of Islam, planted 
Islamitic art throughout the land. 

Khosrau II. — The principal theme of Sdsdnian history is the struggle 
with the Romans until Khosrau (Chosroes) II. Parv^z, *'the Conqueror'' 
(died 628 B. c), who is known in Christian legend, after subduing Syria, 
Asia Minor, and Egypt, threatened Constantinople itself, but was over- 
thrown by the emperor Heraclius. Khosrau is the hero of folk-lore, and 
his love for his Christian spouse, Shirin, and their relations to their archi- 
tect, Firduz, have occasioned the most beautiful and poetical narrations. 
The architect has rightly received his place on the roll of fame, since 
Khosrau erected magnificent structures which to a certain extent excited 
the imagination of his contemporaries and have not ceased to be admired 
by their posterity. The splendor of his palace has been extolled by 
visitors and poets, and grave historians speak minutely of its adornments, 
of its forty thousand columns, of the contents of a hundred subterranean 
vaults, and of the beauty of its paradise, or park. 

The Architectural Remains of the Sdsdnians, so far as they have been 
investigated, certainly teach us little concerning the splendor described 
by poets and narrators. Their style is essentially a barbarizing of classical 
architecture, which under the influence of* untutored fancy was compelled 
to harmonize with the ancient national Asiatic elements. 

Characteristics of Sdsdnian Architecture. — The cupola plays the chief 
r61e, not as a low half-sphere, as it exhibits itself in classical architecture, 
but In high elliptical forms similar to those which we find in ancient 
Assyrian reliefs. While the principal halls are roofed with such cupolas, 
the adjacent rooms are ceiled with elliptical tunnel-vaults. Externally, 
flat roofs appear, from which rise cupolas of different heights. The 
walls had their surfaces richly moulded with blind arcades and niches 
which did not form an organized system. The details were crude: columns 
without base or capital are abundant; among the rest are capitals exactly 
like those of the post-Roman period of the sixth and seventh centuries in 
Italy. Some of the kings invited Greek architects into the country. 

Khosrau I. — surnamed An6sharvan, ** the Blessed " — was so impressed 
with the beauty of Antioch, which he had conquered, that not far from 
his capital, Ctesiphon, he built a new city (Khosrau-Antiochia) which was 
as exact a copy of Old Antioch as possible, and was a notable tribute to 
the superiority of Roman culture and life. The inhabitants were estab- 
lished in comfort and had religious freedom, and even a Christian mayor. 
They retained their national manners until the fall of the empire. Chariot- 
races, for example, were as popular as they had been in Old Antioch. 

There is here the irresistible tendency to copy the already degraded 
classical architecture just as it was exhibited at the same period, and even 
two hundred years later, by the Gennanic peoples in Italy and Germany, 
both overrun by barbarism; but in Persia, through the Oriental high dome 
and the general application of the elliptical arch for large openings, the 
works were endowed with a peculiar character. 




A" 



lo8 ARCHITECTURE. [Franks and Other 

2. The Architectural Art of the Franks and Other 

Germanic Races. 

Roman civilization had spread its branches over the Alps; Gaul and a 
part of Germany were Romanized. For centuries in contact and in com- 
mercial relations with the Romans, the Germanic races became to a certain 
extent acquainted with Roman culture. As the migrations of tlie races 
continued and the overthrow of Roman authority was accomplished, a 
large proportion of the Roman cities in Germany and France were 
destroved and manv ancient architectural monuments were annihilated. 
But a series of cities had become so essential for the purposes of general 
commerce that exist they must, and after each destruction they neces- 
sarily rose again from their debris and ashes, whether Romans, Gauls, 
Gennans, or whatever race, dwelt in the vicinity. In them still existed a 
remnant of classical culture. Christianity not only converted those 
(iermanic races which resided upon the soil of the old classic culture, but, 
spreading far beyond, also despatched its missionaries into the most distant 
wildernesses and ever>where sought for disciples. With it went such 
remains of classical culture as were accepted by the Church, and wherever 
the authority of Christianity extended, the people, even those of the far 
North, soon stood upon the same level of education as the Teutonic race 
which ruled in Italy. We have accounts of the constructive activity that 
reigned in Gaul, upon the Rhine, and on the Danube from the sixth to 
the eighth centur>'. Few remains have come down to us, and the dates 
are uncertain. 

Ihiildings of the Fifth and Sixth Centuries. — Gregor\* of Tours tells us 
of a church dedicated to St. Martin, built by Bishop Perpetuus at Tours 
in the second half of the fifth centur\\ This was i6o feet long and 60 
feet broad, and had one hundred and twenty columns. At the same time 
Bishop Namatius also built at Clennont-Ferrand a cruciform church 
which was decorated with marble and mosaics; it was 150 feet long and 60 
feet wide, and had seventy columns. In the second half of the sixth cen- 
tury the cathedral at ChSlons was built, and adonied with columns, many- 
colored marbles, and mosaics. Gregor\' of Tours himself at the close of 
the sixth centur>' renovated the cathedral of his episcopal see, built by 
Perjietuus, erected a baptister>', and restored the Church of St. Perpetuus, 
and also another, whereof he infonns us in his histor\' of France. About 
the middle of the sixth century Archbishop Nicctius of Treves erected 
near that city, ujx)n the elevated bank of the Moselle, a castle which had 
three storeys and was adorned with marble columns. He also restored 
the cathedral there. 

Buildin^^s (f the Seventh and Eijs;hth Centuries. — At Riez and Aix-le- 
Bains exist baptistery-like round buildings each having eight antique 
columns in its interior. The cathedral at Vaison, with antique friezes 
on the outside, is considered a stnicture of early Christian design. The 
Baptistery of St. John at Poitiers belongs to about the eighth centur\*. 



Germanic Races.] OFFSHOOTS OF CLASSIC ART. 109 

In Cologne the so-called '* Roman Tower" near St. Claren is an example 
of many-colored wall-incrustation, such as may be seen also on the 
fagades of the churches of Savenni^res, Vieux-Pont, St. Eusebius at 
Sennes, etc. 

Tlie Convent of Fontanelliint^ near Rouen, was a regular city of 
churches and conventual buildings. The Church of St. Peter, above 80 
metres (262 feet) long, also that of St. Paul, and a third, dedicated to St. 
Lawrence, were built in the middle of the seventh century. Out of the 
ruins of the neighboring Juliobona the materials for the construction of 
St Michael's Church were brought in the eighth century; then followed 
a Church of St. Servatius and three other churches. Dormitory', refec- 
tory, cloister, chapter-house, abbot's residence, hall of records, and 
library, symmetrically arranged near these churches, and monumental 
with rich art-decoration, formed the nucleus of this city-like aggregation. 

Decadence of Architectural Art. — However rich and magnificent such 
structures may have appeared to the historians, yet their poetical descrip- 
tions cannot delude us nor hide from us the decadence of grandeur in the 
whole and of artistic feeling in the details. Here we have the last survivals 
of the magnificent classical style. Whence could the material means be 
procured to construct such works as were erected by the Roman emperors ? 
How within the boundaries of Christendom could bishop or abbot obtain 
the genius necessary for the conception of such grand fabrics as would 
naturally spring into existence in the brain of a Roman ruler of the 
world? Where among their small surroundings could be educated mas- 
ters whose skill could compare with that of the Greek artisans whose 
hands were guided by the strongly-rooted teachings of centuries of gen- 
erations ? The great world had become a small one, since in the West 
each individual Teutonic tribe formed an independent kingdom; nor did 
it become greater until the Franks subdued the other tribes and little by 
little became the centre of the Western World, the champions of the 
civilization of the Christian West. 

Architectural Revival under Charlemagne, — Yet once before its final 
extinction the light of ancient classic culture flared up, though only to 
show how near it was to that extinction. As once Theodoric the Great 
sought to infuse new life into the dying art of Rome, so did Charlemagne 
attempt to re-establish the Roman empire and to give the world a new 
period of art-prosperity. His capital, Aix-la-Chapelle, was the wonder 
of contemporaries, who celebrated it as the new Rome. For the adorn- 
ment and decoration of this city he plundered the ancient Rome as well 
as Ravenna, which we may call the third Rome if we style Constantinople 
the second. But only in the fancy of flattering poets did this fourth 
Rome attain to the magnificence and splendor of either the first or the 
second. 

Works of Charlemagne. — The most prominent works of Charlemagne 
were the palace and the minster church, which, as the palace chapel, 
took the polygonal form (//. ^^^figs. i, 2), and thus carried on the antique 



I lO ARCHITECTURE. [The Byzantihb 

tradition; it was built (796-804) by Abbot Ansegius of Fontanelluin, and 
now exists, but robbed of its mosaics, in the midst of many additions and 
accessory bnildinjjs of a later date. The emperor, who died 814 A. D., 
was buried here. Nothing has been preserved to our time of Charle- 
magne's ])alaces at Worms, Ingelheim, Nimeguen, and other places. A 
little later than the minster at Aix-la-Chapelle is the Church of St. 
Michael at Fulda, built by Abbot Eig^l and dedicated in 822. It is a small 
circular church with eight strongly-tapering columns. 

Buildings of the Ninth Century: Eginhard^s Works, — Eginhard (bom 
770, died 844), one of Charlemagne's friends and his biographer, was skil- 
ful both in literature and in architecture, and in particular earnestly 
studied the works of Vitnivius. He built an imposing church at Michel- 
stadt, in the Odenwald, also the Abbey of Seligenstadt, the ancient plan 
of which was not long ago brought to light, but unfortuuately was at 
once completely ruined. The portico of the convent at Lorsch is a 
unique building with colored incrustation which perhaps dates from the 
time of the convent itself (764-774), but may be one of Eginhard's 
works, or even a work of the end of the ninth century. The still-pre- 
served plan of the Abbey of St, Gall (see Vol. II. pL 39) is a most remark- 
able work of this period; it was made in 820 A. D., and the building itself 
followed between the years 822 and 830 or 832. The architects were the 
monks Winihard and Isenrich, whom their contemporaries pitiised as the 
Daedalus and the Bezalcel of the age. 

Although the Renaissance wrought by Charlemagne was of short 
duration, yet under the succeeding princes of his race many buildings 
were erected in a more and more degenerate style. We cannot mention 
these individually, whether built in England, France^ Spain, or elsewhere, 
but we must once again direct a glance toward Italy, especially to Rome, 
where several churches still extant were erected in the ninth centur>'. 
Among these are S. Clemente, with its fore-court surrounded by Ionic 
columns (//. i^^fig. 6), and S. Prassede, in which piers are alternated with 
the columns bearing massive arches which vault across the nave and thus 
securely bind together the two side-walls. At the end of the ninth 
century followed the rebuilding of the Lateran basilica {Jig* i), essen- 
tially upon the same plan as the older building. Other basilicas of this 
period in Rome are S. Bartolommeo in Isola, Sta. Maria in Ara Coeli, 
and S. Nicol6 in Carcere. 

3. The Byzantixe Style, 

Though Rome ruled the world, it flattered the Greeks and so appre- 
ciated their culture as to model its own upon it Rome gathered Grecian 
art to it:x.*lf and spread it wide over the globe. The Greeks were proud to 
know that they ruled the world-ruling Romans, that they were the only 
source from which both art and knowledge flowed, and that whatever 
others jx^rformed was but the outflow of Greek genius. In their intellec- 



Style.] OFFSHOOTS OF CLASSIC ART. Ill 

I 

tual pride they completely overlcx)ked the fact that to them all impulses 
had come from without. 

Wheu Roman authority was no longer centred at one point, when the 
armies in the provinces made and unmade emperors, Constantinople 
became for the ancient Grecian countries a new centre which at once 
emulated Rome and rose higher in proportion as Rome declined. When 
the Western Empire fell, the Eastern emperors aspired to rule the world, 
sent their armies into the West, and reduced part of Italy; yet they were 
soon compelled to abandon it to the barbarians, to confine themselves 
to Greece and that part of Asia which was not torn from them by the 
inpouring tide of Islam, and to fall back upon the barbarous races which 
inhabited the part of Europe to the north of them, and which first received 
Christianity and civilization from Constantinople. 

The Greeks preserved a goodly heritage from the Roman Empire, both 
in the bureaucratic organization which Rome's administration had intro- 
duced into the East and in the preservation of the throne of the Caesars. 
Their pride led to ignorance; their ignorance, to vainglory: they accounted 
themselves the only possessors of civilization, the only guardians of the 
grand old traditions; and, since they could not rule the West — since the 
ix)werful barbarians had overthrown the Greek authority there — they 
abandoned it and resolved to build for themselves a world in the East. 
Even that spiritual bond which united the churches of the East and the 
West was more than their pride could bear, since its metropolis was not 
at Byzantium, but at Rome. That bond must be broken. The Church, 
which was in the West an independent power, must in the Orient become 
an instrument in the hands of an irresponsible emperor, or, rather, a slave 
to Byzantine forms and ceremonies by which even he was controlled. No 
new life ruled in this state: it was the old administrative machine. It was 
the might of conventionality that upheld the state — that, as step by step 
advancing Islam sprang forward upon the booty, held the remains together, 
until finally the Turks planted their victorious banners on Constantinople 
and the Crescent became the terror of Western Europe. 

It is hard to fix a point at which the Empire ceases to be the Eastern 
Roman Empire and begins to be specifically Byzantine, since the rule 
of empty formalism creeps in little by little. Justinian, the mighty and 
powerful monarch who aimed to unite the East and the West, and who 
ruled knowing the ancient traditions yet worked beyond them, cannot be 
called a Byzantine: he was thoroughly Roman; yet what he executed 
formed the direct groundwork of Byzantinism. This relation is apparent 
in the architecture of the time. While yet the union between the East 
and the West stood unbroken, when the Ostrogoths had become Romans 
and their style of architecture was Roman — or, rather, Grecian — Archi- 
tecture followed the same course of development in the East and in the 
West 

Domical Churches: Church of St a, Sophia, — Justinian's great work, 
the Church of Sta. Sophia {pi. 15^ Jig. 6), is a member of that series of 



1 1 2 ARCHITECTURE. [Thk Byzantini 

buildings with a lofty circular centre which existed equally in the Orient 
and in the Occident, since Agrippa built the Pantheon at Rome and thus 
set up its first and still extant link. Yet Sta. Sophia is not a simple circu- 
lar church: the longitudinal form also permeates it. In it the problem 
of dome-support is solved; so that the cupola need no longer be raised 
upon a circle or a polygon, but by means of four pendentives carried 
upon a square Ixise, and by combination with barrel-vaults and cross- 
vaults, may be arranged to suit any six:cified ground-plan. In this way a 
grand monumental freedom of the rectangular plan through a continuous 
series of cupolas and the monumental execution of the domical central 
building were at once accomplished. In this sense Sta. Sophia is the 
unequalled model and the foundation of all Byzantine church-architec- 
ture, which brought the old indigenous, primitive Oriental dome again 
into application on the basis of the arrangement of that grand edifice. 

Church of Sta, Irene and Others, — Soon after Justinian the last rem- 
nants of the antique classic language of forms passed away completely. 
Thus, Sta. Irene at Constantinople (//. i6y Jigs, i, 2) has already a thor- 
oughly longitudinal system, since two cupolas .separated by an arch form 
the nave, which terminates eastward in a half-dome, while broad trans- 
verse arches form a system of buttresses for the cuix)la and also compose 
the side-aisles, in which, as in Sta, Sophia, cross- vaulted galleries borne 
on small piers are included. The structure is ascribed to the ninth cen- 
tury. Among the churches built in this manner is one at Cassaba, in 
Asia Minor, the nave of which has only a single cupola, while three wide 
barrel-vaults strongly accentuate the longitudinal direction. The Church 
of St, Clement in Ancyra (Angora) has also one dome. In both these the 
sidc-aislc* are not entirely included within the buttresses of the cupolas, 
but extend beyond these for a considerable width, are vaulted, and bear a 
galler>' above. Both agree with Sta. Sophia in having no wooden roof 
above the vault to protect it from the weather, which is not there subject 
to great vicissitudes. 

Royal Palaces. — The magnificent palaces of the Byzantine emperors, 
the mansions of the rich, and almost all the public buildings have, together 
with the dwellings of the middle and lower classes, disappeared both in 
Constantinople and in the provinces of the empire. In Constantinople 
still e.xist the interesting remnants of the Hebdomon, a palace erected by 
the emperor Theophilus (829-842) and adorned externally with colored 
bands of alternate brick and marble. The pendentives above the great 
arches are filled with various patterns; portions covered with green glaze 
increase the play of colors. Historians give prolix accounts of the mag- 
nificent buildings of the imperial palace proper, also of a summer residence 
called Br>'os, which was constructed in Saracenic fashion, and of various 
mechanical devices executed partly to delight the people and partly to 
impress foreign ambassadors with exalted ideas of the power and import- 
ance of the emperor. 

Works 0/ Basil. — Architecture flourished anew under the sway of Basil 



Style.] OFFSHOOTS OF CLASSIC ART. 113 

the Macedonian, as well as under his grandson, Constantine Porphyrogen- 
itus, who was himself an artist and also an author and a patron of literature. 
In Constantinople alone Basil either built, restored, added entrance-porches 
or roofs to, or decorated externally or internally, more than one hundred 
churches. The historians particularly mention SS. Gabriel and Elias, 
which had five cupolas. 

Agia Theoiokos^ ** Church of the Mother of God ' ' (//. \(i^fig, 6), con- 
structed about 900 A. D. and restored in the twelfth century, is in its 
arrangement a notable example of the customar>' ecclesiastical architecture 
of the tenth to the twelfth century. A small cupola is borne on four 
piers; four broad barrel-vaults form a cross, and the angles are filled in 
with smaller domes, which spring from a somewhat lower level than the 
principal dome. There is also a dome above the entrance, and an outer 
entrance-porch with five domes stands in front of this. At the east end 
there are a principal apse and two side-apses. 

St. Bardias at Salonica (937) and the still later Church of the Apostles 
at the same place are similar; in these all the cupolas are visible exte- 
riorly. The small Church of St Elias at Salonica was built in 1012. 
Greece especially contains many small churches, some of which have 
one dome, others a great number of domes. We give examples on 
Plate 16 {figs, 5-8, 10-13) from which the character of this church-archi- 
tecture may be clearly comprehended. 

Byzanime Art m Venice: SL Maf'k's. — The most splendid manifesta- 
tion of Byzantine architecture meets us outside Greece in the Republic of 
Venice, which may really be called a Byzantine colony, since the per- 
petual commerce by sea with the Orient, and especially with Byzantium, 
naturalized Byzantine culture in the lagoon-city. St. ^Mark's, commenced 
in 976 and after almost a himdred years of labor finished in 1072, is one 
of the most important monuments of the Byzantine style. A Greek cross 
bears five cupolas separated by broad barrel-vaults. The principal piers, 
against which these vaults abut, are pierced with openings. Three sides 
of the western arm of the cross are surrounded by a portico, while the 
eastern arm is closed with an apse {fig, 3). The interior additions of 
following centuries have obscured its original character, and made it, as 
it now appears {fig, 4), one of the most richly-colored and fantastic 
of works. Its great g\ory within, says Fergusson, is the truly Byzantine 
profusion of gold mosaics which cover ever>' part of the walls above the 
height of the capitals of the columns, and are spread over every part of 
the vaults and domes. Without, its great beauty consists in the number 
of marble columns which surround and fill all the front and lateral 
porches. 

Church of SL Front, — The Venetians sent colonies into Southern 
France, and thus at the end of the eleventh ccntur\' the Church of St. 
Front (//. i6y fig, 9) was built at P<5rigueux. Its arrangement and dimen- 
sions are nearly a copy of those of St. Mark's, but only the naked skeleton, 
without the play of colors, the fine variety of the details, or the rich adorn- 

VoL. IV.— 8 



1 14 ARCHITECTURE. 

mcnt of mosaics and sculptures which characterize the latter. Numerous 
churches in the adjoining district follow the same model, although in detail 
they approach the style of the countr>'. 

Injliicncc of Byzantine Art in Sicily, — In Sicily, Byzantine art has 
also left traces which show its influence through the rule of the Moors even 
to that of the Xonnans. Thus the Cluirch of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti 
at Palenno (//. i6,y/i,''. 16) is a Byzantine design, and the domed Church 
of Martorana {Jig- i5)> built in the first half of the twelfth centur\', 
exhibits a completely Byzantine plan, the vault resting on four columns, 
while the interior is enriched with marble decorations and gold mosaics. 

Byzantine Art in the Eastern Empire, — Among the structures erected 
in the Eastern Empire between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries may 
be named the following: the Church of Agios Pantokrator, of the twelfth 
century, at Constantinople; the Katholikon (//. 16, figs, 12, 13), the 
Bishop's Church, the churches of S. Taxiarchis (Jig. 11), St. Mar>' in 
the great convent, St Theodonis, St. Nikodemus, and St. John, at 
Athens; St. Taxiarchis on Cythnos; the conventual Church of Daphne 
near Thebes {Jig. 10); that of the Blessed Virgin at Mistra, in the Morea, 
etc. To the beginning of the thirteenth centur>', when Trebizond was 
an independent empire, belong some churches at that place, of which 
Sta. Sophia, having a baptister\' and a bell-tower, is the most important. 

While in Greece church-architecture continued unaltered until Turkish 
rule brought it to an end, it spread also northward into the neighboring 
lands — that is, into the Christian kingdoms upon the lower Danube — 
where it underwent certain modifications without any material change of 
the original plan. Thus, while in Greece the complete ground-plan forms 
a square, in these more northern churches the cruciform shape is apparent, 
and the arms end in polygons, like the eastern apse. An example of this 
arrangement, of ver\' small dimensions, is shown in Figure 14, which 
represents the little Church of St. Mary on a height outside Semendria. 

Powerful as was the Turkish sway, it did not extirpate Christianity 
among the conquered peoples: it only robbed them of the possibility of a 
progressive development and kept them for centuries sunk in ignorance, 
until finally, as in Greece, Roumania, and Ser\'ia in modem times, civili- 
zation took a new start. The restrictions under which Turkish domi- 
nation held these peoples had yet the effect of preserving many elements 
of the pre-Turkish period through the intervening centuries; so that 
Byzantine church-architecture, though deprived of nearly all traces of its 
ancient originality, has come down to our time in the hands of ru3e 
masons, until latterly the invading Western civilization obliterated the 
last remains of the ancient stvle. In nianv districts the Turkish domi- 
nation seems to have brought a certain development, as is shown by the 
church at Kurte-Ardshish (//. 21, fig. 3), which displays a wealth of 
channing Mohammedan ornamentation and an execution which betrays 
the hands of workmen who had practised upon imposing Mohammedan 
mosques. 



III. THE ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 

I. Indian Architecture. 

India — the land of enchantment and wonder^ lighted by the clear 
southern sky, endowed with magic beauty, embracing the grandeur of all 
climes from eternal ice to tropical verdure, possessed of stupendous moun- 
tain-ranges, of majestic forests, of mighty rivers, of broad and fertile 
valleys, as also of morass and desert of wide extent, teeming with Nature^s 
most valued products, and enriched with a profusion of vegetable forms 
and a variety of animal life scarce conceivable — must in the earliest ages 
have tempted man to fix his abode within its bounds. 

From the first the luxuriant richness of the land must have had its 
eflfect upon the inhabitants, and must have imposed its imaginative ex- 
uberance upon their civilization without especially accentuating it in an 
intellectual direction. It was not simply the charm of beauty that gave 
direction to the fancy of the people: the awe-inspiring solemnity and 
weirdness of Nature also had their influence. 

Even in the earliest times we have here a developed and brilliant 
culture, but we are unable to follow it from point to point in chronological 
order or to ascertain the relative antiquity of each element. Old though 
the culture is, our historical knowledge of it is comparatively recent. 

Dreaming, admiring, seeing and feeling the wonders of Nature, musing 
and striving for knowledge, and finding in that knowledge the highest 
happiness, yet seeking it with the imagination rather than with the intel- 
lect, the people of India lived on, perhaps for thousands of years, to other 
people a mystery as great as the land itself. The Greeks celebrated the 
wisdom of the Indian philosophers and from it derived their own. 

Ancient Remains. — But as reverence for the past, for the fixed 
facts of history and its useful lessons, increases, so also slowly grows the 
desire to give it monumental expression — the longing to execute works 
which shall outlast time, which shall remain entire to distant generations 
and convey to posterity the fame of the age in which they were erected. 
The land is filled with the ruins of extinct cities, it is everywhere covered 
with the remains of temples, palaces, and other works, but these have not 
all been explored. Those with which we are acquainted point not to 
high antiquity, but to an age which must have been preceded by a series 
of stages before the works known to us could possibly have been executed. 
Where shall we find the first? They can scarcely be other than those 
which show relations with the ancient civilization of Western Asia; so 
that the origin of Indian architecture may well be sought there. 

Literature and Chrofwlogy. — Far older than the monuments of the land 
is its poetry. The Vedas are a collection of religious narratives which go 
bacR to 1800-1500 B. c, and were brought into their existing shape in the 
seventh century before Christ. Somewhat more recent is the rhythmic 
book of laws of Manu. The great epics Rdmdyana and Mah&bhdrata were 
compo^d about 1000 b. c. Though poesy goes back so far, it is not until 

115 



Il6 ARCHirECTURE. [The Indians. 

the sixth centun- b. c. that reliable chronolog>' commences. The oldest 
inscriptions on stone belong to the middle of the third centur>'. 

The Brahmanical Cult was in its fantastic and sophistical obscurity, in 
its voluptuousness as in its barbarity, the perfect outcome of the peculiar 
nature of the land and of the national character induced by it Out of 
the primitive nature-worship it rose to the knowledge of one supreme 
God, in whom, as an impersonal, uncreated All, resided the totality of 
all knowledge and all happiness, and near whom circled personal gods 
who in great numbers peopled the Indian Olympus and were worshipped 
with fantastic ceremonies. 

The Cult of Buddha^ or Sakya Muni, King of Magadha, was a return 
to the simple naturalistic foundation. But even his time — which may 
have been about 6cx) B. c. — is variously given. He has become a hero of 
the imagination. In the time of Alexander the Great, whose entrance 
into India gives us the first authentic particulars, the two sects lived in 
friendlv relations. 

Buddhistic Art: Triujuphal Columtis, — Buddhism attained a greater 
importance in the middle of the third centur}* B. c, when King A^oka 
became a convert and zealously sought its extension. The most ancient 
monuments extant appear to date from his time, and these exhibit a suf- 
ficiently primitive scries of fonns: they are the triumphal columns which 
King A^oka erected in great numbers throughout the Ganges regions in 
honor of the Buddhist creed. These columns are about 3 metres (10 feet) 
in diameter at the bottom and 13 metres (42 feet) high, and diminish at top 
to less than 2 metres (G^j feet) thickness. Capitals similar to the Persian 
and ornaments which recall the Assyrian form a termination upon which sit 
lions that resemble those of Western Asia. As Anoka's relations with the 
West are known, we may believe that the fonns, and perhaps the idea for 
the erection, -of the monumental works also came from that quarter. 

Dhagobas or Topes. — Do we not also find in the second kind of struc- 
tures an echo of Western Asia? Are the dhagobas (topes, stupas) echoes 
of the domes of that region ? Are they not related to the stepped pyr- 
amids, the tombs of the great, of that more western land, which had a 
temple upon the uppermost platform? Do we meet again with the 
primeval tumulus in a fresh array ? Or is it, as we are taught is certain, 
the water-bladder, with Buddha the symbol of the instability of all earthly 
things, that is displayed in the form of these buildings, as it is in the 
knob or umbrella on the summit of Buddha's symbolic fig-tree, under the 
shadow of which he delivered himself to meditation? 

Ai^oka^s Works. — King A(;oka jxirted Buddha's remains into eight\'- 
four thou.sand parts, distributed them among all the cities in the countr>-, 
auvl ordained the erection of topes around them. These are hemispheres 
of masonry; at Bhilsa there is a group of thirty or forty, each built upon 
a low base, and usually surmounted by a platfonn. At the summit is a 
small globular stnicture {Jee), a memorial emblem of Buddha's holy fig- 
tree. 



The Indians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 117 

Tope of Sanchi, — The largest tope of this group is near Sanchi (//. 17, 
fig. 7); it has a cylindrical base 4 metres (13 feet) in height, on the top 
of which a platform 2 metres (6^ feet) wide surrounds the dome, the 
diameter of which is 40 metres (131 feet). The tee has disappeared from 
the summit, but at a distance of 3 metres (10 feet) from the base there is 
a stone enclosure which has four great portals placed in front of four 
openings; these portals reproduce forms that are usual only in wood- 
construction, which is here perfectly copied. Inscriptions upon this tope, 
which was ascribed to King A5oka, go back only to the commencement 
of the Christian era. The other topes of this group, which are described 
-as somewhat progressive in their style, are far smaller. The next largest 
has a diameter of 14 metres (46 feet), while the smallest is less than 2 
metres (6^ feet) across. 

Other Groups of Topes. — At Amravati, not far from Madras, stands a 
large tope similar to that of Sanchi, and likewise surrounded by smaller 
ones. There is also a great number of topes in Ceylon. The Mahavanqa 
relates that for the Great Tope of Anuradhapoora, which King Dooshta- 
gamani built about the middle of the second century B.C., a deep founda- 
tion was first constnicted, composed of courses of stone, loam, bricks, 
•crystal, mortar, and of iron and silver plates, and that the whole was 
trodden down by elephants. Upon this the tope was built, of bricks 
covered with stucco. There still remains a group of such topes at 
Anuradhapoora, the largest of which is supposed to be the great work of 
Dooshtagamani; this is placed upon a platform 140 metres (about 460 feet) 
square and rose to a height of about 80 metres (262 feet), but more than 
the half has disappeared. Some are still very well preserved. Other 
groups of topes have been discovered in Afghanistan as well as in 
Northern India, at Manikyala and Belur, all massive domes like those 
described. Their age cannot be very great, since their examination has 
T)rought to light Roman and Sdsdnian coins belonging to the period from 
100 B. c. to the sixth centur>' of our era. 

Conventual Structures, — The topes do not stand alone: with them are 
grouped conventual structures, the most ancient of which, like the other 
buildings of the countr}', were probably of wood. The ascetic tendency, 
the love of meditation, which characterized the religious life of the Hin- 
dus must have suggested to many that caves in the mountains were 
suitable places in which to lead a life retired from the world, and thus the 
cave-life developed itself into a mark of religious fervor, and the cave 
itself into a monumental structure. At earlier periods it may have been 
necessary to widen a natural cavern to make its entrance regular, and 
sometimes, when it suited the inhabitants, to protect the roof by means 
of wooden beams and posts where the stone did not appear to be suf- 
ficiently secure. Out of this mode of living there developed a unique 
style of architecture which is peculiarly Indian. 

Chatty a and Vihai-a Grottos, — Buddhism excavated two kinds of cave- 
:structures, the Chaitya, or temple, and the Viliara, or monaster}'. The 



1x8 ARCHITECTURE. L^he Ini>l\ns. 

most ancient known caves are those in the eastern mountains of the 
Ganges, near Rajagriha, the capital of India in the flourishing days of 
Buddhism. They are small and without any architectural ornament; 
the roof is vaulted, and they date, according to inscriptions, from about 
200 B. c. The caves of Udayagiri ('* Sunrise Mountain*'), upon the 
north-east coast of Hindustan, are rather later, dating from the second 
century b. c. These are simple viharas with an entrance-portico of 
greater or less length in front, supported by strong pillars, the forms of 
which show the most exact translation of a simple massive wood-con- 
struction into stone; some are decorated with figures. 

The Grotto of Karli lies east of Bombay, in a pass of the Ghauts, This 
is one of the most remarkable and oldest of the Chaitya caves; it is oblong, 
and is divided by two ranges of pillars into a middle aisle and two side- 
aisles. The end opposite to the entrance is semicircular, and the pillars run 
round it; so that the side-aisle is continuous round the end of the middle 
one. In the centre of the apse is a tope. The pillars have a massive six- 
teen-sided shaft above a plain base, a capital shaped like a hanging bell, 
and above the capitals figures of kneeling elephants with tlieir conductors. 
Massive and solid though the entire details are, they do not belie their 
derivation from wood-construction; the repetition of the Persian columns 
with their capitals in the form of a hanging bell, together with the pro- 
jecting figures of animals, do not leave room for doubt either that we 
have here a copy of the Persian or that a similar original construction has 
worked out a similar effect in the resulting forms. The vault rises above 
the colunms in horseshoe-shape and is set with wooden ribs like the hull 
of a ship; the interior is lighted by a great semicircular window above the 
entrance. It is believed that the date of this grotto may be fixed in the 
second century b. c. Near it are a number of smaller unimportant 
viharas. 

Ajuntah Chatty as. — At Ajuntah, in the north-west of the Deccan, upon 
a lateral valley of the Tdpti, are about thirty Buddhist caves, the lowest 
situated 10 to 12 metres (33 to 39 feet) above the bed of the valley, while 
the most elevated are hewn from an inaccessible cliff 100 metres (328 feet) 
high. Some of these grottos are older than the Christian era. One of 
them is a great chaitya 30 metres (nearly 100 feet) long and rather less 
than half as broad, with twenty octangular pillars. The vaulting of the 
nave shows that here also wooden ribs originally ser\'ed as a covering 
and protection. Though in most of the chaityas the side-aisles have flat 
roofs, originally of timber-constniction (as their later copies hewn in stone 
prove), this chaitya has vaulted side-aisles, in which already the wooden . 
ribs are represented in stone. Rather more recent (200-300 A. d.) is a 
smaller similar chaitya, while a third small but richly-decorated temple- 
cave excavated somewhere between the fourth and sixth centuries has 
seventeen pillars and is one of the most graceful of Hindu monuments, A 
fourth dates from between 700 and 1000 A. n. 

AJuntaJi Viharas. — Among the viharas — most of w*hich have entirely 



The Indians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 119 

flat roofs — may be particularly noted one the central space of which, 
nearly 20 metres (65 feet) square, is surrounded by twenty pillars which 
copy woodwork in the most elegant manner; its date is between 400 and 
600 A. D. Another (700-1000 A. d.) has twelve pillars in its square cen- 
tral hall; there are five cells on each side and three in the rear, the middle 
one of the latter leading into a second, beyond it. A portico forms a 
fagade. Some of the grottos have wall-paintings of great beauty, while 
some are as yet unfinished. 

Numerous Buddhist grottos occur upon the island of Salsette, near 
Bombay. The oldest date from the fourth or fifth, the latest from the 
ninth or tenth, century of our era. 

Ellora Caves: Temple of Viswakarma, — The best-known as well as 
the most characteristic and beautiful monuments of Hindu architecture 
are the caves of Ellora, consisting of about thirty grottos of different 
sizes arranged in a semicircle within a space of a little more than a league. 
Some of these spread out into an extensive plan, while others are arranged 
in several storeys. The southern group is Buddhistic, like those hitherto 
described (p. 117); it culminates in the chait>'a known as the Temple of 
Viswakarma (//. 17, Jig, 4), which dates from 600 to 900 a. d. This 
grotto has octangular pillars, above which, projecting bodily inward, is a 
sculptured frieze from which springs the stilted semicircular vault set 
with flat stone ribs. Several viharas surround this temple; among these, 
the Dehr Warra Cave is the most important. 

Brahmanical Art: Groiio-lemples, — At the end of the fifth century 
Brahmanism again became prominent, and occupied itself in monumental 
works. Toward the close of the tenth century it triumphed, and in the 
fourteenth century it drove with bloodshed the followers of Buddhism 
entirely out of India; they took refuge among other nations of Eastern 
Asia, particularly in China. Some of the Ellora caves are Brahmanical, 
as is at once apparent from their greater exuberance of fanciful detail. All 
the Brahmanical grottos are temples. 

The Kailasa, — The mightiest is the colossal Kailasa, the true triumphal 
monument of Brahmanism — a vast court hewn out of the rock, with a 
huge mass left in its midst and hewn into temple-shape with an interior 
grotto; the exterior is adorned with architectonic forms in fantastic mag- 
nificence. We cannot be certain whether the accepted age (early in the 
ninth centur>') is correct, and think it possible it may be more recent. 
The ground-plan is presented in Figure 6. More recent, perhaps, is the 
Dhumnar-Lena Grotto {Jig. 5), which is more severe in style. The Indra 
Temple {Jigs. 1-3) is ascribed to the twelfth century. 

The most recent group of grottos is on the Coromandel coast, not far 
from Sadras, and is known as the Raths of Mahavellipore (''the City 
of the Great Mountain''); these, which are of fantastic form, are ascribed 
to the thirteenth centur>'. 

The grotto-temples of Kailasa, Dhumnar-Lena, and Indra are detached 
buildings — small temples in the midst of the rock-courts. These, though 



I20 ARCHITECTURE. [The Ikdukj. 

only masses of stone left standing and licwn into shape, like the architec- 
ture of the grottos themselves, give us an image of the forms which archi- 
tecture employed for external decoration — forms in which even more 
than in the grottos luxuriance of decoration overwhehned correct sim- 
plicity. Their characteristic shape is that of a pyramid of many low 
stages. Such structures often rise to a considerable height. Thus, near 
the last-nametl group of cave-temples rises a towering temple-bnilding of 
stone of fanciful form. The Hindus call such temples "vimanas;" the 
Europeans, "pagodas," The best-known and most celebrated is the 
colossal and fantastic Temple of Juggernaut, which is said to have been 
built in 119S A. D. 

Chalcmbaram Pagoda. — It is especially in the South of Hindustan 
that a wealth of forms the most capricious and fanciful fiuds expression 
in the pagodas. Most celebrated is that of Chalembaram, which encloses 
a lofty columned hall of considerable circuit, and is alike noticeable from 
its magnificent design and from the richness and artistic grace of its 
details. Travellers as well as pious pilgrims have wondered at the 
mighty stone chains which, worked out of the same block with the two 
massive stone pillars, reach from the staircase doors to the interior 
of the pyramid. 

Little less fainous are the pagodas of Canjeveram, Tanjore, Madura (//. 
iS, fi^. 1), Tiravalur, etc. Such a pagoda is an aggregation of separate 
greater and smaller halls and temples surrounded by one or more square 
walls, which are broken by tower-like, lofty pyramidal structures contain- 
ing the entrances. Columned haPs of several aisles with flat roofs alter- 
nate in the interior with steeply-rising pyramidal chapels, courts, and 
spaces planted with trees and flowers. The buildings are covered with 
sculptured figures of every kind. Gigantic halls called choultries {Jig. 
2), set apart for the reception of pilgrims, are characteristic accom- 
paniments of the enclosures of these temples. (See p. 13 1.) 

Jain Arl. — A third sect, the Jains, have in the sumptuous structures 
brought the dome of the topes into fanciful but organized connection 
with the rich system of fonns of Itrahmanical architecture. Certain 
buildings of this sect may be of great age, but the most characteristic 
are quite recent. 

Temple at Sadrcc. — The most flourishing period of Jain art is the 
fifteenth century, during the reign of Khnmbo-Raua of Oudeypore, who 
built the temple at Sadrcc at the foot of the Aravulli Mountains. In 
the centre of the temple stands a shrine containing four niches Ix;low 
and four above, to which access is obtained through four magnificent 
halls, to which lead four principal entrances. The porticoes, bonie on 
four hundred and twenty columns, spread around cruciform groups of 
five cupolas, most of them with hemispherical domes; but some (the 
central ones of each group) have a barrel-like shape.' Numerous chap- 
els, all roofed with single cupolas, surround the entire group, which 

> That \i, like a barrel on end, & fotm peculiar 10 Hindu archilecliue.— Eo. 




T«E Indians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. I3I 

both as a whole and iu its details is among the most beautiful of Hindu 
buildings. 

Islamitic Infiuence. — It may doubtless be asserted that the influence 
of Islam — which had since the eleventh centurj- spread widely in India — 
exhibited itself to some extent in these buildings, although Mohammedan 
structures earlier than the close of the sixteenth century are not known 
in that region. The cupolas which the Mohammedans built at a later 
period have another form; yet there are details which recall the Renais- 
sance of the West in these late Hindu Jain temples, as in the Temple of 
Mount Abu, built of white marble and adorned with the most sumptuous 
figtire-sculpture. Yet tradition places the erection of this structure in 
the year 1032, and attributes it to the princely merchant Viraala Sah. 

Burmese Pagodas. — Mohammedan infiuence is undoubtedly evident 
in the buildings of Pegii, a province of British Burmah, where the 
pointed arch is employed in combination with vaulted spaces. The 
pagoda is a gigantic tope which, instead of the simple dome-shape, 
rises as a decorated pyramid of polygonal form, bearing on its summit 
a tall iron spire richly gilt. Such is the Pagoda of Khomadu, on the 
Irrawaddy, which stands upon a base 300 metres (984 feet) in circuit and is 
sunounded by an entire forest of lower coluinus, about eight hundred in 
all; it stands about 50 metres (164 feet) high. Still more stupendous is 
the great Shoemadu Pagoda at Pegu, which rises from two mighty terraces 
to a height of 100 metres (328 feet) and has a diameter of 120 metres {395 
feet). Its base is surrounded by a series of accessory pagodas 8 metres 
(36 feet) high. 

Boro-Budor Temple. — In Java, about the fourteenth century, we meet 
with mighty Buddhist temples of which also the tope fonns the ground- 
work. The grand Temple of Boro-Budor (//. 18, fig. 4) is a pyramid 
of five terraces ascended by open staircases and set with four hundred 
and thirty-six niches with seated figures of Buddha, Upon these rise 
three broader stages, the lowest of which has thirty-two, the next twen- 
ty-four, and the highest sixteen small domed buildings enclosing sitting 
Buddhas, while a domical tope with a relic-chamber fonns the summit 
of the whole. 

Later Hindu Art. — Hindu architecture, though in our eyes extravagant 
and fantastic, persevered through many centuries in the use of the same 
tectonic principles, and built them into a complete system which pre- 
scribed a fixed law for every untectonic form. Though in some districts 
we can perceive an intermixture of Mohammedan fonns, in others the 
true Hindu elements held on unmixed even to a late age. 

Tlie Choultry ai Madura {fig. 2) is a specifically Indian work of 
considerable grandeur, begun in 1623 A. D. It has a hall divided into 
aisles by four ranges of pillar.s, one hundred and twenty-four in all, each 
faewn out of a single granite block. It is related conceniing its erection 
that before the immense blocks which form the roof were raised into their 
place the entire interior was filled with earth. The beams of stone were 




122 ARCHITECTURE. [The Chinese. 

then pulled up the inclined plane, and the earth was removed after they 
were secured in their places. 

Hindu art survived unruined the domination of Islam and has come 
down undecayed to our period; yet the rule of the English appears 
destined to bring both the religion and the art of this ancient people to 
ruin, though perhaps traces of their art may survive into distant centuries. 
What still exists that does not belong to our civilization falls into the 
province of Ethnography, and there the Hindu buildings of the present 
age may also be properly treated. (See Vol. I. p. 378.) 

2. Chinese Architecture. 

As the consideration of the existing art of India — the main trunk of 
the art of Eastern Asia — belongs to the province of Ethnography, so does 
also that of the chief branch of this stem ; that is, the art of China. 

Influence of Buddhistic Art, — The history of China goes back into hoar 
antiquity, but she received from India the religion of Buddha, here called 
Fo, and with it received Buddhistic art. Buddhism began to extend 
itself in China about 50 A. D., and continued to be the ruling relig- 
ion until the thirteenth century, at which time other religions became 
re-established in their purity. That of Confucius particularly obtained 
great prominence, and at the present day the majority of its adherents are 
found among the educated. The people, brought under the sway of 
various outward influences, strove to assimilate all, and despite differing 
nationalities and religions built up a homogeneous civilization. In con- 
trast to the Hindus, the Chinese may be called a philosophical people 
with whom imagination plays but an insignificant part. 

Chinese Architecture, — Though utilitarian works have come down to 
us from an earlier date — as the great Chinese Wall, built early in the 
second centur}' b. c. to protect the land against the invasions of the 
Tartars — yet we do not meet with the peculiar Chinese art until the 
period of Buddhism, of which it may be called the daughter. It is, how- 
ever, a somewhat degenerate daughter, since the magic of poesy, which 
breathes in the imaginative works of India, is, like the varicolored scales 
of the wings of the butterfly that has been seized by the rough hands of a 
child, entirely taken away from her, and the varied tints of the lacquer 
which has taken its place do not give that glamour which poesy has spread 
over the art of Hindustan. 

Temples or Pa^^odas, — The Chinese buildings have neither the imagina- 
tive asi)ect, the poetry, nor the awe-inspiring artistic ensemble of Hindu 
art; only its grotcsqueness has remained. Yet the architecture of China 
is ever\where enriched by a variety of materials. Here, as in India^ the 
principal structures are temples, called by Europeans ** pagodas." The 
Hindu tope has become a many-storeyed tower, each stage of which, orna- 
mented with projecting colored roofs, is of smaller diameter than the one 
below it, until an incurved spire crowns the whole. All the angles of 
the several roofs are hung with bells. The walls are covered with porce- 



The Arabians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 123 

lain tiles; all true architectural detail is wanting alike in the whole and 
in the parts, and its place is taken by rich ornamentation that covers 
everything. The best-known and most famous of these buildings was 
the porcelain tower at Nanking, erected in the fifteenth century and 
destroyed during the Taiping rebellion that broke out in Southern 
China in 1850. Temple-structures are here, as in India, surrounded by 
an enclosure, access to which is gained through gateways. One of 
these is shown on Plate 18 {fig, 3). 

Secular Buildings. — Figure 5 gives an idea of Chinese secular build- 
ings, in which wood is the leading material. Here, after thousands of 
years, we meet again with the tent building. The monumental structure 
forming an aesthetic whole does not exist in the brain of the Chinaman; 
the only field in which he manifests originality and skill is that of the 
minor industrial arts. 

3. Saracenic Architecture. 

As the patriarchs of the Old Testament had led nomadic lives long 
after other peoples had become settled, so the Arabians, who traced their 
descent from these patriarchs, continued their wandering lives nearly 
two thousand years later — not without culture, but with one the direction 
of which precluded the erection of any monumental works. Each family 
to a certain extent formed a state, which, however small it might be, main- 
tained its independence, while its chief held all power in his hands; so 
that the individuals as well as the property of the family were absolutely 
dependent upon him. It was for poetry that they showed most suscepti- 
bility, and among a perpetually-wandering people who exhibited neither 
an agricultural nor an industrial activity poetry would naturally be fostered 
and ennobled. 

As this life of independence prevented the formation of states such as 
had been founded by the surrounding peoples, so did it also prevent the 
formation of religious communities which in the sense of a Church would 
unite all the families in a common belief and in a common worship. As 
each family was its own state, so each followed the religion which it had 
chosen ; and in the fifth century of our era Judaism and Christianity, 
the lore of the Magi and of the Chaldaeans, sun-worship, fire-worship, and 
idolatry of every species, even in its crudest form, were spread abroad in 
Arabia. 

None of these religions was sufficiently suited to the nature of the peo- 
ple to become generally followed, and yet deep piety formed one of their 
most characteristic traits; so that they listened greedily to every prophet: 
the more his teaching savored of the imaginative, the more inspired they 
believed him ; and the more he claimed to be inspired, the more enthusi- 
asm they evinced. Among this people Mohammed appeared as a prophet 
whose mission it was to promulgate a new religion which included in itself 
all that was consonant with the Arabian nature, and after a comparatively 
short struggle he succeeded in persuading all Arabia to follow his teaching. 



124 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic. 

and all to take sword in liand to conquer the ^orid for this creed, the onset 
of which was like that of an ever-increasing tide, sweeping through every 
land. Persia was the first country ovcrnin; the Sdsdnian, the first dynasty 
overtllrow^l (649 A. D.). But when the Arabians conquered Persia and 
made this flourishing land a portion of their caliphate, they embraced the 
culture of the subjugated people, and we may consider Sdsdnian art, in 
connection with the few remains of the ancient Persian, as one of the main 
sources from which the elements of Arabian art were derived. 

Swiftly burst the flood over Eg>'pt, annihilating at once both the 
remains of the ancient native and the classical culture, but in its mighty 
rush it gathered many elements to itself. Through the whole of North 
Africa the inundation flowed, and thence to Spain, which was the first 
European nation to be overwhelmed. As in the West, so also it spread 
in the East, subduing a great part of Asia. But human egotism and 
the love of dominion would not permit Islam and the caliphate to 
achieve a pennanent political imion. Several independent kingdoms 
were formed, the individual importance of which was so great that, based 
partly upon the peculiarities of the peoples, they constituted independ- 
ent schools of art. These were constituted in such a manner that the art 
of Islam does not present itself as a unit, no matter how many cha- 
racteristic traits mav have been held in common by all these schools: a 
consideration of their development leads us to investigate them sepa- 
rately in several countries. 

Arabic Art: Seventh to Tenth Century, — The main stem was the 
art of the Arabs, who quickly rose to a high state of civilization, and 
in a comparatively short time developed a style which in imaginative- 
ness and magnificence approached the art of the ancient Persians, and 
in beauty and in the completeness of fonns almost equalled the delicacy 
of classical art. 

The oldest Saracenic structures are in Asia; the next, in Eg>'pt. No 
sooner had the Arabians subdued Persia than the necessities of sway over 
a civilized land forced them to become civilized. The rude Omar must 
coin moneys, and for this the Sdsdnians furnished him models. For 
the reckoning of the year and other factors he employed Persian savants, 
and, where these did not suflSce, Greek Christians. Even the public 
accounts were kept in Greek until the caliph Walid at the beginning 
of the eighth centur\- ordained that they should be in Arabic. 

The Kaaba, — The precursor of Arabian architecture was the tent. 
Some structures have come down to us from before Mohammed*s time. 
Mecca has in the Kaaba a sanctuarj- that had been a place of pilgrim- 
age for a long time before his day; Arabian tradition even recounts that 
Adam made forty pilgrimages there to ofler his devotions. WHiat form 
the structure may have had in Mohammed's time cannot be deter- 
mined. If the fonn were monumental, it must have been Grecian, since 
at that pericxl the Greek style had world-wide sway; or it w.is an echo of 
the old Persian. After his flight (622 A. D.) Mohammed constructed at 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. izs 

Medina a building which served at once as a place of worship and as the 
residence of his wives. We know nothing of its form; tradition states 
that it was supported on the trunks of palms. 

Christian Churches Occupied by Mohammedans, — As the victorious 
Arabs became established in Persia and Syria they appropriated to them- 
selves the Christian churches in those places which had been deserted by 
the inhabitants, and even shared them with the Christians where the latter 
remained. Thus for seventy years both Christians and Mussulmans 
passed through the selfsame door into the Church of St. John the Baptist 
at Damascus, the eastern part of which church Omar appropriated for the 
use of the Mohammedans, while he left the western part to the Christians. 

Mohammedan Art in Syria:- Palestine. — Since the Arabians trace their 
descent from the patriarchs, since Mohammed upheld the traditions of 
Judaism, and since even Christ and John the Baptist were counted among 
the prophets, the cities of Palestine, which were accounted sacred by 
Jews and Christians, were also reckofied worthy of honor by the Arabians, 
and, as Palestine had fallen into their power, Omar (638 A. d.) erected a 
mosque on the site of Solomon* s Temple, which, before the Prophet had 
fixed upon Mecca, had been looked upon by him and his first followers as 
the place of their devotions. The four chief holy places of the Moham- 
medans were therefore always the Kaaba at Mecca, the Palm at Medina, 
the Olive at Jerusalem (the Mosque of Omar), and the Eagle at Damascus 
(St. John the Baptist). 

Mosque of Omar, — The caliph Abd-el-Malek built the Mosque of Omar 
at Jerusalem in 688, employing Greek architects. The principal part of 
the existing structure is still adorned with mosaics of that age. (In 1022- 
1027 the cupola was rebuilt after an earthquake and newly decorated with 
mosaics; in 1187, Saladin adorned the cupola with gilded stucco ornament, 
and in 1528 windows with pointed arches were inserted, and the archivolts, 
which before were semicircular, were raised to the pointed form. Brilliant 
decorations of glazed tiles, stucco ornament, and glass-painting were added 
at various dates.) 

Mosque el-Aksa, — Not far from the Mosque of Omar, Abd-el-Malek 
built the Mosque el-Aksa. This was finished in 692, and with numerous 
later additions and outbuildings now appears as a seven-aisled basilica, 
many portions of which still recall the Christian works of the period of 
its erection and the older period of classical architecture. 

Mosque of Amru at Old Cairo, — Omar's marshal Amru made a vic- 
torious irruption into Egypt in 643, took the ancient capital, Memphis, 
and founded there a city which he named Fostat, but which later took the 
name of Old Cairo. There he built the mosque which still bears his 
name — a court surrounded by porticoes which are arranged so that there 
are six rows of arcades upon the side looking toward Mecca, while on the 
other sides there are one, three, and four respectively. But this also owes 
its existing condition to the caliphs Abd-el-Malek and Walid at the com- 
mencement of the eighth century. 



126 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic. 

Church of St, John the Baptist at Damascus, — After 705, when the 
caliph Walid had deprived the Christians of that part of the Church of 
St. John the Bapti.st at Damascus which Omar had left them, he rebuilt it 
with the aid of artists sent to him from the court of Bvzantium. It now 
formed a three-aisled basilica with a transept, from the centre of which 
rose a dome the bold spring of which is said to have been a symbol of the 
eagle. The Holy Place is a small chapel which is famed as the burial- 
place of the head of St. John the Baptist. The materials of the building 
are Christian, and all the details bespeak the Greek style of the age. The 
north side o{x^ns by a nave into a large rectangular porticoed court. Three 
minarets are considered the oldest structures of the kind; one of them is 
named Jesus, because tradition tells us Jesus will upon the last day descend 
from heaven upon its summit. 

Walid also rebuilt the Mosque of Mohammed at Medina and gave it the 
plan of a court surrounded by halls; the side looking toward Mecca, the 
Hall of Prayer {Mchrab)^ extends in several aisles. 

Development of Architectural Forms, — The chronological development 
of forms among the Saracens cannot in many directions be exactly deter- 
mined, since numerous later alterations have so changed the buildings 
that neither the forms nor the date of the original can be ascertained. 
That the starting-point of Arabian art was the late classical is proved by 
the facts cited above. The next source was ancient Persia. The 
entrance of new characteristic elements follows, as in other cases, grad- 
ually. We have stated before (b. iii) that the exact time cannot be 
given at which Byzantine architecture acquired those characteristic 
fonns which we cannot consider as belonging to the last period of clas- 
sical art, but must regard as the beginning of a style that flourished in 
Greece through the entire Middle Ages and has continued until the pres- 
ent da v. 

The Stilting of the Arches of the ranges of columns and piers, so usual 
with the Arabs, may go back to the same source, and may have been 
introduced bv Grecian architects. Or it mav be that both in Christian 
and in Saracenic stnictures the use of older fragments, particularly of 
<x)lumns which fell short of the required height and were unlike one 
another, may have given frequent occasion for the high stilting of the 
arches; but certainly it was in great part a taste for proportions not clas- 
sically symmetrical which sought by the lack of symmetr>' to gain the 
charm of novelty and that exercise of the imagination for which those 
classical forms had to a certain degree become too commonplace. 

Pointed and Horseshoe Arches. — It would particularly suit the ideas of 
a people like the Arabs — who, overthrowing one world, sought to build 
up another — to found a style in which a greater liberty of fancy should 
take the place of classical formality. And thus a second form of arch, 
the pointed, which corresponded still more to the imaginative impulse, 
found its way into Saracenic architecture, and also a third, the horseshoe 
form, in which the lower portions of the arches turn inward, so that the 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 127 

arcJhes approach one another before they spring across toward the opposite 
columns. 

Mohammedan Art in Turkey: Palaces. — Bagdad, founded in 766 by 
the caliph Al Manstir, and finished in four years, was the residence of the 
caliphs and soon became the seat of Oriental elegance and learning. 
The Palace of Bagdad was so famous that even in the ninth centur}^ 
the Byzantines sought to rival it, and the Emperor Theophilus built a 
summer palace after the pattern of the caliph's seat. But, however 
sumptuous may have been the works of Omar's immediate successors, 
however brilliant even the structures of the Abbdsids, nothing has 
come down to us. The mosque built by them in the eighth century was 
famed for its size and magnificence, as is also the case with others. 
We cannot make a picture out of the descriptions. 

Mohammedan Art in Spain. — There still exist in Spain some struc- 
tures of this period. In 711 the decisive battle of Guadalete gave the 
greater part of Spain to the Arabs, by whose emirs it was ruled, subject 
to the suzerainty of the caliph. About the middle of the same centur>' the 
Abbdsids overthrew the more ancient caliphate and killed its members, 
but one individual, Abderrahman, escaped, and succeeded in maintain- 
ing himself as ruler of Spain independent of the new caliph of Bagdad. 
Here also Christian churches were at first used as mosques, as at Cor- 
dova, the capital of the Spanish caliphate. 

Mosque at Cordova. — The ancient cathedral was first used in common, 
but about 785 or 786 the Qhristians, after receiving a pecuniary indemni- 
fication, were excluded, and a new building was begun. The grandiose 
works of the Romans in Spain had excited Abderrahman' s admira- 
tion, and he resolved to surpass them; to effect this there was no better 
way than to plunder them. From every part of his dominions he col- 
lected antique columns. If old capitals could not be found, Roman capi- 
tals of a later period were imitated, and the hastily-built structure was 
in twelve months carried to completion. It is a court surrounded by 
porticoes, the side devoted to the prayers of the faithful forming a regular 
forest of columns, originally more than a thousand in number. (Under 
Abderrahman's son Hescham, as well as under Hakem II. and Hescham 
II., at the close of the tenth century, it was considerably enlarged and 
decorated. In 1146, Cordova was taken by the Christians, and remained 
in their hands; the mosque became a church, and subsequently a regular 
•church was built within it. The ground-plan (//. 21^ Jig. 4) shows the 
Tarious extensions, and the perspective {pi. 20, Jig. i) exhibits the richly- 
decorated later part.) 

Cordova soon became a brilliant capital. Art and Science made their 
seat here, and the Arabs, who but a few hundred years before were cul- 
tureless nomads, had soon gathered together and put to use all that 
survived of the ancient Roman culture. So fine an appreciation of the 
esthetic took hold of them that their works, instead of exhibiting merely 
fantastic splendor, became instinct with elegance and regularity of pro- 



1 .vS ARClIirKCrURE. [SARActMc. 

jH>iii«)ii C'.>inhincd witli c\:rcnic richness, while the fulness of the most 
iklic.itc iH)<.sy shone in all their creations. 

Tlie Arabs of ihc West emulated those of the East; and as Ka^dad 
h.ul relations with Hyzantium, so also the caliphs of the Western Empire 
connected iheniselves herewith, and rei)eatedly in the course of the ninth 
century Cordova saw within its walls a brilliant embassage from the 
Kastem Rivaian emj)eror brinj^in*; as presents the products of Byzantine 
.lit. Thi».i:^h llie Arabs :nij;ht not in certain directions be able to equal 
:hese, vet they strove hard to reach, and even to surpass, their model. 

The character is: ics oi Arabian art seem to have been evolved in the 
nintli and tenth ce!!tur:es. Even though the separation of the East and 
:!ie Wesi, the UT^risinvrs and the wars, the formation of new states, the 
deca-lenoe and tlio fail of others, left no trace of the political unity of 
I>Iam, the l^rilliant civilization which the Arabs had acquired, and which 
w.is the only livln;^ civilization of the age, was still at home wherever 
Moliamineil was honored as a prophet. 

.1/ •;.•'»:/;;,■..•■.:•; ./;/ /// Africa, — After Eg>*pt was subdued the Arabs 
t^rcvsed tarilur westward in Africa, defeated the annies of the Bvzantine 
e!i;peror, am! af'.or a long struggle entirely annihilated the Mauritanic 
::i!vs. which liad l>een only driven Ixick by the Romans. The last rem- 
nants *.»f tiiese trilx's were completely absorl>ed by the conquering Arabs. 
!n :over..:cnt d\!'.asties scon rose here, as the caliphs were too far distant 
to iv aMc to r.p'.iold their suzerainty. Among the various small princes 
w>.o here made themselves indejxMideni, th^ emirs of Kainx'an were 
t:ie most consiJ.erable, antl their city, not far from the present Tunis, 
ci!.^lo>e\l a n:v^s^;ue lounded bv Okba in the seventh centnr\\ but entirelv 
re'^:i'.: in S ;'\ It has seventeen aisles* and the roofs are carried bv four 
\\\\\\\^<\ \\\\ fo::r:een columns^ most of which are antique. 

.?/ \..\Vf- .■' Ib'i /r:i.\\'4f:. — The sumptuous Mos^nie of Ibn Touloun, in 
Cairo, the sea; of the Eatimite caliphs, was a work of the ninth century. 
I: is a vvart K j^iri with arcades in which rectangular piers are nnited by 
]v^::!:e.i arches wliich exhibit a slight horseshoe incun-ation at their 
s^rinciui;. The piers have a slender colonnette at each angle. There 
are two tx^ws of arches on tliree of the sides, five on the fourth. Though 
a'.'. :!:e '.c.uiing details arc severe and simple, the ornamentation ex- 
hibits :hat graceful p!ay of forms which channs us so highly in the 
tV.otvai^ir.v-developcvi works of S.ir.icenic anrhitectnre. The piers and 
arvV.c< are of brick cv>vert\: with r»kis:er. an.', the ceiling of the rooms is 
of *va:::s. Tl:c tenth cenftrv c-ive Cairo the n:asi]ues El-Daher I** Flower 
Mv^-^c.r-.c/* o:m v. :\' attd ir.-A:V,a: .*'T':o St^lendid," oSi A. ix\ 

V '•;•.; -V •■ >;.;*;. — Ssv*!! atlcr the vvr.oucst of Spain, al the beginning 
cf t^c ::::::*'. vv:::'.;:v. S:.*;'v wa< s;:N:;uv, bv the Moorish emits of 
Kairwav.. a:v\ **; :b.c ^ c,:r S"S, S^ rac::sc, wb.orv the Greeks made their 
'/.s: cv.c-c-^: ^:a::*'. fx.'. ::::o tb.ci: b.an/.s^ iVtlcrmo, which was fifst 
taker. ': > tb.c A:.-.'^<. ••i^/:r'<';u\: v.r.itc: t'.:c:r swav. and at the beginning 
of tb.o :c:::b. oc;::;;:^ b.a.U .uwrvt:::^ to ;hc narra:i\"e of an Arabian 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES, 129 

historian, three hundred mosques, one of which seated seven thousand 
men. It reached the height of its prosperity under Emir Abul Kasem 
(died 995). Here also the desire to acquire independence was the cause 
of the fall of Mohammedan domination. One of the pretenders sum- 
moned to his aid the Byzantine commander in Apulia, and the latter 
led into Sicily the Normans, who by the close of the eleventh century 
were lords of the island. 

City and Palace of Az Zahra, — Abderrahman III. (912-961) had 
raised Cordova to its highest pitch of prosperity, yet this was surpassed 
by the new city Az Zahra (''The Blooming''), which he laid out on the 
Guadalquivir a few miles from Cordova and adorned with the most splendid 
palace, of which nothing is left to us but the enchanting descriptions of 
the Arabian narrator. The name of the city was that of his favorite wife. 
Thousands of columns of various kinds of marble for the palace were 
brought here from different regions; the Byzantine emperor sent one hun- 
dred and forty-six as a present, and even Rome contributed some of its own. 
Walls and floors were laid with marble, and the gilded and painted ceiling- 
timbers were of cedar. In the halls jets of water fell into beauteous basins, 
in one of which swam a wonderful golden swan sent from Constantinople, 
while round about it twelve other animal-forms sent forth as many jets. 
From the roof hung a great pearl, a present from the Byzantine emperor. 
The arches of the eight hall doors were of ebony and ivory inlaid with 
gold and precious stones. The size of the palace was as famed as its 
magnificence. It is said to have had more than fifteen thousand costly 
doors, and thousands of servants were needed. Beautiful gardens laid 
out upon terraces surrounded the palace, and contained enclosures for rare 
beasts of every kind. 

Other cities also stood upon the Guadalquivir, on the banks of which 
were scattered magnificent gardens, pleasure-palaces, and villas. Never- 
theless, Abderrahman employed Byzantine artisans here, as in his various 
other structures, in order to supply what the partial fancy of the Arabs 
could not invent; and thus we meet with various Byzantine forms in some 
works of this period, as in a chapel of the cathedral at Cordova, where 
interlacing foliage, egg-mouldings, and Corinthian consoles are united 
with Arabic inscriptions. While mosaics on a golden ground recall 
the basilicas of Ravenna, Arabian historians expressly mention that 
these were executed by Greeks. 

Mohammedan Art from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century, — Up to 
this point we can follow the development of the architecture of all Islam, 
despite the political ruptures which shattered the unity of Mohammed's 
world-wide empire, and may consider the various races which had become 
Arabized through the reception of Mohammedanism as one and the same, 
even though here and there local peculiarities come into view. From the 
eleventh century these peculiarities come more into the foreground, since 
the entire development of Mohammedan architecture as a whole did not 
depend upon new constructive ideas so much as upon outward conven- 

VoL. IV.— 9 



130 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic. 

tional forms. Since, soon after the Cnisades, the vicissitudes in Asia 
annihilated the caliphate of Bagdad, and nothing more exists of the mon- 
uments of this period in that region, we must consider the Eg>ptian edi- 
fices as the principal stem of Islamitic art, and can afterward follow its 
development in other lands. 

Mohammedan Art in Ejrypi : Afosgues.-^ln the eleventh century the 
Mosque el-Hakim was built at Cairo; in this the arcades stand on square 
piers which are joined by semicircular arches. In the twelfth centurj* 
there was a decided effort toward a more fonnal development. The 
Moscjue of Sultan Barkuk, erected in 1149, outside the walls of Cairo, 
contains a court surrounded by arcaded halls ceiled with simple small 
cupolas resting upon pointed arches with slender octagonal piers. These 
are constructed of regular courses of white and red carefully-hewn stone, 
forming a pleasing variety of color. It also comprises a number of 
pilgrims' dwellings, and on both sides of the sanctuar>' are stately domed 
stnictures — the tombs of the builder and his familv. In them the 
ancient fundamental idea of the tumulus, which appeared also in the 
Western sepulchral chapels of the Christian-Roman period, particularly 
in the tomb of Theodoric, comes before us with fresh surroundings. 
Two minarets of slender cylindrical shape surrounded with balconies at 
various heights rise airily above the group of buildings. 

Mosque of Saladin, — In the citadel of Cairo stands a now-ruined 
mosque which the famous adversary of the Crusaders, Sultan Saladin, 
built in 1 171. This is interesting from the fact that the influence of 
the Christian architecture of the West, which at that period was already 
developed, was evidently brought by the Crusaders into the kingdoms 
which they established in the East. It has an entrance-court with por- 
ticoes on two sides only, while the principal hall has the fonn of a 
five-aisled basilica. Three rows of columns, each consisting of a single 
block of granitp, are connected by simple pointed arches. The shape of 
the windows and many other details bring to memor\' the Christian archi- 
tecture of the twelfth century. A cupola rises from a square plan on 
four pendentives of specifically Arabic shapes. 

The Mosque of Sultan HassaUy founded in 1356, differs considerably 
from the other mosques of Cairo, since the court is relatively small, 
nearly square, set in the centre of the structure, and surrounded by four 
lofty walls instead of columns. In each of these walls opens a grand 
pointed arch leading to a gigantic barrel -vaulted niche, fonning a regu- 
larly cruciform plan, the angles of which are filled up with numerous small 
rooms, which in consequence of the arrangement of the streets around 
composes a ground-plan of irregular shape. Beyond the largest of the 
four great niches is a square hall surrounded by massive walls and 
roofed by a dome borne upon the peculiarly Arabian pendentives formed 
of rejx^ated corbellings. This is the sepulchral chamber of the founder. 
Near it stand, at equal distances, two tall octangular minarets elegantly 
designed. The entrance is a lofty niche in a large gate-house. 






Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 131 

Mosques El-Moyed and Kait-Bey, — In 1415 was founded the Mosque 
El-Moyed, in which we meet again with the court surrounded by arcades 
i^pL Kj'tjig- i), and here also are antique columns and capitals older than 
the building; so that the entire structure recalls the more ancient works. 
At the close of the fifteenth century (1483) the Kait-Bey Mosque at Cairo 
was erected, enclosing the sepulchral chamber of its founder. It is 
remarkable for a magnificent ornamentation of the most beautiful de- 
sign, rendering it one of the gems of Mohammedan architecture; in the 
splendor of its decoration it rivals the richest Spanish structures. Nor 
did architectural activity cease with the close of the Middle Ages, since 
Cairo and other cities still contain a number of works built in later times, 
but into which few new elements enter, and which we cannot reckon as 
monuments; so here we will leave Egypt. 

Architecture in Sicily under Norman Rule, — We have before mentioned 
(p. 129) that the luxurious architectural monuments erected in Sicily under 
Arabian domination no longer exist; but all the peculiarities of Arabic 
architecture, as well as of Arabic culture, were continued under the Nor- 
ii^ans after the overthrow of the Arabian domination. As at an earlier 
period the Christians were indeed overpowered, but were not converted 
into Arabs, so under the Normans the Arabian population with its culture 
remained, and even partially developed itself in the service of the Nor- 
man princes, who, recognizing the higher culture of the Mohammedan, 
were not slow to ntilize it. 

Influence of Saracenic Art in Sicily. — If we glance at the compara- 
tively low grade of the art of the Christian kingdoms of the West in the 
eleventh century, it will appear that Saracenic art, though it had not then 
reached the fairy-like beauty of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
must have made a deep impression on susceptible minds. And the Nor- 
mans Z£/^r^ susceptible; otherwise the beauty of the land would not have 
induced them to reside there, otherwise with its stolen treasures they would 
'Certainly have returned in their ships to their native land. 

Palaces, — King Roger built near Palermo two country palaces, Mine- 
•nium and Favara, in the Saracenic style, both surrounded with parks and 
ponds. His successors William I. and William II. followed his example, 
and an Arabian tra\'eller of the time of William II. celebrates the mag- 
nificence of the mansions which surrounded Palermo, comparing them to 
:a rich necklace adorning the throat of a maiden. From the reign of 
William I. (died 11 66) dates the still extant Palace Zisa, and the Palace 
Kuba from that of William II. (died 1189). Both stand at a short distance 
from each other near Palermo. 

The Palace Zisa is externally a severe and commanding structure of 
three storeys simply crowned with battlements, carefully constructed of 
squared stone, and adorned with pointed arches in which the windows are 
set. In the interior, behind a portico, is a magnificent square reception- 
hall of considerable height, with niches on three of its sides; these niches 
,are ceiled with those many-celled vaults which we meet with in Spanish 



132 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic 

buildings. The walls are covered with varicolored tiles and marble. 
Above the groined vault of the central hall was an open court by which 
the halls of the middle and upper storeys were lighted. A flat roof now 
covers the entire building, and windows broken in the niches of tlie outci 
walls light these rooms from without. 

Palace Kuba. — Similar in ever>- respect to the Zisa is the smaller but 
more elegant Kuba, the central hall of which was originally lighted by a 
cupola. There are some small chambers in this building, which was a 
place, not of residence, but of festivity, and was surrounded by many 
pavilions, one of which, a dome raised aloft on four pointed arches, is 
still extant. 

The Palatine ChapeL — Even Christian churches followed the Arabian 
style in the Sicily of this period, yet were strongly influenced by the 
Byzantine, which had left its traces in the land, and to a less degree by 
the style of the West, of which the Normans themselves had brought the 
elements. The most famous of Sicilian churches erected in the Arabian 
style is the Palatine Chapel in the royal palace at Palermo, a three-aisled 
basilica erected 1 129-1 140. The aisles are divided by Corinthian columns 
connected by high-pitched pointed arches. The side-aisles had ojjcn 
timbered roofs, but the ceiling of the nave was of stalactitic Moresque 
work. Above the centre rises a cupola on high-pitched pointed arches. 
The walls are lined with marble tiles and bedecked with mosaics on a 
gold ground, in which the Byzantine and partly the Occidental st>''lcs 
predominate over the Arabic, which is evident only in the in.scriptions 
and in individual details. An interior view of this church is given in 
Figure 3 (//. 27). 

More or less similar are the Cathedral of Cefalii (begim 1132), the 
Church La Magione at Palermo (1150), the cathedral itself (consecrated 
1 185), and the Cathedral of Monreale (1174-1189). The exterior of these 
churches is decorated with colored marbles. At the time of their erec- 
tion they excited the admiration both of Arabian travellers and of Chris- 
tians, and Pope Lucius III. says in a bull of 1182 that since the days of 
antiquity no work which could compare with the Cathedral of Monreale 
had been built by any king. 

Mohammedan Art in Persia, — Particulars of the development of 
architecture in Persia between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries are 
almost wanting. The dynasty of the B6yids made Shiraz a brilliant 
capital in the tenth and eleventh centuries. At the same time the 
Ghaznavids, upon the Indian confines, inaugurated an era of architec- 
tural prosperity. In the thirteenth ccntur>' the Mongols obtained the 
upper hand, and did not neglect architecture; some towers still exist 
that were erected by these either as tombs or as triumphal monuments. 
Here belongs the Tower of Yezid, near Teheran, ascribed to the four- 
teenth centur>'. Towers crowned with cup)olas are found at Erivan and 
Selmas. The tomb of Mohammed Khodabenda, at Sultanieh, is a dome- 
roofed building of the fourteenth century, octangular in form and richly 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 133 

decorated upon its exterior. The mosque at Tabriz, built in the fifteenth 
century, but now in ruins, is in its arrangement related to the Byzantine 
style. 

TJie Architecture of Asia Minor and Syria is nearly allied to that of 
Egypt; yet in both these countries the many existing Byzantine models, 
and in later times the Occidental element brought in by the Cru- 
sades, made themselves felt. In the eleventh century the Seljuks had 
extended their sway over a part of Armenia and Asia Minor, and had 
erected there a great number of edifices. The most important of these 
are at Iconium (Konieh), the seat of the sultan. The castle itself, now 
only a ruin, strongly recalls the castles built at that period in more western 
lands. The great hall has a ceiling rich with color and is vaulted in that 
peculiar Oriental manner which has been compared to stalactites or 
honeycomb, to which it has, in fact, some similarity of appearance; yet 
the principle of its construction is better understood by considering it as 
composed of small projecting bracket-formed pendentives placed over one 
another. In recent times this hall has been demolished. Near the great 
mosque are two school-buildings, one of which has an interesting marble 
portal. 

Mosques, — In Caesarea there is a great mosque the whole of the nearly 
quadrangular surface of which is vaulted with small cupolas borne upon 
piers which are united by pointed arches. In Erzeroum there is a hospital 
similar to a church with galleries over the side-aisles, except that an open 
court takes the place of the nave. At the end is the dodecagonal 
tomb of the founder, which recalls the choir of a Christian church and is 
covered with a pyramidal roof similar in shape to the domes of the Chris- 
tian churches of Armenia. After the overthrow of the Seljukian kingdom 
of Iconium by the Mongols the empire of the Osmanli was founded in 
Asia, and Broussa became its capital. 

The Green Mosque at Niccea, — The works of Amurath I. (i 360-1 389) 
are almost Byzantine. The Green Mosque at Nicaea (1373-1378) has in 
its centre, instead of the open court, a square domed hall, adjoining which 
are a smaller hall and a portico. Simple pointed arches of alternate light 
and dark stone, and walls of smooth ashlar showing the Oriental patterns 
only in the frieze, characterize this building. 

A mosque built by Amurath at Chekirgeh, near Broussa, is in plan and 
elevation a Byzantine church. A cupola covers the central hall, on three 
sides of which are large alcoves, the largest, on the east side, opposite 
the entrance. The latter leads through an open arcade covered with five 
domes, and through an interior small hall, into the cupola-hall. The 
treatment of the details bespeaks the Byzantine building, but the pointed 
arches and other parts betray their Mohammedan origin. 

The Great Mosque at Broussa^ begun by Amurath and finished 
by his two immediate successors, is like that of Caesarea, where the en-* 
trance-space is roofed with small cupolas upon piers, except that in the 
centre, over a fountain, the space of one cupola is left open. A second 



134 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic 

mosque, which likewise bears Amurath's name, also shows much of the 
Byzantine manner. 

Mohammedan Art in Spain, — Mohammedan art reached its most bril- 
liant development in Spain, and the structures there erected are also those 
which most clearly mirror the genius of Islam at its purest. The highest 
culture seems to have prevailed among the Mohammedans of Spain; only 
through this did it happen that, notwithstanding external misfortunes, 
notwithstanding the perpetual advance of the Christians upon the Moham- 
medan population. Architecture was able to maintain such splendor and 
grandeur of plan combined with such artistic detail. A new element had 
been introduced. The governors of the various districts made themselves 
independent, and, as the ruler of Seville called in the Moors from Africa 
to aid him against the Christians, the new-comers almost entirely subju- 
gated Arabian Spain; so that it was under Moorish rule that the subse- 
quent development began. 

The series of Moorish buildings still left and known to us commences 
at Toledo. The Gate of the Sun has an aspiring pointed arch between 
two roimd towers; above the arch the walls show a decoration of two 
storeys of interlacing many-cuspcd horseshoe arches. The present Church 
of Santa Maria la Blanca, formerly a synagogue, belongs to the twelfth 
centur>'. It is a five-aisled basilica with polygonal pillars, above which 
high-pitched horseshoe arches bear walls decorated with a series of blind 
cinquefoil arches. The capitals as well as the spandrels between the 
arches and the cornice of the arcade are decorated with elegant ornaments 
in stucco. 

Mosque of Seville. — The African rulers of Spain often held court in 
Seville during the twelfth century, and hence we have here a series of 
splendid works. In 1 172, at the command of Yusuf Abu Jacob, was found- 
ed a mosque remains of which still exist in the later Christian Cathedral. 
Externally the arrangement is similar to that of the mosque at Cordova — 
massive flat walls with square buttresses and battlements, pierced with 
doors, windows, and blind windows. The arch is usually of the cusped 
pointed form. 

The Giralda, — A minaret — the so-called **Giralda'' — ^begun in 1195 is 
now a bell-tower, but the upper portion was rebuilt in the sixteenth cen- 
tur>' after an earthquake. The original lower portion is square and has a 
height of 60 metres (197 feet; Fergusson, 185 feet); an inclined plane in the 
thick walls fonns a convenient ascent to the platfonn. The lower portion 
of the walls is plain, but the upper part is divided into panels filled with 
decorative ornament. There are two series of these panels, three in each. 
The ancient superstructure, now replaced by work of the sixteenth cen- 
tur\', terminated in four gilded bronze spheres. 

The Alcazar^ or palace, was contemporaneous with the Giralda, but it 
was afterward essentially rebuilt, and many of these later parts yet exbt. 
The most sumptuous halls were built by Arabian workmen imder Chris- 
tian rule in the reign of Don Pedro the Cruel (1353-1364). To this period 




Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 135 

belong the halls shown on Plate 20 {^gs, 2, 4); these bear the imprint of 
the later Arabian art as it is displayed in all its splendor at Granada. 
The Corinthian-like columns and simple horseshoe arches may be rem- 
nants of the works of the close of the twelfth century. Through the 
window of Don Pedro's Hall the Cathedral was visible, and near it the 
Giralda. 

T7ie Alhambra, — Granada, the last residence of the Moorish princes, 
was the scene of the most elegant and brilliant display which the art of 
Islam has produced. The Alhambra (signifying in Arabic **the red,*' 
from the color of the bricks of which the outer walls are built) is the 
upper part of the city of Granada, the citadel, where were situated 
the royal palace and a number of other structures. The exterior shows 
only the fortifications, a strong wall flanked by thirteen square towers 
and enclosing an area of about thirty-five acres; towers and walls 
rise in solemn defiance above rugged cliffs. The palace was begun 
in the thirteenth century; at the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury Mohammed III. erected from the tribute of conquered Christians 
a mosque richly decorated with mosaics and sculptures. To Yusuf I. 
(1333-1354) are ascribed the brilliant decorations of the palace, particu- 
larly the exquisite painting of the interior. The principal parts of the 
structure belong to the reign of Yusuf s son, Mohammed V. (died 1390), 
whose name is inscribed in various halls. Some parts are even later; 
Muley Hassan (1445-1453), one of the last kings, added some portions. 

Court of the Blessing, — The apartments are grouped chiefly around two 
courts. In one angle, where the ground-plan {pi, 21, fig, 6) shows a struc- 
ture whose later origin is easily recognizable, is the entrance, which is 
enclosed by a building of several storeys. A corridor leads from this 
entrance to a court which is variously known as the Court of the Blessing 
{Patio de la Berkctfi)^ Court of the Pond, or Court of the Myrtles. It is 
140 feet long by 74 feet broad ; it is paved with white marble, and in its 
centre is a pond full of goldfish. There are arcades at both ends of the 
court, while the sides are fonned by the walls of two wings of the palace. 
At the end opposite the entrance is situated the Tower of Comares, the 
true keep of the palace. A room within the tower, occupying its entire 
width and height, was the throne-room or audience-hall, now known as 
the Hall of the Ambassadors [Sala de los Ambajadores)\ this was the grand 
reception-room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the 
entrance. The ceiling is admirably diversified with inlaid work of 
white, blue, and gold in the shape of circles, crowns, and stars, and the 
'walls are covered wath varied stucco-work of most delicate patterns. 
There are nine deeply-recessed windows, three on each fa9ade, which 
almost form small rooms in the massive wall, and from which is obtained 
a beautiful view of the city of Granada. A hall in front of the tower is 
called the *'Hall of Blessing." Most of the buildings on the west side, 
which served various purposes, are now destroyed. 

The Court of the Lions {Patio de los Leones^ pi, 20, fig, 3) is oblong — 




136 ARCHITECTURE. [Saraclnic. 

116 feet by 66 feet It is surrounded by arched porticoes, and from the 
centre of each extremity projects an arched pavilion affording admirable 
perspectives. Figure 3 (//. 19) shows the vista from the rooms behind 
the rear arcade, through the entrance, the arcade, and the pavilion, into 
the court. The square is paved with colored tiles, and the arcades with 
white marble. In the centre of the court is the celebrated Fountain of 
the Lions, a magnificent alabaster basin supported by the figures of twelve 
lions in white marble. From the fountain was thrown up a great volume 
of water, which fell into the basin and, passing through the lions, flowed 
from their mouths. Around the eastern side of the court were grouped 
the living-rooms of the royal family. 

The Hall of the Abencerrages {Jig. 2), in the centre of the south- 
em side, is a square chamber with a fountain and basin; from the hall two 
lower alcoves are separated by arcades. From pendentives fancifully con- 
structed rises a star-shaped, dome-like tambour through whose sixteen 
small trellised windows a rich light enters the hall, and above which rises 
a cupola entirely composed of honeycombed work on small pendentives 
set over one another even to its summit On the northern side of the 
court the Hall of the Two Sisters and its adjoining rooms correspond to 
the hall just described. A longer but narrower hall on the east side of 
the court is entitled the **Hall of Ju.stice." 

The Generalife {Jennas-al-Arif *' Garden of the Architect''), a 
pleasure-palace near Granada, exhibits an architecture similar to that of 
the Alhambra. It is separated from the latter by a ravine, and was prob- 
ably in the first instance an outwork of the fortress, afterward the summer 
villa of the sultans of Granada. Here dwelling-rooms are grouped around 
a great court with elegant columns and arches. An Arabian writer 
praises the garden, with its regal rose-bushes, clear brooks, and cooling 
zephyrs. 

Characteristics of Moorish Architecture. — The character of this archi- 
tecture, notwithstanding its lavish richness, is not lacking in proportion; 
for, fanciful and sportive though the forms are, there is yet full harmony 
in the whole. Solemnity and the impressiveness of a monumental struc- 
ture are certainly lacking; tectonic ideas are also but slightly expressed. 
It is a lovely play of forms, but a play only. As a fairj'-tale is a play of 
the fancy calculated to excite for a moment, so also are the rooms of the 
Alhambra a fair>'-land which forbids us to look at reality — cool shadows 
and vistas of sunlighted spaces; the ripple of fountains, the odor of 
flowers, and the twittering of birds; light and graceful architectural forms 
which seem not built, but only dreamed; the elegant play of geometrical 
ornamentation which, without wearj'ing the spirit, invites to perpetual 
musing; an ornamentation which captivates the eye and comp>els it to 
follow lines that cross and interlace in all directions; a wealth of the 
gayest and most glowing colors like gold and precious stones magically 
interwoven and blending as harmoniously as the tones of music. 

What can be more attractive than such architecture, which carries back 




Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 137 

the thought to the variegated tapestries and carved poles of the outspread 
tent under which the nomad, when after long wanderings through the 
waste he has found rest in a blooming oasis, listens to the wizard, and, 
following the witchery, forgets the real in the contemplation of the 
treasures spread out before him ? The vision of the enchanter, the magic 
castle of the wizard, is the Alhambra — a place made purposely for oblivion 
of the world's reality. In this lies its weakness. Though by long gazing 
fancy may Ijuild a magic realm, who would desire to pass his days 
under the power of its enchantment ? Grandeur and earnestness of pur- 
pose have their right and their beauty both in life and in Architecture. 

Other epochs show that a well-constructed edifice which brings the 
function of every individual part before the eyes displays a higher, nobler, 
and more intense beauty — a beauty that, while it is in correspondence 
with actual human life, gives more enduring satisfaction while it per- 
petually enchants. Eternal is that enchantment only which charms and 
overpowers when new, and which after long years may still be shown as 
such, just as truth itself can be perpetually endured. 

Moorish Art in Africa. — Though the African Moors had become the 
possessors of Mohammedan Spain, it was not Moorish but Arabian archi- 
tects who constructed their monuments, even until Moorish rule came to 
an end, in the fifteenth century, and the Moors were completely driven 
out of Spain. The African rulers took Spanish architects into their 
native land, where they reared important structures similar to those 
of Spain, though perhaps not so fanciful. Thus, Jacob-al-Mans6r 
erected at Morocco at the close of the twelfth century a mosque the 
minaret of which is said to have been a perfect copy of the Giralda at 
Seville and to have been the work of the same architect. When, at the 
commencement of the thirteenth century, the splendor of Morocco had 
been transferred to Tunis, Andalusian architects also went there and 
erected important works. 

Mohammedan Art in India. — The sway of Islam was not solely 
extended westward: Mohammedan hosts passed even into India, and at 
the close of the twelfth century founded an empire which soon surpassed 
in splendor all others, whether Mohammedan or Christian. Delhi, the 
capital — the **Envy of the World" — ^was filled with magnificent struc- 
tures of all kinds. It reached the climax of its glory under the Taghlaks 
(1321-1398), the last of whom was overthrown by Timour (Tamerlane), 
whose Mongolian hordes so thoroughly destroyed the city that it never 
recovered. The dimensions and the splendor of these structures generally 
surpassed those of other Mohammedan lands. 

Kutab'Min&r. — The peculiar conical tower which stands among the 
ruins of Old Delhi is believed to be the oldest of the Mohammedan mon- 
uments of India. This, rising from a star-shaped ground-plan and dimin- 
ishing to the summit, bears the name of Kutab-Mindr (//. 21, Jig. i). 
Hear this tower are the remains of an extensive mosque. 

We have before endeavored to explain the status of Hindu art at 



138 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic. 

that period; certain elements derived from it naturally mingled with 
Mohammedan art. It may even be that older Hindu buildings were 
altered to suit their new occupants. This mosque has an extensive court 
enclosing a second smaller court, each surrounded by arcades. Some por- 
tions have large capstones upon square pillars, and horizontal lintels 
upon these. Other parts have pointed arches reverse-curved; yet these 
likewise are constnicted by corbelling in Hindu fashion. Cupolas are 
also employed. These monuments are attributed to the twelfth or thir- 
teenth century, but this certainly needs careful verification, since, though 
liere, as elsewhere, later additions may have crept in which have altered 
their character, it does not follow that the original portions are to be 
referred to so earlv a date. 

This mixture of Mohammedan and Hindu forms occurs also in three 
mosques at Jaunpur, which city was tlie seat of an independent dynasty 
in the first three quarters of the fifteenth century. It is a peculiarity of 
these mosques that in the middle of the arcaded courts which lie in front 
of the sanctuar}' grand portals arise, some crowned with cupolas, others 
flat-topped; by their massiveness these bring to mind the pylons of the 
Egyptian temples. This admixture of forms is yet more pleasing in the 
Mosque of Ahmedabad, the capital of the kingdom of Guzerat, whose 
rulers were Hindus converted to Islam. These are of the fifteenth 
century, or later. We can readily believe that these buildings were 
constructed by Hindu artists and workmen, while Arabian priests or 
rulers — perhaps some Arabian architects* — dictated the plan. In other 
places the Mohammedan element predominated in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. 

The mosque built at Gour, in Bengal (1358-1367), is an extensive brick 
building, plain even to cnideness, and roofed with three hundred and 
eighty-five low cupolas. The mosque at Mandu, erected in the first half 
of the fifteenth century, has monolithic square pillars of red sandstone 
connected by pointed arches; on these rest small pointed domes, while 
upon the west side three similar large domes rest on twelve columns. 
After the Moguls had established their empire in India, Mohammedan 
fonns came more into the foreground, but they show such a resemblance 
to Persian works that they must be considered together. 

Pcrsiati'Mohammcdafi Art, — Shah Abbas the Great(i597-i629)fixed his 
residence at Ispahan and decorated it with magnificent buildings which, 
notwithstanding their vast dimensions, evidence the late period of their 
erection in the fanciful freedom displayed in the decoration. 

The Mydan-i-Shah^ or Great Square — the most remarkable feature 
of the city, and probably the largest s<iuare in the world, being 2000 
feet long by 700 feet wide — is surrounded by a bazaar formed of two- 
storey arcades with reverse-curved pointed arches. The comers of the 
square face the cardinal points, and in the centre of each face some 

' The M<»Icin invaders of India were all of Tartar origin; all Arabian influence was, therefore, 
probably indirect. Rcli|;iuD prescribed the >tyle. — Ed. 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 139 

remarkable building varies the bazaar-arcades. On the north-west is the 
Ali-Kdpi, forming the entrance to the royal palace. It is three storeys 
high, and from the summit is obtained a splendid view of the city and 
environs. Opposite the Ali-Kdpi, on the south-east side of the square, 
is the famous Mesjid-i-Shah, or ** royal mosque." The central hall of 
this mosque is square, and has a dome which, like those of India, is 
pear-shaped. The whole is lined throughout with glazed tiles and is 
richly decorated with gold and silver ornaments, constituting it the hand- 
somest mosque in all Persia. In the centre of the north-east face of 
the square is the gate-entrance to the great bazaar usually called the- 
Kaiserieh, and on the south-west side is another mosque which is inferior 
only to the Mesjid-i-Shah in grandeur and beauty (Rawlinson). Among 
the other mosques of the city are several of considerable importance. 

Chthil'Sutun.-^Th^ Myddn-i-Shah adjoins the quarter of the royal 
palace built by Shah Abbas. This is an oblong space of upward of 
forty acres, surrounded by walls and containing palaces, pleasure-houses, 
and other dwellings embosomed amid beautiful gardens. The most 
sumptuous of the structures is the Royal Palace, called Chihil-Sut6n 
("the Forty Pillars"). It has an entrance-hall with four rows of six 
columns, the bases of which are formed oi groups of four lions. Columns 
and ceilings are brilliant with the richest decorations of colors, gold, 
and silver, between which glisten thousands of small mirrors. The 
Tomb of Abbas II. is also famous; this is a dodecagon with a dome 
glowing in gold and azure. 

TTie Medresseh (college) of Shah Sultan Hussain was erected about 
1730 in this quarter of the city. The entrance to the college — a lofty 
portico enriched with fantastically twisted pillars and intermixed with 
beautiful marble of Tabriz — leads through a pair of brazen gates finished 
with silver and their whole surface highly carved and embossed with 
flowers and verses from the Koran. The gates conduct to an elevated 
semi-dome which opens at once into the court of the college. The right 
side of this court is occupied by the mosque; the other sides of the square 
are occupied, one by a lofty and beautiful portico, and the remaining two 
sides by rooms for the students, twelve on each front, arranged in two 
storeys. These apartments are little square cells, and seem admirably 
calculated for study (Morier). 

The mosque is still a beautiful building; it is covered with a cupola 
and faced with two minarets. The plan itself is entirely similar to that 
of the older buildings, and so is the method of decoration with glazed 
tiles; the patterns of these exhibit a playful fancy characteristic of the 
late date. Teheran has been the capital of Persia since 1796. The exist- 
ing palace of this city imitates that of Ispahan in a very bizarre fashion. 

Caravansaries, — Particularly characteristic of Persia are the caravan- 
saries — often of large dimensions — placed at intervals along the high- 
roads. The description of these, like that of all that is left of ancient 
Persian art in our day, belongs to Ethnography. 



I40 ARCHITECTURE. [Saracenic 

Indian-Mohammedan Architecture. — In strict connection with Persian 
architecture follows a broader architectural development in India; the 
flourishing period of this new Indian-Mohammedan style was in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. Shah Akbar the Great founded a new 
capital at Agra, not far from Delhi, and adorned it with majestic edifices. 
His tomb follows the type of the tumulus and terraced pyramid, or, rather, 
that of the topes. The stupendous granite structure consists of four 
storeys diminishing in pyramidal form and sunnounted by an empty sar- 
cophagus. Of greater magnificence is Akbar' s Palace at Agra, profusely 
adorned with mosaics and decorations of all kinds. 

The Jdmd'MasJid, — Shah Jahdn, the grandson of Akbar, built New 
Delhi. Among the forty mosques of this city, the largest, Jdmd-Masjid, 
or the Great Mosque, is the most notable; its facade is shown on Plate 21 
(yf^. 5). The central dome, hidden by the portal in the view, has the 
same form as the side-domes. The building is surrounded by an addi- 
tional arcaded wall, which stands on a high substructure; at each angle 
rises a tall minaret, and in the centre of each of the three sides is an 
immense gateway to which access is obtained by a broad flight of stairs. 
It is a magnificent sight to view from afar the ensemble of this 
mosque, with its slender minarets, its towers, and its grand portals. It 
was constructed 1631-1637 A. D. Variously colored materials — red sand- 
stone for the base, marble and brick for the superstructure, gilding on the 
summits of the domes — add to the charm of the whole. 

The Moti'Masjid (Pearl Mosque) at Agra, built of white marble, with 
a decoration of golden inscriptions on a blue ground, is very celebrated. 
It is described by Fergusson as follows: ** Its dimensions are considerable, 
being externally 235 feet east and west by 190 feet north and south, and 
the court-yard 155 feet square. The mass is also considerable, as the whole 
is raised on a terrace of artificial construction, by the aid of which it 
stands well out from the surrounding buildings of the fort. Its chief 
beauty consists in its court-yard, which is wholly of white marble from the 
pavement to the summit of its domes. In design it somewhat resembles 
the great Delhi mosque, except that the minarets are omitted and the side 
gateways are only recesses. The western part, or mosque projjerly so 
called, is of white marble inside and out, and, except an inscription from 
the Kurdn inlaid with black marble as a frieze, has no ornament whatever 
beyond the lines of its own graceful architecture." 

The TAj'MahaL — But before all is the mausoleum built by the emperor 
Shah Jahdn for the remains of his beloved wife, Mumtizi Mahal, and in 
which he himself is buried. This mausoleum is known as one of the 
wonders of the world, and it is said that twenty thousand workmen were 
employed in its erection during a period of twenty-two years. The fol- 
lowing is the account given by Fergusson: ** The enclosure, including the 
gardens and outer court, is a parallelogram of i860 feet by more than 
1000 feet. The outer court, surrounded by arcades and adorned by four 
gateways, forms an oblong occupying in length the whole breadth of the 



Saracenic] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 141 

enclosure by about 450 feet in depth. The principal gateway, measuring' 
no feet by 140, leads from the court to the gardens, which, with their 
marble canals and fountains and cypress trees, are almost as beautiful as 
the tomb itself. The tomb stands on a raised platform, 18 feet high, faced 
with white marble, and is exactly 313 feet square. At each comer of this 
terrace stands a minaret 133 feet in height and of the most exquisite pro- 
portions — more beautiful, perhaps, than any other in India. In the centre 
of the marble platform stands the mausoleum, a square of 186 feet, with 
the comers cut off to the extent of 33 feet 9 inches. The centre of this 
is occupied by the principal dome, 58 feet in diameter and 80 feet in 
height, under which is an enclosure formed by a screen of trellis-work 
of white marble, a chef-d^ oeuvre of elegance in Indian art. Within this 
stand the two tombs. These, however, as is usual in Indian sepulchres, 
are not the true tombs: the bodies rest in a vault level with the surface of 
the ground, beneath plainer tombstones placed exactly underneath those 
in the hall above. In each angle of the building is a smaller dome of two 
storeys in height, 26 feet 8 inches in diameter, and connected by various 
passages and halls. The light to the central apartment is admitted only 
through double screens of white marble trellis-work of the most exquisite 
design, one on the outer and one on the inner face of the walls. In our 
climate this would produce nearly complete darkness, but in India, and 
in a building wholly composed of white marble, this was required to 
temper the glare, which otherwise would have been intolerable. As it is, 
no words can express the chastened beauty of that central chamber, seen 
in the soft gloom of the subdued light which reaches it through the dis- 
tant and half-closed openings that surround it. When used as a pleasure- 
palace, it must have been the coolest and the loveliest of garden retreats, 
and now that it is sacred to the dead it is the most graceful and most 
impressive of the sepulchres of the world. This building is an early 
example of that system of inlaying with precious stones which became 
the great characteristic of the style of the Mughuls after the death of 
Akbar. All the spandrels of the Tdj, all the angles and more important 
architectural details, are heightened by being inlaid with precious stones, 
such as agates, bloodstones, jaspers, and the like. These are combined 
in wreaths, scrolls, and frets as exquisite in design as they are beautiful 
in color, and, relieved by the pure white marble in which they are inlaid, 
they form the most beautiful and precious style of ornament ever adopted 
in architecture. It is lavishly bestowed on the tombs themselves and the 
screens that surround them, but more sparingly introduced on the mosque 
that forms one wing of the Taj, and on the fountains and surrounding 
buildings. The judgment, indeed, with which this style of ornament is 
apportioned to the various parts is almost as remarkable as the ornament 
itself, and conveys a high idea of the taste and skill of the Indian archi- 
tects of this age." 

To the closing period of Indian-Mohammedan architecture belongs a 
palace at Madura in which a great hall, represented on Plate 21 {Jig. 2), is 



142 ARCHITECTURE. ' [Saracenic 

particularly remarkable. In Bijapur a series of important monuments 
remain, as the Jama Mosque, built by Ali Adil Shah, and the mausoleums 
of Ibrahim Adil Shah (1626) and Sultan Mohammed Shdh, the last inde- 
pendent rulers of Bijapur. The last of the architectural monuments to 
be here considered is the Mausoleum of Hyder Ali, erected at Seringa- 
patam in the second half of the eighteenth centun^. This is a magnificent 
domical structure with minarets, but with most degraded details. 

Mohatnmcdan Art in Turkey. — In European Turkey art entered on a 
new phase at the taking of Constantinople (1453). If even at an earlier 
period Byzantine art had exercised a most important influence upon the 
plans of mosques, this was still more the case now that the old Agia 
Sofia had become the chief sanctuar\' of the Mussulmans and the pattern 
for all future mosques. Santa Sophia itself was by the addition of mina- 
rets and various accessor}' structures altered to correspond with the new 
cult. 

Mosques. — Plate 22 {Jigs, i, 2) shows the appearance of two Ottoman 
mosques; that of Sultan Bajazet belongs to the fifteenth centurj', that of 
Suleiman to the sixteenth. Pleasing from its interior decoration of Per- 
sian glazed tiles is that built by the Sultana Valid^ in the seventeenth 
centiir}', and particularly magnificent is that of Sultan Achmet, which 
has six minarets. 

The palaces of the fifteenth centur>' followed the system of the 
Alhambra in plan and structure, and there are still in Constantinople 
some elegant remains of more ancient times; but the bizarre influence of 
the West made itself felt more and more, and whatever is now built in 
Constantinople, though in some cases characterized by great richness or 
imposing dimensions and showing many remnants of ancient Oriental 
motifs^ may yet be regarded as a degraded example of the style prevalent 
in France and Italy in the seventeenth century, and more particularly in 
the eighteenth. The tower of the Seraskierat (VVar-Oflftce; fig. 3) 
exhibits this fantastic Occidental style. Every stranger ascends this 
tower to enjoy the splendid view which it affords. 

Fountain of Sultan Achmet. — Constantinople has a number of mon- 
umental fountains, of which that of Sultan Achmet (Jig. 4) is the best 
known, and was made familiar to the entire West by an exquisite copy 
in the Vienna Elxposition of 1873. ^^ ^^ a charming stnicture of 
marble, with a rich decoration of flat ornamental relief, with varied colors 
and gilding, and with elegant trellises to the angle pavilions. In some 
cases even here the elements of the Occidental and Oriental styles mingle 
with beautiful effect. 

Mural Decoration. — When we examine the ornamentation exhibited 
in all these works, as shown on Plates 19-22 and as given in detail on 
Plate 19 (fi::[s. 4-1 n and Plate 22 Kfigs. 5, 6), it becomes evident tliat the 
endeavor was ahv.iys to enliven flat surfaces with diaper patterns, and that 
this was effecle<l h\ most intricate, and often astonishing, combinations of 
interlacing lines and bands, into which foliage enters in only a subor- 



>■> 



The Russians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 143 

^inate degree. But in Persia, and to some extent in India, a school of 
naturalistic plant-like decoration sprang up under the influence of 
imported Chinese products, and extended also to the ornamentation of 
European Turkey. ^ 

4. Russian Architecture. 

The Slavic races are late to appear in history, and among them the 
Russian alone developed a completely independent, really national style. 
While some Slavic nationalities followed Byzantine culture until they 
were crushed under Turkish rule, their style thus becoming but a remnant 
of the Byzantine, others, as the Bohemians and the Poles, whose confines 
bordered on Germany, followed the architecture of the Western Christian 
nations. The style of the Russians even is not of original development, 
since, like their entire culture, it is linked with Byzantium, and since 
even at its commencement foreign elements, especially those proceeding 
from the Western nationalities and from Mohammedan art, entered into 
its composition. A certain degree of originality, however, has adhered 
in the course of this development. A glance at Plate 23 shows us a style 
•distinct from all others, yet on the whole closely connected with the 
later schools of Mohammedan architecture. Let us endeavor to follow 
the development of this style until we reach the point at which it pre- 
sented the appearance shown on the Plate. 

Russian Cimlization begins with the conversion of the race to Chris- 
tianity. We do not mean that the Russians were entirely uncivilized 
before their conversion: their status was about the same as had been 
that of the rest of Europe before the impulses of classical art and of 
Christianity left only the north-east of Europe unaffected. Kiev was the 
ancient capital. Though this city was far removed from the centres of 
the world's activity, it was still near enough to be cognizant of the prog- 
ress of events. At the time of the conversion of the other Slavic races to 
Christianity, Vladimir the Great sent to Constantinople for priests to 
baptize his people, and for himself asked the hand of the Princess Anne, 
sister of Theophania,.the wife of Otho the Great. His request was granted, 
and he and his people were baptized at Cherson in the year 988. He at 
once destroyed the image of the national god, Perun, at Kiev, erected 
there the Church of St. Mary, and founded a series of other ecclesiastical 
institutions, of which at the time of his death four hundred existed in 
Kiev alone. Meanwhile, Greek missionaries went everywhere through 
the land establishing episcopates and erecting churches and convents. 

Architecture of the Eleventh Century, — The architecture of the coun- 
try up to this period had not been monumental, and the new churches 
were built of wood. With the aid of Greek workmen the sons of 
Vladimir constructed the cathedrals, some of which still exist. Thus, 
Mstislav, prince of Tmutorakan, built a Church of Santa Sophia in 1026 
at his capital, Chernigov; while the Grand Duke Jaroslav erected the 
•churches of Santa Sophia at Kiev (1037) and Novgorod (1044-1051), as 



144 ARCHITECTURE. [The Russians. 

well as the Abbey Church at Lavra (1054). These structures somewhat 
closely followed the Byzantine style of architecture, as their names — 
taken from the original Church of Santa Sophia at Constantinople — 
indicate. The centre consisted of a cupola surrounded by barrel-vaulted 
areas, which, as in Santa Sophia at Constantinople, remained without 
any roof above the vaulting. The church at Novgorod is said to have 
had originally five cupolas. The cathedral erected by Vladimir in 1152 
exhibits a precisely similar arrangement. 

ArcJiiiccture of the Tivelfth Century, — During the course of the twelfth 
century the Russians gradually learned to dispense with the aid of Greek 
artificers and took church -architecture entirely into their own liand.s. 
The great church of the Susdal Convent, which Vsewolod Juijevich 
erected in 11 76, was constnicted by Russian workmen. Nevertheless, 
the style up to this i:)eriod may be considered as thoroughly Byzantine. 

Architecture of the Thirteenth Century. — At the beginning of the 
thirteenth century German colonies had already penetrated extensively 
among the Slavic peoples, and had brought with them their Western 
Architecture, with which the Russians thus became acquainted, and 
which must have exercised at least a temporary influence. Many details 
recall the German stnictures of that period. The bedchamber of the 
Grand Duke Andrei in the Convent of Bogoliubov, not far from Vladi- 
mir, is entirely Romanesque in style. 

Conquest of the Mongols, — In 1237, Russia fell a prey to the Mongols^ 
who, however, remained contented with the suzerainty of the countr>', 
but who, through the frequent visits of the Russian grand dukes and 
barons to the court of the Great Khan, must have exercised an indirect 
influence. Kiev ceased to be the capital, and after Vladimir had enjoyed 
this honor for a short time Moscow became in 1328 the seat of the grand 
dukes, as well as of the archbishop or metropolitan. The city, built 
entirely of wood, suffered repeatedly from conflagrations. 

Architecture of the Fifteenth Century. — I'p to the close of the fif- 
teenth century there were in all Russia no stone structures except the 
churches: houses and palaces — even tlie walls of various cities — were of 
wood. Bishop Euphemius of Novgorod is said to have been the first who 
erected a palace of stone (1433); it was constnicted by German architects. 
The Grand Duke Ivan III. summoned architects, masons, quarrj*- 
men, smiths, goldsmiths, and bell-founders from the West. He mar- 
ried (1472) a princess of the exiled Byzantine family of the Palseologi; she 
had been educated in Italy, and brought Western ideas to her new home. 
In 1494 the metropolitan Jonas erected a stone palace. 

Church of the Assumption. — When Ivan III., employing Russian work- 
men, had nearly completed the stone church of the Assumption of St. 
Mar\* up)on the Kremlin, in Moscow, it entirely collapsed, and he de- 
spatched an embassy to the Doge of Wnice for an architect, who was 
deputed to him in the person of Ridolfo Fioravanti of Bologna. But 
when this artist^ after an honorable reception^ entered upon his duties 




The Russians.] ARCHITECTURE OF LATER RACES. 145 

(1475), he was commanded to keep strictly to the style of the countr}'', and 
especially to take the Cathedral of Vladimir for his model. In 1479 the 
still-existing structure was completed. The walls have outside buttresess 
united by arches, four on each side and three at each end; these arches 
correspond to barrel-vaults which are without any outer roof-covering. 
In the centre rises a dome, and four similar domes stand at the four angles, 
all upon lofty tambours. These cupolas, like those of the Persians and 
Hindus, are bulb-shaped. There are three apses on the eastern side. 
Small blind arcades on colonnettes with cuboidal capitals and rings of 
mouldings round the shafts, which rest on consoles, are reminiscences of 
the Romanesque of the West, while the Renaissance is denoted in the 
Ionic pilaster-caps. The Church of the Archangel Michael was the work 
of the same architect, and has exactly the same characteristics. 

Architecture of the Sixteenth Century. — If 'the aspect of the churches 
of the fifteenth centur\' is decidedly Oriental, that of the churches of the 
sixteenth century is much more so, on account of their greater elabora- 
tion. Though the architects were chiefly foreigners, the pure forms of 
the Renaissance are nowhere employed, and can be recognized only with 
difiiculty among the completely fanciful, and for the most part barbaric, 
workmanship surrounding them. Next to the two churches in the Krem- 
lin comes that of the Annunciation, a work of the Italian architect Aloisio. 
In this theexterior of the barrel-vaults takes the form of the pointed arch, 
and instead of five cupolas there are nine. 

The Cathedral Vassili BIashennoi{St- Basil) was built in 1554 by Ivan 
the Terrible. This consists of eighteen smaller shrines united, ananged 
in two differently-designed storeys, and provided with the greatest variet}'' 
of dome-covered towers {pL 27,^ Jig, 3). The fonn of the domes, which 
curve out far beyond their tambours and bear immense crosses, the pecu- 
liar decoration of the tower-like tambours with round and pointed arched 
pediments, as well as the filling in of the few flat surfaces, are extraordi- 
narily characteristic. A number of details recall the Italian style, yet the 
composition as a whole is thoroughly original and produces a decidedly 
Oriental impression. A miniature imitation of this structure is the 
Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist at Jakovo, near Moscov/, 
in which five octangular chapels are symmetrically arranged into a square 
plan and four lower cupolas are dominated by a large central structure. 

Architecture of the Seventeenth Century, — The churches erected in 
the seventeenth centur}' have less fanciful shapes, but the details have be- 
come still more bizarre; Figures i, 2, and 4 show very characteristic 
examples. Even palaces obtained a fantastic expression, chiefly through 
capricious and improper use of Renaissance forms, which in palace- as in 
church-construction developed into an independent national style {Jig, 5). 
At the end of the sixteenth century, in the time of Peter the Great, when 
the Western style itself became fantastic by its degradation into the 
baroque style, Russia came into closer relations with the Occident, and the 
old forms became antiquated and survived only in remoter districts. At 

Vol. IV.— 10 



146 ARCHITECTURE, [Germaii. 

the present day the attempt is being made to bring them again into general 
use as a national clement. Even outside of Russia, wherever Russian 
princesses live or colonies of rich Russians are settled we see national 
Russian churches which, with their gilded bulb-shaped cupolas, look 
stran-;c enough amid their surroundings, yet which preserve in their 
details more of the antique classic forms than their prototypes in Russia. 

IV. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE. 

The ancient classic culture was in the days of the Carolingians 
revived for the last time before its final extinction by the Gothic races, 
who were now spread over Western Europe, and who overwhelmed with 
destruction all those external conditions under which alone a great civ- 
ilization can flourish. The world lapsed again into barbarism, with all 
its attendant passions and miseries. Accompanying these evils, however, 
was an intense longing for better things. An Ideal began to fonn — 
the establishment of lasting ]x?ace throughout the world and the attain- 
ment of virtue by each individual. The possessors of this Ideal were 
not the inhabitants of some special country, nor did it arise where 
external conditions were so decisive or where the reactive influence of 
the older races which the Germans had overthrown had been so potent 
that almost a new people had developed. The possessors of this Ideal 
were all that family of Western Christian races under Teutonic dominiojn, 
even as these races were themselves the seat of the evil. 

Diverse as was the nature of all the peoples who were subject to the 
Germanic tribes, and who gradually again forced themselves into promi- 
nence, yet the bond of the Church and the still widely-prevalent impress 
of the ancient autocratic rule of the emperors (whose last great representa- 
tive, Charlemagne, was fresh in the memorv' of all) had so much in com- 
mon with the status these emperors had established, and the supremacy 
of the Teutons was everywhere so complete, that all minor differences 
vanished. Though the imity of the empire was gone, though everj'where 
the leaders founded small independent kingdoms whose existence each 
neighbor menaced that he might aggrandize his own, yet all were vividly 
impressed with the idea that the empire had been a useful institution, 
which had promoted that peace after which mankind yearned amidst 
battle and rapine. 

Church and State, — That great Ideal contemplated two authorities — 
an inner, spiritual, and an outer, material, power — which should rule the 
world in common. The Church was the first of these; its office was to 
civilize, to teach, to cultivate the arts of peace, to soften manners, to 
reconcile men to God, to prepare all for another life, and to organize the 
dispensation of the sacraments. To protect and sustain the Church was 
the oflSce of the temporal power, to take the sword whenever necessary 
for the maintenance of right or the overthrow of wrong, and to arrange 
temporal affairs. 

As the pope was the head of the Church, so should the emperor be the 



Tenth Century.] ROMANESQUE. 147 

source of temporal authority; all kings should derive their power from 
him and delegate that power to their vassals, just as bishops and priests in 
their various grades receive their missions from the pope. The vassal's 
duty was that of fealty and obedience; so that the whole of society, from 
its highest ranks to its lowest, should be made up of a series of dependent 
relations the basis of which was reciprocal loyalty, to the end that the 
highest should be as little independent as the lowest. The Church and 
the temporal power — pope and emperor — were to be related like sun and 
moon. 

But this was only an Ideal — an Ideal which for a long period found 
not even a definite expression, and was felt and perceived rather than 
systematically established; an Ideal which in the course of time varied in 
particular features, but which through self-interest, ambition, and other 
human passions, was cast aside as often as it became inconvenient, and 
•which no authority was sufficiently powerful constantly to sustain. 

Since Teutonic races ruled the Western World, it was but natural 
that Germany itself should take the lead, and though it was also the 
representative of the dominant world-idea, though it was recognized as 
the highest political power in Europe, it could not entirely acquire tem- 
poral rule, it could not unify the states of Europe into a complete system 
-such as that which the Church had developed. The latter existed as a 
•dominant and unchangeable unity notwithstanding it was assailed by the 
inconsiderate maintenance of individual interests in opposition to the sys- 
tem. These individual interests, in fact, prevented the state from devel- 
•oping into a European unity. But the Ideal had been best maintained in 
^Germanv. It is true that the defencelessness of small dominions had 
made itself felt here more than elsewhere. Within the empire smoul- 
dered civil war; foreign enemies overran the boundaries; the Slavs swept 
in, and the tenth century had not far progressed before the Magyars 
threw themselves in countless swarms over Germany and spread over the 
duchies of Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia, Lorraine, and Saxony. 

A. GERMAN ROMANESQUE OF THE TENTH CENTURY. 

In the year 919, Henry I. was elected king of Germany. When the 
Magyars again made their appearance, in 924, he procured a nine years' 
peace by payment of tribute. He had need of this rest to reinstate the 
ruined frontier fortresses erected by the Carolingians and to fortify his 
castles so that they might become places of refuge. In Saxony and 
Thuringia fortified towns sprang up, as Quedlinburg, Merseburg, Goslar, 
Brunswick, Nordhausen, Soest, Schleswig, etc. At his residence, Qued- 
linburg, Henry built the Church of St. Wipertus and the Convent of St. 
Servatius, and in 930 he constructed a fortress at Merseburg, and also the 
stone Church of St. John the Baptist His palace at Merseburg is 
described as a two-storeyed stone building, in the upper banqueting-hall of 
which the king's victory over the Magyars (933) was commemorated by 
.mural paintings. The nucleus of Goslar was the protecting fortress of 



146 ARCHITECTURE, [German. 

the present day the attempt is being made to bring them again into general 
use as a national clement. Even ontside of Rnssia, wherever Rnssian 
princesses live or colonies of rich Russians are settled we see national 
Russian churches which, with their gilded bulb-shaped cupolas, look 
stran-;c enough amid their surroundings, yet which preserx'e in their 
details more of the antique classic forms than their prototypes in Russia. 

IV. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE. 

The ancient classic culture was in the days of the Carolingians 
revived for the last time before its final extinction by the Gothic races, 
who were now spread over Western Euroi>e, and who overwhelmed with 
destruction all those external conditions under which alone a great civ- 
ilization can flourish. The world lapsed again into barbarism, with all 
its attendant passions and miseries. Accompanying these evils, however, 
was an intense longing for better things. An Ideal began to fonn — 
the establishment of lasting peace throughout the world and the attain- 
ment of virtue by each individual. The possessors of this Ideal were 
not the inhabitants of some special countr}', nor did it arise where 
external conditions were so decisive or where the reactive influence of 
the older races which the Germans had overthrown had been so potent 
that almost a new people had developed. The possessors of this Ideal 
were all that family of Western Christian races under Teutonic dominiojn, 
even as these races were themselves the seat of the evil. 

Diverse as was the nature of all the peoples who were subject to the 
Germanic tribes, and who gradually again forced themselves into promi- 
nence, yet the bond of the Church and the still widely-prevalent impress 
of the ancient autocratic rule of the emperors (whose last great representa- 
tive, Charlemagne, was fresh in the memor\' of all) had so much in com- 
mon with the status these emperors had established, and the supremacy 
of the Teutons was everywhere so complete, that all minor differences 
vanished. Though the unity of the empire was gone, though everywhere 
the leaders founded small independent kingdoms whose existence each 
neighbor menaced that he might aggrandize his own, yet all were vividly 
impressed with the idea that the empire had been a useful institution, 
which had promoted that peace after which mankind yearned amidst 
battle and rapine. 

Church and State, — That great Ideal contemplated two authorities — 
an inner, spiritual, and an outer, material, power — which should rule the 
world in common. The Church was the first of these; its office was to 
civilize, to teach, to cultivate the arts of peace, to soften manners, to 
reconcile men to God, to prepare all for another life, and to organize the 
dispensation of the sacraments. To protect and sustain tlie Church was 
the oflSce of the temporal power, to take the sword whenever necessar>' 
for the maintenance of right or the overthrow of wrong, and to arrange 
temporal affairs. 

As the pope was the head of the Church, so should the emperor be the 



Tenth Century.] R OMANESQ UE. 147 

.source of temporal authority; all kings should derive their power from 
him and delegate that power to their vassals, just as bishops and priests in 
their various grades receive their missions from the pope. The vassal's 
duty was that of fealty and obedience; so that the whole of society, from 
its highest ranks to its lowest, should be made up of a series of dependent 
relations the basis of which was reciprocal loyalty, to the end that the 
highest should be as little independent as the lowest. The Church and 
the temporal power — pope and emperor — were to be related like sun and 
moon. 

But this was only an Ideal — an Ideal which for a long period found 
not even a definite expression, and was felt and perceived rather than 
systematically established ; an Ideal which in the course of time varied in 
particular features, but which through self-interest, ambition, and other 
human passions, was cast aside as often as it became inconvenient, and 
•which no authority was sufficiently powerful constantly to sustain. 

Since Teutonic races ruled the Western World, it was but natural 
that Germany itself should take the lead, and though it was also the 
representative of the dominant world-idea, though it was recognized as 
the highest political power in Europe, it could not entirely acquire tem- 
poral rule, it could not unify the states of Europe into a complete system 
•such as that which the Church had developed. The latter existed as a 
dominant and unchangeable unity notwithstanding it was assailed by the 
inconsiderate maintenance of individual interests in opposition to the sys- 
tem. These individual interests, in fact, prevented the state from devel- 
•oping into a European unity. But the Ideal had been best maintained in 
^Germany. It is true that the defencelessness of small dominions had 
made itself felt here more than elsewhere. Within the empire smoul- 
dered civil war; foreign enemies overran the boundaries; the Slavs swept 
in, and the tenth century had not far progressed before the Magyars 
threw themselves in countless swarms over Germany and spread over the 
duchies of Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia, Lorraine, and Saxony. 

A. GERMAN ROMANESQUE OF THE TENTH CENTURY. 

In the year 919, Henry I. was elected king of Germany. When the 
Magyars again made their appearance, in 924, he procured a nine years' 
peace by payment of tribute. He had need of this rest to reinstate the 
■ruined frontier fortresses erected by the Carolingians and to fortify his 
castles so that they might become places of refuge. In Saxony and 
Thuringia fortified towns sprang up, as Quedlinburg, Merseburg, Goslar, 
Brunswick, Nordhausen, Soest, Schleswig, etc. At his residence, Qued- 
linburg, Henry built the Church of St Wipertus and the Convent of St. 
Servatius, and in 930 he constructed a fortress at Merseburg, and also the 
stone Church of St. John the Baptist His palace at Merseburg is 
described as a two-storeyed stone building, in the upper banqueting-hall of 
•which the king's victory over the Magyars (933) was commemorated by 
.mural paintings. The nucleus of Goslar was the protecting fortress of 



I4S ARCHITECTURE. [German, 

the Georq^sbcrg. Not only the cilics, but also the convents, were fortified, 
both for their own siifety and for the security of the countn* in general. 

i\Wk^ of' Otho the Great in Saxony. — Otho the Great (923-973) 
re-establi.s!icd the empire and conquered Italy. A new epoch dawned 
on Germany; the chroniclers of the time speak of it as the return of 
the ancient Golden Ai^e. Bishoprics and monasteries l>ecame centres 
of art and knowledge; buildinjx was extensively carried on, especially 
in Saxon lands. Near the St. Wijx^rtus Church in Ouedlinburg a mon- 
astery was K>'.inde<l, atid for this purpose a new building was doubtless 
undertaken, tl:e crvpt of which still remains. The Convent of Fulda 
was rebuilt, with the help of Otho, by Abbot Hadamar. The church 
was a three-aisjed basilica with two choirs, l>eneath which were cr>'pts; 
the walls of the nave were borne bv twentv columns. It was ded- 
icated in 94S. Abbot Wehrinhar Iniilt in 970 a chapel dedicated 
to St. John the Kaptist, and united to it a double colonnade, which 
surrounded a rectangular court called '* Paradise. '' The eastern part 
collapsed in luo, and of this, as of the later constnictions of the Middle 
Ages, there is no trace remaining. 

In Magdeburg, Otlio founded a Benedictine monaster)*, in the church 
of which his wife, Editha (died 946), Vvas buried. It is said that on the 
site of the church there were laid in 963 ihe foundations of the cathe- 
dral in which in oS"^ tlie first archbishop was consecrated. Like his 
predecessors, C>tho for this purpose had sent marble columns from Italy; 
though the structure was devastated by fire in 1207, these columns, 
with their capitals, are still to be seen in the present structure. WTien 
the cathedral was founded on the site of the St. Maurice Monasterv, 
the monks were transferred by r)tho to the Riddagsberg, near Magde- 
burg; here was erected the monaster)* of IJergcn, dedicated to St John 
the Baptist, which became so celebrated in after-years. The original 
stnicture was destroyed by fire as early as 1017. In Otho's reign there 
was built in a suburb of Magdeburg a church of red wood which was 
burned in loi ;. 

We must not forget that in general most of the churches of that 
age, as well as the cities in which they were built, were of wood. The 
Arclibishop Adaldag of Hamburg, who founded the bishoprics of Sles- 
wick. Ripe, and Aarhus in 908, built here, xs elsewhere in his ecclesias- 
tical juris<liction, churches of wtxxl only. 

In Otho's reign a numlvr of other buildings were erected in Saxony 
bv his barons. In the year 030 the Convent of the Virgin at Schil* 
deselie, north of I.ielefeld, was establiNliol, and its church was built bv 
ma<ons and stonecutters brought fnun France. The canonical establish- 
ment of Walbcck, tounded in oji and finished in 906, was a stately 
structure with four churches; in loii it fella nrev to the flames. 

The Cathedral of Mindeti was built in on^. The nunncrv of Hillers* 
]el>en on the < )hre i in the .\Umark\ erected in 05S, was after its destruction, 
in the year iool\ converteil into a monastery. St. Gero, niargra\x of 



Tenth Century.] ROMANESQUE. 149 

Lausitz and Nordmark, founded the monastery of Gernrode in 960. In 
961, Bishop Bernhard of Halberstadt instituted the convent of Hadmers- 
leben; in 965, Margrave Rikdag of Meissen, that of Gerbstatt; in the 
same year the monastery on the Kalkberg, near Liineburg, was erected; 
and in 967-993 the cathedral at Miinster was built. The bishop's church 
at Zeitz, where Otho founded an episcopal see, was finished in 974. 

Architecture on the Rhine, — Not only in Saxony, but also on the banks 
of the Rhine, there was much architectural activity in Otho's reign. St. 
Conrad, bishop of Constance (935-976), enlarged the cathedral there, and 
built a circular Church of the Holy Sepulchre, besides the three churches 
of St. Lawrence, St. John, and St. Paul. In 932, at Treves, the new build- 
ing of the Church of the Maximin Convent was dedicated. At Mayence 
the collegiate Institute of St. Peter was built in 944. About 948, Wik- 
fried, archbishop of Cologne, erected the Church of St. Severin in that 
city. 

Archbishop Bruno of Cologne worked on the churches of St. Caecilia 
and Great St. Martin and founded the monastery of St. Pantaleon, 
together with a hospital for the poor. At his death, in 965, the church of 
this convent was so far advanced that he found a final resting-place there, 
notwithstanding it was not consecrated till fifteen years later. Bruno also 
erected the institution of St. Patroclus at Soest. In the cathedral, which 
was rebuilt at a later time, there can still be seen in a small vesti- 
bule a rich Corinthian marble capital, and in another place a pilaster 
capital serving as a base, both antique, and probably brought from Italy 
at this period. 

In 965 the brother of Otho the Great, Bruno, who was made duke of 
Lorraine by the former, began the Church of St. Vincent at Soignies. 
Everaclus, bishop of Li^ge, rebuilt in that city the churches which had 
been destroyed in 954 — namely, St. Martin's and St. Paul's in 963, and 
St. Lawrence in 969. The newly-built church and convent of Gerres- 
heim, near Diisseldorf, was consecrated in 970, and in 974 the Convent of 
Gladbach, both having been destroyed by the Magyars in 954. Bishop 
Erchenbald, who became bishop of Strasburg in 965, is said to have 
dedicated thirty-two churches and ninety chapels, among which Altorf 
(966) and Maurmiinster (972) are enumerated. 

The western nuns' choir of the Abbey of Essen, which still exists and 
forms part of a new building begun in 947, belongs to the period of 
Otho's reign; in the chief features of its plan it is a copy of the octagon 
church at Aix-la-Chapelle, and shows in its details the progress of 
the tenth century. The features most important both here and in 
the crypt of Quedlinburg are the imitation and employment of antique 
columns; beyond these the details indicate a wider departure from the 
antique forms than do those of the Carolingian period. Of Byzantine 
fonns scarcely any trace appears here. 

We cannot here give full details concerning the architectural activity 
at the close of the tenth and during the earlier years of the eleventh cen- 



I50 ARCHITECTURE. [Geemak, 

tur>'; a notice of the principal structures will suffice. The activity which 
prevailed during the reign of Otho the Great did not cease with his death, 
which occurred at Memleben in 973, but was continued by his son Otho 
II., who first honored the locality where his father was buried by erecting 
a monastery in Memleben in 975. At Gandersheim, after the destruction 
of the older building by fire, in 973, a new one was commenced, which 
was completed in 1006. At Halberstadt the consecration of the new 
cathedral took place in 991 with great pomp. 

The St. Servatius Institute at Quedlinburg enjoyed great prosperity; 
its church became too small, and was enlarged by Otho's daughter Ma- 
thilde. In 997 this structure was consecrated, and a newer building was 
dedicated in 1021. 

In 978, Archbishop Willigis demolished the old cathedral at Maycnce, 
and in the space of thirty years constructed a new one of stone, which was 
dedicated in 1009, but was burnt on the day of its dedication; about 99a 
he also erected, of wood, the Church of St. Stephen. In the year 983 
were laid the foundations of the conventual church at Petershausen, near 
Constance. Bishop Notker of Li^ge was famed for his love of building; 
in 978 he commenced to rebuild the cathedral, which, together with the 
episcopal palace and the convent, was completed in thirty-seven years, 
seven years after the death of the bishop. In 996, Bishop Burchard 
demolished the cathedral at Worms and began a new one, which was 
dedicated in 1016. 

Architecture of Southern Germany, — Great activity prevailed also on 
the Danube and in Bavaria. Bishop Wolfgang of Ratisbon consecrated 
the west crypt of St. Emmeram in 980; he established the nunnery of Mit- 
telmiinster in 982 and built the episcopal palace. Large structures were 
erected at Tegernsee under Abbot Cozbert (982-1001), and a tower was 
added to the Cathedral of Freising by Bishop Abraham in 992. The 
Cathedral of Augsburg, destroyed in 944, was rebuilt by Bishop Luithold 
fifty years later. 

Ever\'where prevailed activity, which was principally directed to mon- 
umental buildings; and the fact that structures yet unaffected were torn 
down to make way for larger and richer ones bears witness to essential 
progress. 

That the coimtr\' and its entire culture made such important progress 
affords proof that we are correct in estimating these works of Otho's time 
as the commencement of a new j^eriod, and not as the close of an old one. 
In fact, the infonnation which has come down to us respecting the struc* 
turcs of Otho I. and his immediate successors teaches us that manv new 

m 

elements were making themselves felt; so that the groundwork had been 
laid uix)n which the massive architectural development in Germany during 
the next two centuries was based. It is true that the buildings of Otho*s 
time were not large, but the arrangement of cnurch-stnicture was fixed 
for future time — a basilica with lower side-aisles, the arcades of which 
were borne on columns; two choirs, an eastern and a western; the cr\'pts 



Eleventh Century.] ROMANESQUE. 151 

beneath, and a bell-tower, which in an earlier period stood isolated from 
the basilica, but was henceforward usually made a part of the church 
itself. 

B. GERMAN ROMANESQUE OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. 

The end of the world was expected in the year 1000; yet, as we can 
see from the great architectural undertakings commenced just before, 
enlightened men were not affected by this fear. Yet the superstition of 
the age had induced the general belief that things could not so continue 
— that the wicked world for whose deep-seated passions no way to any- 
thing better seemed possible must be destroyed in order that the good 
might receive the recompense of their virtue and the unregenerate suffer 
the punishment due to their vices and crimes. This belief gave on the 
one hand an earnestness of purpose which could but work beneficially, 
while on the other hand mankind breathed freely again as the dreaded 
year passed by and the world still went on in its old way without the 
advent of that millennium which contrite spirits atwaited with longing, 
but which men in general greatly dreaded on account of the overwhelm- 
ing multitude of their sins. Thus the seed sown in every direction by 
the events of the tenth century grew and developed with great vigor. 

Development of Architecture at this Period. — Soon there arose those 
cathedrals, still majestic, which from the solemnity and grandeur of their 
aspect are the embodied ideal of their age — the ideal of an age which 
would have laid the foundations for a golden era had not evil passions 
hindered its operation, and had not egotism been as powerful in the year 
1000 as it had been before. The most magnificent development was upon 
the Rhine, while in another direction the ancient heritage of the Saxon 
emperors continued the activity of the tenth century, and wonderful 
energy was developed upon the Danube and in the regions adjacent to it. 
A striving after the monumental character distinguished these districts, 
and wherever wooden churches still existed they were replaced by stone 
structures of ever-increasing magnificence. 

New Elemefiis 0/ Constructioft, — As a new element in church-construc- 
tion, introduced at this period, may be mentioned the employment of piers 
as supports for the walls of the centre aisle: this new feature was the 
more widely accepted by reason of the fact that the great monolithic 
columns such as Rome had found ready at hand for the older basilicas 
could not be so easily procured. Already in the Syrian edifices of the 
sixth century we have seen that similar requirements produced similar 
results. (Comp. pL 13, yf;^. 4.) Piers somewhat more massive, indeed, 
than the columns could be constructed out of horizontal courses of smaller 
stones, and yet afford greater stability because of their larger area; so that 
even where columns were still employed they were regularly alternated 
with piers. 

Thus the Church of Gemrode, of which we have made mention (p. 149), 
and the construction of which mav have continued from the tenth into 



152 ARCHITECTURE, [German. 

the eleventh century, has rectann^ular piers in its arcades and compar- 
atively slender columns in regular alternation ^pL 24, fig, 1). Above 
tliese arcades arc galleries arranged in such a manner that the piers below 
correspond to the piers above, while the two arches below correspond to 
six smaller arches which rest on five small columns; it is thus clear that 
tlie piers were intended as points of support. The Licbfraiicnkirche 
(Church of Our Lad\ j at Halberstadt, which was commenced in the last 
years of the tenth century, has quadrangular piers. 

Architecture of North-ivest Germany: Church 0/ St, Michael, — In the 
first years of the eleventh century there were in North-western Germany 
two bishops who exercised 'considerable influence through their construc- 
tions: these were St. Bernward of Hildesheim (993-1022) and Meinwerk 
of Paderborn (1009-1036). The fonner erected the great Church of St. 
Michael at Hildesheim, which, though in great part rebuilt in later times, 
still exhibits the principal features of its arrangement. The cr>'pt was 
dedicated in 1015; the building was essentially completed in 1022. This 
is one of the most magnificent churches that Germany has produced. In 
the^arcades of the nave each pier alternates with two columns, some of 
which are preserved as in Bernward^s time. The capitals have entirely 
departed from the traditional antique form; the shape is a slightly- 
depressed cube which is set upon the round columns and has its lower 
corners so rounded off that only semicircular shield-shaped portions of 
the perpendicular surfaces remain. This kind of capital has since been 
named a block capital. The capital itself has no abacus, yet the antique 
architrave, a fragment of which was in some earlier buildings placed upon 
connected columns (Baths of Caracalla, at St. Costanza in Rome, edifices 
at Ravenna and Parenzo, etc.), still survives in a block of lesser height 
somewhat narrower than the capital upon which it stands and separated 
from the arch-springing by a band corresponding to the cornice of the 
ancient architrave. The alternation of vellowish white with red stones in 
these portions, as is especially mentioned in St Bemward's biography, 
was adopted so that a bright mosaic-like adornment might be imparted 
to his buildings. 

Bishop Meinwerk had scarcely taken possession of his see before he 
commenced the rebuilding of the cathedral at Paderborn, which had been 
destroyed by fire in the year 1000. His predecessor had already begun its 
restoration, but Meinwerk did not consider the work sufficiently magnif- 
icent, and therefore demolished it. The new cathedral was completed in 
1015. It is related that Greek workmen built the Chapel of St. Barthol- 
omew. This structure yet remains, but shows no tendency toward Byzan- 
tine forms; so that only the larger experience of Greek artisans — who were 
doubtl'.ss brought from lower Italy, but who worked under the direction 
of WesLcrn architects — here lent aid to the Germans. The capitals of this 
chapel show traces of the Corinthian style, but without the abacus. Here 
also a square imi)ost lies upon the capital, with a bold cornice from which 
the arches spring. 



ELEVKNTrf Century.] ROMANESQUE. I53 

Great as was the architectural energy of that period, little remains of 
the edifices then reared, and we can only fill out the series of architectural 
monuments by the aid of descriptions which ha\'^ come down to us. In 
North-western Germany we meet with the before-mentioned Bishop Arnulf 
of Halberstadt as the founder of the monastery of Ilsenburg, to which 
Otho III. donated (998) the royal castle of that place. The Cathedral of 
Walbeck was rebuilt after a conflagration in loii; the walls of the central 
nave here rest upon plain quadrangular pillars. Bishop Wigwer built the 
Cathedral of Verden in 1013; in 1014, Archbishop Gero founded St. 
Mary's Collegiate Institution at Magdeburg; Archbishop Unwan in 1015 
built, of wood, a cathedral at Hamburg, in place of the cathedral, also 
of wood, which had been burned; and at Merseburg, where the seat of a 
bishopric was again established in 1004, Bishop Thietmar in 1015 began a 
new cathedral, which was dedicated in 102 1 under his successor, Bruno. 

In ID 1 6, after the completion of the cathedral. Bishop Meinwerk of 
Paderbom commenced the Benedictine monastery of Abdinghof. The 
building of the convent, particularly of the church, was protracted for 
ten years after the crypt had been consecrated three years; the edifice, 
when almost completed, fell in, and could not be consecrated until 1031. 
In the years 1033-1036 the same bishop built in the east of the city the 
Church of Bustorf, the design of which he had taken from the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. At this date edifices were also erected 
at Korvei. 

Bishop Burkhard I. of Halberstadt (1036-1059) evinced great architec- 
tural zeal, building twenty-four establishments in his diocese, of which 
that on Mount Huy attained special importance from its convent. The 
bishop himself took part as a workman in the construction of the chapel, 
which was completed in the fifth decade of the century. The first stone 
cathedral in Hamburg was built by Archbishop Bezzelin in 1037, and 
the still-existing church of the nunnery at Kemnade — a small building 
with square piers — was consecrated in 1046. 

Bemward's successor. Bishop Godehard of Hildesheim, continued the 
constructive activity of his predecessor, and built (1023-1027) the minster 
of the Epiphany, south of the cathedral, and also eastward of the city, 
in the Sulze marsh, a castle with a Chapel of St. Bartholomew and a 
larger church, dedicated in 1033. West of the city, on the Zierenberg, 
he also built a castle serving as a summer residence and having a Chapel 
of St. Maurice. By 1035 he added to the cathedral an entrance-portico, 
and also a bell-house. As in 1046 a conflagration had overtaken the 
cathedral at Hildesheim, with its many adjoining buildings. Bishop 
Azzelin demolished the entire group and commenced a magnificent 
cathedral. During the construction of this so many accidents occurred 
that at his death, in 1054, it was deemed impracticable to finish it, and 
his successor, Hezilo, erected a new and more modest structure, which 
was dedicated in 1061, and whose nucleus still remains. 

Bishop Hezilo erected the collegiate Church of the Moritzburg, the 



154 ARCHITECTURE. (Owmax, 

three aisles of which were borne on arcades supported by columns, and 
also the collegiate Church of the Holy Cross. Hezilo's architect was the 
provost Benno, famed as the first architpct of his time, who also erected 
for the emperor Henry HI. the Cathedral of Goslar, dedicated in 1050. In 
its arcades, as in those of St. Michael at Hildesheim, two columns and a 
quadrangular pier alternated three times. 

In 1030 the see of Zeitz was transferred to Naumburg, where the new 
cathedral was dedicated about 1050. At the same time the collegiate 
church was built upon the site of the old Cathedral of Zeitz, and the cr>"pt 
may be a remnant of this building. At the Castle of Goseclc, near Naam- 
burg, a convent was founded in 1041. Two years later the cr>'pt of the 
conventual church was consecrated, and in 1053 the church itself was 
dedicated to St. Michael; about 1060-1062 a part of the transept was 
built. 

The new Cathedral of Bremen was erected (1044-I069) under Bishop 
Bezzelin and his successor. Adalbert. The former made the Cathedral 
of Cologne his model; the latter, that of Beneventum, which he had seen 
in 1047. Though frequently altered, portions of the original structnre 
still remain. At Paderbom, also, a reconstruction of the cathedral was 
effected (105^1068), in place of that which was burned in the former 
year; new cathedrals were erected at Halbcrstadt (1060-1071) and at Min- 
den (1062-1072I. The chtirch in Abdinghof, at Paderbom, burned in 
1058. was rebuilt and dedicated twenty years later. At Werden, in West- 
phalia, a cr>pt consecrated in 1059 '^ still preser\-ed, and the church 
dedicated in 1064 was renewed early in the twelfth century. At Ilsenbnrg 
the still-existing church, in which columns and pillars alternate, was 
dedicated in 1087. and soon afterward the conventual Church of Hu>-ae- 
biirg was dedicated, but was removed at the beginning of the twelfth 
centur>- to make room for a new structure. In 1083 the Church of St 
I'lrich at Sangerliau.sen was founded; in 1085, that of the Convent of 
Reiuhardsbninn, near Ck>tha; and in 1089, that of Oldisleben, near Held- 
ninf:^n, of whose original structures nothing remains. Bishop Benno of 
Osnabriick (106S-10SS) built the Convent of Iburg. in the Tentobiirgian 
Forest, and consecrated the choir in 107a The nucleus of the cathedral 
at Soest belongs to the eleventh centur>-, although the exact time of its 
erection is not definitely known. 

Architcclurc on the Rhine. — The Rhine, which under the nile of the 
Romans was the seat of a developed culture, owed the progress which art 
made upon \Vs. banks in the eleventh ceutur\-, not to the influence of the 
emperor, but principally to the episcopal sees scattered at various points 
along the left hank, where extensive cities existed in Roman times, E\'en 
here the emperors effected much, many of their foundations being spread 
along the Rhine and its affluents, and they cvcn,whcre supported the 
bishops. But these latter had been established for centuries; the>* fonned 
.in v.Khriiken line of succession, thus exercising oa »U onwioiis, evea 
after they had long attained to the dignity of temp \ that great 




Eleventh Century.] ROMANESQUE. 1 55. 

influence which the emperors, who but temporarily sojourned in the 
imperial palaces on the Rhine, exerted only in their hereditary states 
where they were absolute rulers. 

The Cathearal of Mayence was, as we have mentioned (p. 150), demol- 
ished by Archbishop Willigis in the tenth centur>^, and was then rebuilt. 
The second edifice was not finished until the eleventh century, and was 
burned in 1009, on the day of its dedication. Rebuilding was at once 
commenced, and the cathedAl was consecrated by Archbishop Bardo in 
1036. The lower part of the existing building, shown on Plate 24 {Jig. 
14), may belong to this period, with the exception of the western choir, 
while on the other hand the superstructure of the lower part of the two 
round towers and of the eastern fagade doubtless belongs to this age. The 
southern portal contains decorative parts that may almost be called 
antique, such as Corinthian capitals, which are among the most direct 
later imitations of this antique form of capitals. The largest of its six 
towers is three hundred feet in height. 

The Cathedral of Strasburg was burned in 1002, and the new structure 
was long delayed; so that, though after the fashion of the times single 
parts were completed and brought into use, it was not until 1068 that the 
building was ready for rededication. Greater energy was manifested at 
Basle, where the new cathedral was dedicated in 1018. The new struc- 
ture at Worms, though unfinished, was consecrated in 1016; its plan 
{Jig. 7) may, however, be ascribed to this period. Single portions were 
consecrated in 1053 and 1058. The Church of St. Paul at Worms was 
founded in 1016, but no part of the existing building can be referred to that 
time. On the other hand, almost the entire structure of the Church of 
St Wilibrord at Echtemach, which was erected 1017-1031; is still extant. 
The latter church has alternate pillars and columns so arranged that over 
the two arches which sweep from the column to the piers on each side of 
a bay a great relieving-arch is turned from pier to pier. The capitals of 
the columns are crude imitations of Corinthian ; the side-aisles are covered 
with cross-vaulting, while the nave has a timber roof. Whether the 
four towers belong to the original structure cannot be ascertained. 
The Church of the Apostles at Cologne (//. 25, Jig. 3) was commenced 
in 1020, the Abbey-church of Brauweiler was built in 1024-1028, and in 
1030 the Abbey-church of Deutz, founded in 1002, was completed. 

Emperor Conrad II. laid in one day in 1030 the foundation-stones of 
three important churches. One of these, the Convent-church of Lim- 
burg on the Hardt {pL 24, Jig. 5), a basilica with columns, a rectilinear 
choir, and two apses in the transept, still exhibits completely the original 
architecture, but has been a ruin for over three hundred and eighty 
years. The second church was the Cathedral of Speyer, one of the 
grandest edifices of the Middle Ages, as is proved by what remains of 
the original stnicture, notwithstanding many later additions (//. 2^^ Jig. 
4; P^' '^i^fiS' 2); the vaulting of the nave and the system of pillars as they 
now stand are part of the original building. The third church which the 




156 ARCHITECTURE, [Gerham. 

emperor founded on this day was that of St. John, the baptistery- of the 
Cathedral of Speyer. 

In :o55 the ancient Porta Nigra, at Treves (//. %fts. 11), was con- 
verted into a ch'.irch by the addition of an apse.' In 103S the church at 
H;:rsfel'i wa.i founded, and the cr\pt was consecrated in 104c, but the 
larger upper church was longer delayed. In Hersfeld there is also a pil- 
lared basilica with unvauited nave, choir, and transept; this was the work 
of the Cistercian monk Poppo von Stable, who was also the architect of 
the church at Liinburg. In 1043 the Church of St. Scverin at Cologne 
was dedicated, that of Mittelzell on the island of Reichenan in 104S, and 
in 1049 that of Sta. Maria in Capitolo in Cologne {pi. 24, Jig. 8), the east- 
em portion of which, with the exception of the upper half of the prin- 
cipal choir, is still extant in its original state. The latter is of the twelfth 
cent«r>-; the vaulting of the side-aisles and the piers of the arcades with- 
out doubt belong to the eleventh centur)'. The middle aisle had, however, 
a wooden roof, which was vaulted at a later date (figs. 2, 8). 

Between 1049 and 1054 the church of the nunnen- of Ottmarsheim 
{fig. 6), begun at the beginning of the eleventh centur>'. was consecrated; 
it is a copy of the minster-church at Aix Ia-Chapel!e. The Cathedral of 
Constance was begun in 1052, and was dedicated in 1058; it is a columned 
basilica, the nucleus of which — namely, the arcades of the nave, the 
arrangement of the transept, and the rectangular choir — is still extant 
St. George at Cologne (a columned basilica) was founded in 1059, as was 
also the Church of Sta. Maria ad Gradus, which was completed in 1065, 
burned in loSo, rebuilt in 10S5, and demolished in 1817. 

Under Archbishop Anno of Cologne (1056-1075) buildings were added 
to St. Ursula, Great St. Martin, Sl Cunibert, and St Pantaleon. "fo St 
Gereon, a primitive round church, the chapel of St. Nicholas and a lai^ 
choir with a cr>pt and two square towers were added in 1067; in 1068 the 
high altar of the cr)'pt was consecrated, and in 1069 that of the choir. 
Three years earlier the .^bbey-church of St. Michael at Siegburg, bnilt 
under the same archbishop, was dedicated. 

Large buildings were at times delayed considerably in their erection 
through either imperfect construction or accidental demolition; thos the 
Cathedral of Treves lay in ruins until Poppo ( 1017-1047) rebuilt it, to do 
which he used the three yet-standing columns of Constantine's building, 
creeled a pier in place of the fourth column, and enlarged the building 
considerably toward the west. It was first finished under Udo((lied 1077), 
the second bi,-ihop from Poppo. Though the polygonal west choir is vet 
later and its altar was consecrated in 1 120, yet the exterior of the western 
portion is essentially a work of that date. 

The Cathedral of Speyer was also long in building. When the emperor 
Henr\- HI. wa,« interred by the side of his parents in the still-unfinished 
church, in lo^d. the works were entirelysuspeuded. Between 1061 and 107a 
a consecration took place. Then suddenly the 8t-~ 

' In 1S17 llic I'uru Nijjia wai tc>:uicJ la ii> ancicnl uw b) 




Eleventh Century.] RO^MANESQUE. 1 57 

and the famous Benno, who in the mean while had become bishop of Osna- 
bruck (1068-1088), was called hither to strengthen the foundations, which 
the Rhine had begun to undermine. In 1097 the emperor Henry IV., 
and afterward Bishop Otho of Bamberg, undertook the continuation of 
the cathedral, which the latter soon completed. 

The Cathedral of Mayence, dedicated in 1036, was a prey to the flames 
in 1081; the emperor Henry IV. commenced the rebuilding, yet after his 
death it resembled a ruin, and it was in the twelfth century re-erected in 
its present condition as a vaulted structure. Bardo^s structure had a flat 
ceiling; particulars of Henry IV. 's new building have not come down to 
us; so that it must remain uncertain whether he commenced the vaulting. 

Hirschau Convent, — In the diocese of Speyer the Hirschau Convent 
was founded in the ninth century, and after it had remained uninhabited 
for half a century was again peopled in the eleventh century. Its church 
— a small basilica with columns, block capitals, and vaulted side-aisles — 
was consecrated in 1071. The convent increased so rapidly that a new 
one was built between 1083 and 1091, and in the latter year its church was 
consecrated. It is not known whether columns or pillars supported the 
walls of this church, which is now destroyed, but we know that it had a 
flat wooden ceiling, which was renewed in the year 1500. St. Severin at 
Cologne was restored 1089-1099. 

Further Developmejit of Architecture: Vaulting, — One of the most im- 
portant steps in the development of the architecture of the Middle Ages 
was the cross or groined vaulting of the nave, as in the cathedrals of 
Speyer and Mayence, and a number of other buildings. Through this 
the complete monumentality of the building was consummated, and that 
perfect harmony of the interior obtained which the Byzantine system had 
reached by the use of cupolas; but it called for greater wall-masses to 
withstand the lateral thrust exercised by these large vaults. Even in the 
Christian-Roman period the apses were vaulted ; the square spaces of the 
chancel and of the transepts and the crossing of nave and transepts were 
next, in the eleventh century, covered with vaults, even in cases where 
the nave remained unvaulted and only the side-aisles — or not even these 
— were vaulted. 

At Sta. Maria in Capitolo at Cologne there is at the centre of the cross 
a semicircular dome out of which the arches of the choir, nave, and tran- 
septs cut large sections, and similar domes with abscissas are above the 
separate parts of the transepts and chancel, which are bounded by trans- 
verse arches. Cross-vaulting could only be arranged regularly over 
square spaces; the middle aisle or nave, which had double the width of 
the side-aisles, must therefore be divided into bays corresponding to two 
bays of the side-aisles. This demanded an alternate arrangement of the 
pillars, and this again necessitated a variety of details to bring the spring- 
ing of the vaulting, its highest point, and the diagonal arches which lay 
between the transverse vaults, into visible relationship with the support- 
ing ground. It was a similar case to that of the Baths of Diocletian and 




15S ARCHITECTURE. [Germa.x. 

other structures of classical Roman times, where the springing of the 
vaulting was denoted by Corinthian columns and fragments of entablature. 

At the Cathedral of Speyer the proportion was quite different.. The 
side-walls of the nave were almost doubled in height ; the vaulting of this 
part oi t!ie buildin;^ could not, therefore, be directly carried on detached 
pillars, and the method adopted was to attach to the face of the pillars a 
half-column which ran from the pavement to the springing of the vault- 
iui^, and also received the transverse arches. This half-column is a feeble 
reminiscence of tiie columns of the antique buildings. On account of 
continued additions and the numerous restorations which the Cathedral of 
Speyer underwent from the twelfth to the fifteenth centur\' (a great part 
of the nave was rebuilt after its destruction by tlie French in 16S9), 
we can only speak of the general arrangement of this structure; yet wc 
can assert that in the design, which was systematically and harmoni- 
ously arranged, there speak out an earnestness and a dignity in which wc 
see attained a new ideal of a churcli. We see here a reflection of that 
prominent ideal of the age which thirsted intensely after rest and peace 
through pcri>etual meditation. Even the exterior of the structure bespeaks 
this ideal. 

Majestic peace is stamped on this magnificent monument, solemn dig- 
nity speaks in the simple membering of the masses, and there is a grand 
life in the division and concentration of the individual parts, that rise or 
sink externally according to the shape of the interior. Where the tran- 
sept crosses the nave a lantern rises aloft, yielding through its windows 
that rich light which contributes so largely to the wonderful and purely 
artistic effect of the interior. Towers rise in various places from the 
masses, not only to contain the bells which summoned the worshippers, 
but also by their aspiring fonns to direct attention heavenward, and to 
make the mighty cathedral visibly preponderate from afar over the sea 
of houses and over the towers of the city walls. The structures of the 
eleventh centur>*, and particularly the Cathedral of Speyer, all reached 
essentially the same results which those of the twelfth century attained; 
the advance in the twelfth centur\' was only in detail and an ever-greater 
varietv of combination. 

Archittciure of Southern Germany, — The provinces of Southern Ger- 
many, particularly those which are now united under the name of Bavaria, 
obtained their impulse from the Rhine and from Saxony. The chief 
centres of activity here also were the seats of the bishops, which were for 
the most part in cities founded by the Romans. Ratisbon must first 
be named, but Wiirzburg, Augsburg, and Salzburg were scarcely in 
the rear. 

In 1007 the see of Bamberg was createil, and the cathedral of that citv 
was the work ^i Honr>- II. and l:is sixnisc. The Obermiinster Church at 
RalislK>n w.u^ cv>nsecrated in loio. The three convents of Xeumunster 
Hang, and St. Stephen were foundeil at Wiinburg at the beginning of the 
eleventh century; St. Stephen w;is built loij-ioiS. Henrj* II., after he 



ilLBVENTH Century.] ROMANESQUE. 159 

iad had the Cathedral of Bamberg dedicated (1012), founded in 1015 the con- 
vent on the Michaelsberg, the church of which was consecrated in 1021. 

At Eichstadt, Bishop Heribert (1021-1042) began to rebuild the 
•cathedral, which his successor — who at the same time ruled the Church 
as Pope Victor II. — brought to a conclusion. The Convent of St. Walburg, 
which he also commenced, was finished in 1042, the year of his death. 
The construction of the Church of Niederaltaich continued from 1033 to 
1038, The church of the Convent of St. Burchard was dedicated in 1042, 
and a new cathedral begun, the crypt of which was consecrated in 1045. 

In 1052, St. Emmeram at Ratisbon was consecrated by Pope Leo IX., 
who built the inlaid ceiling at his own expense; an important portion of 
this edifice — the remarkable entrance-portico {narthex) — still remains, while 
almost all the rest of these buildings of the eleventh century have disap- 
peared. The cathedral at Salzburg was not completely rebuilt in the 
•eleventh century, since that of the ninth century still existed; the church 
on the Nonneberg was, however, rebuilt in 1023, ^^^ ^^ ^^4^ ^^ crypt 
was dedicated. The Convent of Gurk was established in the diocese of 
Salzburg, and its church was consecrated in 1042. 

The doubled-choired Church of St. Afra was built at Augsburg in 
1064, the cathedral was consecrated in 1065, and in 107 1 the Chapel of 
5t Gertrude was erected near it. The Church of St, Jacob at Bamberg 
was begun in 1073 and finished at the beginning of the twelfth century. 
The Chapel of St. Stephen in Ratisbon— the so-called Old Cathedral— 
•descends from the eleventh century; St. Jacob's, in the same city, was 
begun in 1090, but was demolished early in the twelfth century to make 
xoom for the present building. 

In Austria^ which during the eleventh century had first to battle with 
its eastern neighbors, the churches of the eleventh century were mostly 
•of wood, but Bishop Altmann, who took his seat at Passau in 1046, con- 
structed stone edifices. The most important of his buildings are St, 
Plorian, which was established by Altmann in 1071 and was occupied by 
the Augustine Canons; the Convent of Gottweih, where Altmann was 
buried in 1093; and the College of Molk, which was not finished until the 
"beginning of the twelfth century. In 1093 the collegiate Church of St. 
Paul at Kamten was consecrated; it was commenced either soon before 
1064 or in 1085. 

Bohemia^ Poland^ and Hungary^ after they had found a place near the 
Western Christian races, joined them definitely in the eleventh century 
-and adopted their civilization; and, since they came into connection with 
the rest of Europe principally through Germany, their architecture was 
also that of Germany — so far, at least, as the few remaining structures of 
this age allow us to judge. 

C. GERMAN ROMANESQUE OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. 

Rhenish Provinces. — In the twelfth century we find the episcopal sees 
•on the Rhine, especially Cologne and Mayence, at their highest stage of 



i6o ARCHITECTURE. [German, 

prosperity. Tlie Rhine had become for Germany the centre of a culture 
which sent its rays eastward and made its influence felt over all the 
Teutonic countries. Untirin*^ architectural activity prevailed upon the 
historic river: every wlicre new churches were commenced; even the 
villa;^es built monumental stone structures with massive towers. Most of 
the edifices of the eleventh century were rebuilt; even the more imi>ortant 
were not enlarged, but the magnificent ground-plans were retained, and 
newly-planned churches were seldom erected in these dimensions. 

The activity of the beginning of the century was a continuation of 
that of the preceding century, and its results also shared the fate of the 
works of that century; what remains belongs in part to the second lialf, 
and principally to the close, of the century. The Cathedral of Worms 
was consecrated in mo; the new church at Sponheim was built in iioi- 
1123; ^'^^ collegiate Church of Boppard, in 1102-1124. All three have 
been replaced by later structures, yet the church at Laacli still remains, 
and may rightly be esteemed the most surpassing ornament of the Rhine- 
land. 

Conirni-church at Laach. — The convent was founded in 1093; its 
church was begun about 11 ion 12, and was consecrated in 1156. The 
tlirce-aisled nave has not the double-compartmented bay with square 
vaulting such as we find at Mayence and Speyer, but the pillars are placed 
farther apart than in those cathedrals; so that the space between each pair 
forms a bay the length of which is about two-thirds the width of the nave, 
and the vaulted compartments are oblong. The windows are larger and 
the piers are mcmbered, so that each part corresponds to the vault- 
ing resting \\\^n it. And this is not only attractive in itself, but also 
organically binds every part, from below to the summit of the vaulting. 
An eastern transept projects far beyond the side-aisles; in the angles 
between the choir and the transept are two square towers; a large ap)se 
terminates the square choir and two small apses project from the eastern 
side of the transepts. There is a cr\'pt below the much-elevated square 
chancel and the principal apse. There is a western transept, which occu- 
pies only the width of a bay of the nave. Two round towers are attached 
to the gables, as at Mayence; the centre of the western transept is con- 
tinued upward into a tower oblong below, but square above, and the 
western end is closed by an apse without an intennediate square choir. 
An octangular lantern rises over the intersection of the nave and eastern 
transept. 

The Church of St. Mauritius at Cologne, demolished not many j'cars 
ay^o, was built before 1144; that of St. Matthias at Treves, between 1127 
and 1 148. The sanctuar}' and transept of the Abbey of Knechtstatten 
were built between 1133 and 1151, and tlie latter was covered with three 
domical vaults. .\n octangular tower rises at the intersection of nave and 
transept, but docs not form a lantern. The nave appears, from the section 
of the shafting of the pillars and their slender proportions, to have been 
completed about the end of the centurj*. The constniction of the Church 



Twelfth Century.] ROMANESQUE. l6l 

of Klosterrath (Roldiic) occupied the entire century, but the Chapel of St. 
Gothard at Mayence was between 1136 and 1138 finished as it stands 
to-day. A magnificent new cathedral was commenced at Mayence after 
1 137. In 1136-1139 the Convent and Church of Himmerodt, near Treves, 
were built, but they were soon replaced by a larger structure. The 
Church of the Augustines at Mittelheim is a basilica with a wooden 
ceiling (1131-1140). 

A great conflagration in 1149 laid the larger part of Cologne in ashes, 
but it was at once rebuilt. Most of the churches either fell e prey to the 
flames or were damaged so that scarcely more than some fragments of 
walls remained of the earlier period; then were erected those magnificent 
structures which are the pride of the city. The Church of the Apostles 
{pi. 2\^fig. ii\ pL 2^^ fig. 3), Great St. Martin, the choir of St. Gereon 
(/'• 25, Jig- 7), etc. , were completed more or less quickly. The old cathe- 
dral at the same time received a stone vaulting. 

The beautiful double church at Schwarzrheindorf, near Bonn, belongs 
to the years 1143-1148. The eastern portion of St. Gereon at Cologne 
was dedicated between the years 1151 and 1156. The Church of St. 
Remigius at Ingelheim was erected in 1154, and the Cistercian church at 
Eberbach — the original eastern part of which is shown on Plate 24 {Jig. 9), 
and is exactly like that of most Cistercian convents — was founded 1150- 
1156. Archbishop Hilinus of Treves (1152-1169) enlarged his cathedral. 
In 1 159 the Cathedral of Speyer was burned, and larger buildings were 
deemed necessary. About 11 70 two towers were built at Cologne Cathe- 
dral; in 1 1 72, Great St. Martin's at Cologne, in 11 73 the church at 
Petershausen, begun eleven years before, in 11 70 the new minster at 
Zurich, and in 11 78 the new church at Hillerodt, were consecrated. In 
1 181 there was another dedication of the Cathedral of Worms, which was 
at that date, as regards its exterior, in the state in which it exists to-day, 
with the exception of a few later additions. This cathedral, which has 
four towers, is represented on Plate 25 (Jig. i). 

In 1 182 the Liebfraiicnkzrche {Chwrcli of Our Lady) at Coblentz was 
founded, in 1185 the Cathedral of Basle was remodelled, in 1196 that of 
Treves was dedicated anew, and in 1197 that of Mayence. Other Rhenish 
buildings of the twelfth century are St. Castor at Coblentz, St. Genevieve 
at Andemach, the choir of the minster at Bonn, the flat-ceiled Church of 
St John at Niederlahnstein, etc. 

In Southern Germany the architecture of the twelfth century did not 
find the fruitful soil it met with on the Rhine; it fell behind alike in 
grandeur of design, in poetical aspiration, in elegance of proportions, and 
in delicacy of ornament. The structures are a few rich convents or 
municipal collegiate institutions which were finished as flat-ceiled basil- 
icas, either with pillars or stout^ rapidly-tapering columns with cubical 
capitals between the nave and the aisles. 

The most considerable of these buildings are the church at Alpirs- 
bach — really a work of the eleventh century, since it was consecrated 

Vol. IV.— 11 



152 ARCHITECTURE, [German, 

the eleventh ceiitun', has rectanf^nlar piers in its arcades and compar- 
atively slender columns in regnlar alternation (//. 24, fig. i). Al>ove 
these arcades are j^alleries arranj^ed in such a manner that the piers below 
correspond to the piers above, while the two arches below correspond to 
six smaller arches which rest on five small columns; it is thus clear that 
the piers were intended as points of support. The Licbfraucnkirchc 
(Church of Our Lady) at Halberstadt, which was commenced in the last 
years of the tenth century, has quadrangular piers. 

ArchitvctHrr of North-n^est Germany: Church of St, Michael, — In the 
first years of the eleventh centur\' tliere were in North-western Germany 
two bishops who exercised 'considerable influence through their construc- 
tions: these were St Ikrnward of Hildesheim (993-1022) and Meinwerk 
of Paderborn (1009-1036). The fonner erected the great Church of St. 
Michael at Hildesheim, which, though in great part rebuilt in later times, 
still exhibits the principal features of its arrangement. The crjpt was 
dedicated in 1015; the building w^as essentially completed in 1022. This 
is one of the most magnificent churches that Germany has produced. In 
the^arcades of the nave each pier alternates with two columns, some of 
which are preserved as in Bernward's time. The capitals have entirely 
departed from the traditional antique form; the shape is a slightly- 
depressed cube which is .set upon the round columns and has its lower 
corners so rounded off that only semicircular shield-shaped portions of 
the perpendicular surfaces remain. This kind of capital has since been 
named a block capital. The capital itself has no abacus, yet the antique 
architrave, a fragment of which was in some earlier buildings placed upon 
connected colunms (Baths of Caracalla, at St. Costanza in Rome, edifices 
at Ravenna and Parenzo, etc.), still sur\-ives in a block of lesser height 
somewhat narrower than the capital upon which it stands and separated 
from the arch-springing by a band corresponding to the cornice of the 
ancient architrave. The alternation of yellowish white with red stones in 
these portions, as is especially mentioned in St. Bemward's biography, 
w\is adopted so that a bright mosaic-like adornment might be imparted 
to his buildings. 

Bishop Meinwerk had scarcely taken possession of his see before he 
commenced the rebuilding of the cathedral at Paderborn, which had been 
destroyed by fire in the year 1000. His predecessor had already begun its 
restoration, but Meinwerk did not consider the work sufficiently magnif- 
icent, and therefore demolished it. The new cathedral was completed in 
1015. It is related that Greek workmen built the Chapel of St. Barthol- 
omew. This structure yet remains, but shows no tendency toward Byzan- 
tine forms; .so that only the larger experience of Greek artisans — who were 
doubtless brought from lower Italy, but who worked under the direction 
of Western architects — here lent aid to the Gennans. The capitals of tliis 
chapel show traces of the Corinthian style, but without the abacus. Here 
also a square impost lies upon the capital, with a bold cornice from which 
the arches spring. 



Elevfnth Century.] ROMANESQUE. 153 

Great as was the architectural energ}' of that period, little remains of 
the edifices then reared, and we can only fill out the series of architectural 
monuments by the aid of descriptions which have come down to us. In 
North-western Germany we meet with the before-mentioned Bishop Arnulf 
of Halberstadt as the founder of the monastery of Ilsenburg, to which 
Otho III. donated (998) the royal castle of that place. The Cathedral of 
Walbeck was rebuilt after a conflagration in loii; the walls of the central 
nave here rest upon plain quadrangular pillars. Bishop Wigwer built the 
Cathedral of Verden in 1013; in 1014, Archbishop Gero founded St. 
Mary's Collegiate Institution at Magdeburg; Archbishop Unwan in 1015 
built, of wood, a cathedral at Hamburg, in place of the cathedral, also 
of wood, which had been burned; and at Merseburg, where the seat of a 
bishopric was again established in 1004, Bishop Thietmar in 1015 began a 
new cathedral, which was dedicated in 1021 under his successor, Bruno. 

In 1016, after the completion of the cathedral. Bishop Meinwerk of 
Paderbom commenced the Benedictine monaster^"^ of Abdinghof. The 
building of the convent, particularly of the church, was protracted for 
ten years after the crypt had been consecrated three years; the edifice, 
when almost completed, fell in, and could not be consecrated until 1031. 
In the years 1033-1036 the same bishop built in the east of the city the 
Church of Bustorf, the design of which he had taken from the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. At this date edifices were also erected 
at Korvei. 

Bishop Burkhard I. of Halberstadt (1036-1059) evinced great architec- 
tural zeal, building twenty-four establishments in his diocese, of which 
that on Mount Huy attained special importance from its convent. The 
bishop himself took part as a workman in the construction of the chapel, 
which was completed in the fifth decade of the century. The first stone 
cathedral in Hamburg was built by Archbishop Bezzelin in 1037, and 
the still-existing church of the nunnery at Kemnade — a small building 
with square piers — was consecrated in 1046. 

Bemward's successor. Bishop Godehard of Hildesheim, continued the 
constructive activity of his predecessor, and built (1023-1027) the minster 
of the Epiphany, south of the cathedral, and also eastward of the city, 
in the Sulze marsh, a castle with a Chapel of St. Bartholomew and a 
larger church, dedicated in 1033. West of the city, on the Zierenberg, 
he also built a castle serving as a summer residence and having a Chapel 
of St Maurice. By 1035 he added to the cathedral an entrance-portico, 
and also a bell-house. As in 1046 a conflagration had overtaken the 
cathedral at Hildesheim, with its many adjoining buildings, Bishop 
Azzelin demolished the entire group and commenced a magnificent 
cathedral. During the construction of this so many accidents occurred 
that at his death, in 1054, it was deemed impracticable to finish it, and 
his successor, Hezilo, erected a new and more modest structure, which 
was dedicated in 1061, and whose nucleus still remains. 

Bishop Hezilo erected the collegiate Church of the Moritzburg, the 



1 54 AR CHITECTURE. [G wmak, 

three aisles of which were borne on arcades supported by columns, and 
also the collegiate Church of the Holy Cross. Hezilo's architect was the 
provost Benno, famed as the first architect of his time, who also erected 
for the emperor Henry HI. the Cathedral of Goslar, dedicated in 105a In 
its arcades, as in those of St. Michael at Hildesheim, two columns and a 
quadrangular pier alternated three times. 

In 1030 the sec of Zeitz was transferred to Naumburg, where the new 
cathedral was dedicated about 1050. At the same time the collegiate 
church was built upon the site of the old Cathedral of Zeitz, and the crj'pt 
may be a remnant of this building. At the Castle of Goseck, near Naum- 
burg, a convent was founded in 1041. Two years later the crv'pt of the 
conventual church was consecrated, and in 1053 the church itself was 
dedicated to St. Michael; about 1060-1062 a part of the transept was 
built. 

The new Cathedral of Bremen was erected (1044-1069) under Bishop 
Bezzelin and his successor, Adalbert The former made the Cathedral 
of Cologne his model ; the latter, that of Beneventum, which he had seen 
in 1047. Though frequently altered, portions of the original structure 
still remain. At Paderbom, also, a reconstruction of the cathedral was 
effected (1058-1068), in place of that which was burned in the former 
year; new cathedrals were erected at Halberstadt (1060-107 1) and at Min- 
den (1062-1072). The church in Abdinghof, at Paderbom, burned in 
1058, was rebuilt and dedicated twenty years later. At Werden, in West- 
phalia, a cr>'pt consecrated in 1059 ^^ still preser\'ed, and the church 
dedicated in 1064 was renewed early in the twelfth century. At Ilsenburg 
the still-existing church, in which columns and pillars alternate, was 
dedicated in 1087, and soon afterward the conventual Church of Huysc- 
burg was dedicated, but was removed at the beginning of the twelfth 
centurj' to make room for a new stnicture. In 1083 the Church of St 
Ulrich at Sangerhauscn was founded; in 1085, that of the Convent of 
Reinhardsbrunn, near Gotha; and in 1089, that of Oldisleben, near Held- 
rungen, of whose original structures nothing remains. Bishop Benno of 
Osnabriick (1068-1088) built the Convent of Iburg, in the Teutoburgian 
Forest, and consecrated the choir in 1070. The nucleus of the cathedral 
at Soest belongs to the eleventh centurj-, although the exact time of its 
erection is not definitelv known. 

ArchitiCture on the Rhine, — The Rhine, which imder the rule of the 
Romans was the seat of a developed culture, owed the progress which art 
made upon its banks in the eleventh centur\', not to the influence of the 
emperor, but principally to the episcopal sees scattered at various points 
along the left bank, where extensive cities existed in Roman times. Even 
here the emperors effected much, many of their foundations being spread 
along the Rhine and its affluents, and they ever\'where supported the 
bishops. But these latter had been established for centuries; they fonned 
an unbroken line of succession, thus exercising on all occasions, even 
after they had long attained to the dignity of temporal princes, that great 



Eleventh Century.] ROMANESQUE. 155. 

influence which the emperors, who but temporarily sojourned in the 
imperial palaces on the Rhine, exerted only in their hereditary states 
where they were absolute rulers. 

The Cathearal of Mayence was, as we have mentioned (p. 150), demol- 
ished by Archbishop Willigis in the tenth centur)"^, and was then rebuilt. 
The second edifice was not finished until the eleventh century, and was 
burned in 1009, on the day of its dedication. Rebuilding was at once 
commenced, and the cathedral was consecrated by Archbishop Bardo in 
1036. The lower part of the existing building, shown on Plate 24 {Jig. 
14), may belong to this period, with the exception of the western choir, 
while on the other hand the superstnicture of the lower part of the two 
round towers and of the eastern fagade doubtless belongs to this age. The 
southern portal contains decorative parts that may almost be called 
antique, such as Corinthian capitals, which are among the most direct 
later imitations of this antique form of capitals. The largest of its six 
towers is three hundred feet in height. 

The Cathedral of Strasburg was burned in 1002, and the new structure 
was long delayed; so that, though after the fashion of the times single 
parts were completed and brought into use, it was not until 1068 that the 
building was ready for rededication. Greater energy was manifested at 
Basle, where the new cathedral was dedicated in 1018. The new struc- 
ture at Worms, though unfinished, was consecrated in 1016; its plan 
{Jig. 7) may, however, be ascribed to this period. Single portions were 
consecrated in 1053 ^^^ 1058. The Church of St. Paul at Worms was 
founded in 1016, but no part of the existing building can be referred to that 
time. On the other hand, almost the entire structure of the Church of 
St Wilibrord at Echtemach, which was erected 1017-1031, is still extant. 
The latter church has alternate pillars and columns so arranged that over 
the two arches which sweep from the column to the piers on each side of 
a bay a great relieving-arch is turned from pier to pier. The capitals of 
the columns are crude imitations of Corinthian; the side-aisles are covered 
with cross-vaulting, while the nave has a timber roof. Whether the 
four towers belong to the original structure cannot be ascertained. 
The Church of the Apostles at Cologne (//. 25, Jig. 3) was commenced 
in 1020, the Abbey-church of Brauweiler was built in 1024-1028, and in 
1030 the Abbey-church of Deutz, founded in 1002, was completed. 

Emperor Conrad II. laid in one day in 1030 the foundation-stones of 
three important churches. One of these, the Convent-church of Lini- 
burg on the Hardt (//. 24, Jig. 5), a basilica with columns, a rectilinear 
choir, and two apses in the transept, still exhibits completely the original 
architecture, but has been a ruin for over three hundred and eighty 
years. The second church was the Cathedral of Speyer, one of the 
grandest edifices of the Middle Ages, as is proved by what remains of 
the original structure, notwithstanding many later additions (//. 2^^ Jig. 
45 pl' 25, yf^. 2); the vaulting of the nave and the system of pillars as they 
now stand are part of the original building. The third church which the 



156 ARCHITECTL ^RE. [German. 

eini>eror founded on this day was that of St. John, the baptisten* of the 
Cathedral of Sf)eyer. 

In 1035 the ancient Porta Ni^ra, at Treves (//. 9»^/?C- i^)» was con- 
verted into a church by the addition of an apse.* In 1038 the church at 
Hersfeld was founded, and the crypt was consecrated in 1040, but the 
larger upjx^r church was longer delayed. In Hersfeld there is also a pil- 
lared basilica with unvaulted nave, choir, and transept; this was the work 
of the Cistercian monk Poppo von Stablo, who was also the architect of 
the church at Liniburg. In 1043 the Church of St. Severin at Cologne 
was dedicated, that of Mittelzell on the island of Reichenau in 104S, and 
in 1049 that of Sta. Maria in Capitolo in Cologne {pL 2^^ fig, 8), the east- 
em portion of which, with the exception of the upper half of the prin- 
cipal choir, is still extant in its original state. The latter is of the twelfth 
century; the vaulting of the side-aisles and the piers of the arcades with- 
out doubt belong to the eleventh centur>'. The middle aisle had, however, 
a wooden roof, which was vaulted at a later date (y?^J. 2, 8). 

Between 1049 and 1054 the church of the nunnery of Ottmarsheim 
(7?j^. 6), begun at the l)eginning of the eleventh century, was consecrated; 
it is a copy of the minster-church at Aix la-Chapelle. The Cathedral of 
Constance was begun in 1052, and was dedicated in 1058; it is a columned 
basilica, the nucleus of which — namely, the arcades of the nave, the 
arrangement of the transept, and the rectangular choir — is still extanL 
St. Ocorge at Cologne (a columned basilica) was founded in 1059, as was 
also the Church of Sta. Maria ad Gradus, which was completed in 1065, 
burned in 1080, rebuilt in 1085, and demolished in 1817. 

Under Archbishop Anno of Cologne (1056-1075) buildings were added 
to St. Ursula, Great St. Martin, St. Cunibert, and St. Pantaleon. ^o St. 
Gereon, a primitive round church, the chapel of St. Nicholas and a large 
choir with a cr\pt and two square towers were added in 1067; in 1068 the 
high altar of the cr>'pt was consecrated, and in 1069 that of the choir. 
Three years earlier the Abbey-church of St. Michael at Siegburg, built 
under the same archbishop, was dedicated. 

Large buildings were at times delayed considerably in their erection 
through either imperfect construction or accidental demolition; thus the 
Cathedral of Treves lay in ruins until Poppo (loi 7-1047) rebuilt it, to do 
which he used the three yet-standing columns of Constantine's building, 
erected a pier in place of the fourth column, and enlarged the btiilding 
considerably toward the west. It was first finished under Udo (died 1077), 
the second bishop from Poppo. Though the polygonal west choir is yet 
later and its altar was consecrated in 11 20, yet the exterior of the western 
portion is essentially a work of that date. 

The Cathedral of Sjx^yer was also long in building. When the enif)eior 
Henry III. was interred by the side of his parents in the still-tmfinished 
church, in 1056, the works were entirely sus|>ended. Between 1061 and 1072 
a consecration took place. Then suddenlv the stnicture became insecure. 

I In 1^17 the Turu Nij^ra was loioicd to it? ancient use by the IVu>Man govemmenc.— 'Ed. 



Eleventh Century.] ROMANESQUE. 1 57 

and the famous Benno, who in the mean while had become bishop of Osna- 
bruck (1068-1088), was called hither to strengthen the foundations, which 
the Rhine had begun to undermine. In 1097 the emperor Henry IV., 
and afterward Bishop Otho of Bamberg, undertook the continuation of 
the cathedral, which the latter soon completed. 

The Cathedral of Mayence, dedicated in 1036, was a prey to the flames 
in 1081; the emperor Henry IV. commenced the rebuilding, yet after his 
death it resembled a ruin, and it was in the twelfth century re-erected in 
its present condition as a vaulted structure. Bardo's structure had a flat 
ceiling; particulars of Henr>'^ IV. 's new building have not come down to 
us; so that it must remain uncertain whether he commenced the vaulting. 

Hirschau Convent. — In the diocese of Speyer the Hirschau Convent 
was founded in the ninth century, and after it had remained uninhabited 
for half a century was again peopled in the eleventh century. Its church 
— di small basilica with columns, block capitals, and vaulted side-aisles — 
was consecrated in 1071. The convent increased so rapidly that a new 
one was built between 1083 and 1091, and in the latter year its church was 
consecrated. It is not known whether columns or pillars supported the 
walls of this church, which is now destroyed, but we know that it had a 
flat wooden ceiling, which was renewed in the year 1500. St. Severin at 
Cologne was restored 1089-1099. 

Further Develop7ncnt of Architecture: Vaulting. — One of the most im- 
portant steps in the development of the architecture of the Middle Ages 
was the cross or groined vaulting of the nave, as in the cathedrals of 
Speyer and Mayence, and a number of other buildings. Through this 
the complete monumentality of the building was consummated, and that 
perfect harmony of the interior obtained which the Byzantine system had 
reached by the use of cupolas; but it called for greater wall-masses to 
withstand the lateral thrust exercised by these large vaults. Even in the 
Christian-Roman period the apses were vaulted; the square spaces of the 
chancel and of the transepts and the crossing of nave and transepts w^ere 
next, in the eleventh century, covered with vaults, even in cases where 
the nave remained unvaulted and only the side-aisles — or not even these 
— were vaulted. 

At Sta. Maria in Capitolo at Cologne there is at the centre of the cross 
a semicircular dome out of which the arches of the choir, nave, and tran- 
septs cut large sections, and similar domes with abscissas are above the 
separate parts of the transepts and chancel, which are bounded by trans- 
verse arches. Cross-vaulting could only be arranged regularly over 
square spaces; the middle aisle or nave, which had double the width of 
the side-aisles, must therefore be divided into bays corresponding to two 
bays of the side-aisles. This demanded an alternate arrangement of the 
pillars, and this again necessitated a variety of details to bring the spring- 
ing of the vaulting, its highest point, and the diagonal arches which lay 
between the transverse vaults, into visible relationship with the support- 
ing ground. It was a similar case to that of the Baths of Diocletian and 



158 ARCHITECTURE, [Germax, 

other structures of classical Roman times, where the springing of the 
vaultiii<i: was denoted by Corinthian columns and fragments of entablature. 

At the Cathedral of Speyer the proportion was quite different.. The 
side-walls of the nave were almost doubled in height ; the vaulting of this 
part of the building could not, therefore, be directly carried on detached 
pillars, and the method adopted was to attach to the face of the pillars a 
half-column which ran from the pavement to the springing of the vault- 
ing, and also received the transverse arches. This half-column is a feeble 
reminiscence of the columns of the antique buildings. On account of 
continued additions and the numerous restorations which the Cathedral of 
SjK^yer underwent from the twelfth to the fifteenth centurj- (a great part 
of the nave was rebuilt after its destruction by the French in 1689), 
we can only speak of the general arrangement of this structure; yet we 
can assert that in the design, which was systematically and harmonic 
ously arranged, there speak out an earnestness and a dignity in which we 
see attained a new ideal of a church. We see here a reflection of that 
prominent ideal of the age which thirsted intensely after rest and peace 
through perpetual meditation. Even the exterior of the structure bespeaks 
this ideal. 

Majestic peace is stamped on this magnificent monument, solemn dig- 
nity speaks in the simple membering of the masses, and there is a grand 
life in the division and concentration of the individual parts, that rise or 
sink externally according to the shape of the interior. Where the tran- 
sept crosses the nave a lantern rises aloft, yielding through its windows 
that rich light which contributes so largely to the wonderful and purely 
artistic effect of the interior. Towers rise in various places from the 
masses, not only to contain the bells which summoned the worshippers, 
but also by their aspiring fonns to direct attention heavenward, and to 
make the mighty cathedral visibly preponderate from afar over the sea 
of houses and over the towers of the city walls. The structures of the 
eleventh centur>', and particularly the Cathedral of Speyer, all reached 
essentially the same results which those of the twelfth century attained; 
the advance in the twelfth centur>' was only in detail and an ever-greater 
variety of combination. 

Architecture of Southern Germany, — The provinces of Southern Ger- 
many, particularly those which are now united under the name of Bavaria, 
obtained their impulse from the Rhine and from Saxony. The chief 
centres of activity here also were the seats of the bishops, which were for 
the most part in cities founded by the Romans. Ratisbon must first 
be named, but Wiirzburg, Augsburg, and Salzburg were scarcely in 
the rear. 

In 1007 the see of Bamberg was created, and the cathedral of that city 
was the work of Henr>' II. and his spouse. The Obermiinster Church at 
Ratisbon was consecrated in 1010. The three convents of Neumiinster, 
Haug, and St. Stephen were founded at Wiirzburg at the beginning of the 
eleventh century; St. Stephen was built 1013-1018. Henry II., after he 



Eleventh Century.] ROMANESQUE. 159 

iad had the Cathedral of Bamberg dedicated (1012), founded in 1015 the con- 
vent on the Michaelsberg, the church of which was consecrated in 102 1. 

At Eichstadt, Bishop Heribert (1021-1042) began to rebuild the 
-cathedral, which his successor — who at the same time ruled the Church 
as Pope Victor II. — brought to a conclusion. The Convent of St. Walburg, 
which he also commenced, was finished in 1042, the year of his death. 
"The construction of the Church of Niederaltaich continued from 1033 to 
1038. The church of the Convent of St. Burchard was dedicated in 1042, 
and a new cathedral begun, the crypt of which was consecrated in 1045. 

In 1052, St. Emmeram at Ratisbou was consecrated by Pope Leo IX., 
who built the inlaid ceiling at his own expense; an important portion of 
•this edifice — the remarkable entrance-portico {narthex) — still remains, while 
almost all the rest of these buildings of the eleventh century have disap- 
peared. The cathedral at Salzburg was not completely rebuilt in the 
•eleventh century, since that of the ninth century still existed; the church 
on the Nonneberg was, however, rebuilt in 1023, ^^^ ^^ ^^4^ ^^ crypt 
was dedicated. The Convent of Gurk was established in the diocese of 
Salzburg, and its church was consecrated in 1042. 

The doubled-choired Church of St. Afra was built at Augsburg in 
1064, the cathedral was consecrated in 1065, and in 107 1 the Chapel of 
St Gertrude was erected near it. The Church of St. Jacob at Bamberg 
was begun in 1073 ^^^ finished at the beginning of the twelfth centur>'. 
The Chapel of St. Stephen in Ratisbon — the so-called Old Cathedral — 
•descends from the eleventh century; St. Jacob's, in the same city, was 
begun in 1090, but was demolished early in the twelfth century to make 
xoom for the present building. 

In Austria^ which during the eleventh century had first to battle with 
its eastern neighbors, the churches of the eleventh century were mostly 
•of wood, but Bishop Altmann, who took his seat at Passau in 1046, con- 
structed stone edifices. The most important of his buildings are St. 
-Florian, which was established by Altmann in 107 1 and was occupied by 
the Augustine Canons; the Convent of Gottweih, where Altmann was 
buried in 1093; and the College of Molk, which was not finished until the 
beginning of the twelfth century. In 1093 the collegiate Church of St. 
Paul at Kamten was consecrated; it was commenced either soon before 
1064 or in 1085. 

Bohemia^ Poland^ and Hungary^ after they had found a place near the 
Western Christian races, joined them definitely in the eleventh century 
and adopted their civilization ; and, since they came into connection with 
the rest of Europe principally through Germany, their architecture was 
also that of Germany — so far, at least, as the few remaining structures of 
this age allow us to judge. 

C. GERMAN ROMANESQUE OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. 

Rhenish Provinces, — In the twelfth century we find the episcopal sees 
on the Rhine, especially Cologne and Mayence, at their highest stage of 



i6o ARCHITECTURE. [German, 

prosperity. Tlie Rhine liad become for Germany the centre of a culture 
\vh*ich sent its rays eastward and made its influence felt over all the 
Teutonic countries. Untirinj; architectural activity prevailed upon the 
historic river: everywhere new churches were commenced; even the 
villa;:^es built monumental stone strnctures with massive towers. Most of 
the edifices of the eleventh century were rebuilt; even the more imi>ortant 
were not enlarged, but the mao^nificent ground-plans were retained, and 
newly-planned churches were seldom erected in these dimensions. 

The activity of the beginning of the century was a continuation of 
that of the preceding century, and its results also shared the fate of the 
works of that centur}-; what remains belongs in part to the second half, 
and principally to the close, of the century. The Cathedral of Worms 
was consecrated in mo; the new church at Sponheim was built in iioi- 
1123; ^^^^ collegiate Church of Boppard, in 1102-1124. All three have 
been replaced by later structures, yet the church at Laach still remains, 
and may rightly be esteemed the most surpassing ornament of the Rhine- 
land. 

Conreni-churcJi at Laach. — The convent was founded in 1093; its 
church was lK*gun about 11101112, and was consecrated in 1156. The 
iliree-aisled nave has not the double-compartmented bay with square 
vaulting such as we find at Mayence and Si)eyer, but the pillars are placed 
farther apart than in those cathedrals; so that the space between each pair 
forms a bay the length of which is about two-thirds the width of the nave, 
and the vaulted compartments are oblong. The windows are larger and 
the piers are mcmbered, so that each part corresponds to the vault- 
ing resting upon it. And this is not only attractive in itself, but also 
organically binds every part, from below to the summit of the vaulting. 
An eastern transept projects far beyond the side-aisles; in the angles 
between the choir and the transept are two square towers; a large ap>se 
terminates the square choir and two small apses project from the eastern 
side of the transepts. There is a cr\pt below the much-elevated square 
chancel and the principal apse. There is a western transept, which occu- 
pies only the width of a bay of the nave. Two round towers are attached 
to the gables, as at Mayence; the centre of the western tran.sept is con- 
tinued upward into a tower oblong below, but square above, and the 
western end is closed by an apse without an intermediate square choir. 
An octangular lantern rises over the intersection of the nave and eastern 
transept. 

The Church of St. Mauritius at Cologne, demolished not many years 
a-^o, was built before 1144; that of St. Matthias at Treves, between 1127 
and 114S. The sanctuar>' and transept of the Abbey of Knechtstatten 
wore built between 1133 and 1151, and th.e latter was covered with three 
domical vaults. An octangular tower rises at the intersection of nave and 
transept, but does not form a lantern. The nave appears, from the section 
of the shafting of the pillars and their slender proportions, to have been 
completed about the end of the centurj*. The construction of the Church 



Twelfth Century.] ROMANESQUE. l6l 

of Klosterrath (Roldiic) occupied the entire century, but the Chapel of St. 
Gothard at Mayence was between 1136 and 1138 finished as it stands 
to-day. A magnificent new cathedral was commenced at Mayence after 
1137. In 1136-1139 the Convent and Church of Himmerodt, near Treves, 
were built, but they were soon replaced by a larger structure. The 
Church of the Augustines at Mittelheim is a basilica with a wooden 
ceiling (1131-1140). 

A great conflagration in 1 149 laid the larger part of Cologne in ashes, 
but it was at once rebuilt. Most of the churches either fell e prey to the 
flames or were damaged so that scarcely more than some fragments of 
walls remained of the earlier period; then were erected those magnificent 
structures which are the pride of the city. The Church of the Apostles 
{pL 2^^ fig. \\\ pL 2^^ fig. 3), Great St. Martin, the choir of St. Gereon 
(/'• ^Stfig' 7)) ^tc, were completed more or less quickly. The old cathe- 
dral at the same time received a stone vaulting. 

The beautiful double church at Schwarzrheindorf, near Bonn, belongs 
to the years 1143-1148. The eastern portion of St. Gereon at Cologne 
was dedicated between the years 1151 and 1156. The Church of St. 
Remigius at Ingelheim was erected in 1154, and the Cistercian church at 
Eberbach — the original eastern part of which is shown on Plate 24 {fig, 9), 
and is exactly like that of most Cistercian convents — was founded 1150- 
1156. Archbishop Hilinus of Treves (1152-1169) enlarged his cathedral. 
In 1 159 the Cathedral of Speyer was burned, and larger buildings were 
deemed necessary. About 11 70 two towers were built at Cologne Cathe- 
dral; in 1 1 72, Great St. Martin's at Cologne, in 11 73 the church at 
Petershausen, begun eleven years before, in 1170 the new minster at 
Zurich, and in 1178 the new church at Hillerodt, were consecrated. In 
1 181 there was another dedication of the Cathedral of Worms, which was 
at that date, as regards its exterior, in the state in which it exists to-day, 
with the exception of a few later additions. This cathedral, which has 
four towers, is represented on Plate 25 {fig. i). 

In 1 182 the Liebfraucnkirche {Church of Our Lady) at Coblentz was 
founded, in 1185 the Cathedral of Basle was remodelled, in 1196 that of 
Treves was dedicated anew, and in 1197 that of Mayence. Other Rhenish 
buildings of the twelfth century are St. Castor at Coblentz, St. Genevieve 
at Andemach, the choir of the minster at Bonn, the flat-ceiled Church of 
St John at Niederlahnstein, etc. 

In Southern Germa7iy the architecture of the twelfth century did not 
find the fruitful soil it met with on the Rhine; it fell behind alike in 
grandeur of design, in poetical aspiration, in elegance of proportions, and 
in delicacy of ornament. The structures are a few rich convents or 
municipal collegiate institutions which were finished as flat-ceiled basil- 
icas, either with pillars or stout, rapidly-tapering columns with cubical 
capitals between the nave and the aisles. 

The most considerable of these buildings are the church at Alpirs- 
bach — really a work of the eleventh century, since it was consecrated 

Vol. IV.— 11 



i62 ARCHITECTURE. [Gwmat.. 

in 109.S — the clmrches ai Elhvang;en (1100-1124?), Sindelfiiigen, Faiirn- 
dau, and [)L'iikeiulorf (founded hi 1:24), the minster at Biburg (1125- 
1150 , St. Gcorfjc at Augsburg (1135-1142), and the church at Maulbronu 
lii4'J-ii7-S; p!. 26, y/;', I], in which latter church a transept appears 
cxttriially. while intenially three lower chapels and a fourth equal in 
height to the side-ai>les and 01* corresixinding width occupy the ground- 
floor, and there is a great hall above on each side. The church a: 
Weingarten was completed in 1147, that of Herrenalb in 114S, and at 
about the same i>eriod the Church of the I'renionstratcnsians at Wind- 
berg, in the Bavarian Forest, and those of Comburg, St. Gilgen, Mur- 
liarut, and St. John at Gniiind, all iu Swabia; the church at Altenstadt 
in Bavaria and the cathedral at Passan after iiSi, etc. In Austria the 
erection of the collegiate Church of the Holy Cross uear \'ienaa (1135- 
1187) is noticeable. 

Ill .Sii.v'iy the flat-roofed basilica with arcades borne on pillars was 
used almost exclusively until the clo.-^ of the twelfth century, and the 
vanited structure first appears here ver\' late through the influence of 
the Rhenish structures. We may mention the church at Huyseburg — 
commenced in the eleventh century- and consecrated in 1121 — the church 
at Qiiedlinbiirg (1129J. the Church of Onr Lady at Halberstadt (1135- 
1146), that at Hecklingen (11301, St. Godehard at Hildesheim (1133)— 
with an aisle around the choir and three chapels adjoining it — and that at 
Konigs! utter, founded in 1135 and having a vaulted nave (//. 2^,fig. 13). 
To the middle of the twelfth centur>- belongs the church at Hamerslebcn. 
After a great conflagration, in 1162, the previously-mentioned Church of 
St. Michael's at Kildesheim was restored, and consecrated in 1184. The 
same year is that of the erection of a church at Wechselburg. The 
Cathedral of Brunswick, one of the few entirely vaulted churches, was 
commence<l in 1 171 and finished at tlie close of the century, and in 1172 the 
church at Gandersheim obtained its vaulting. After mention of the 
Convent of Ncuwerk at Goslar, we will pass to the lowlands of the north- 
east of Germany, where a series of structures were built of brick from the 
clay-beds of those districts, 

Norlh-rast Germany. — These regions received Christianity and the 
civilization of the West at a comparatively late period. The seed sown 
by Otho the Great did not spring up there; the cathedral built by him at 
Brandenburg (949) soon foil to the ground (983). The Slavic prince 
Pribislav, who had become a Christian iu 1136, built a chnrch on the 
Harhingerberg. near Brandenburg, and buried there his uncles Herman 
and Siegfried and his father, Mcinfried. who had been killed in 1126 
because he had favored Christianity, Pribislav was also buried here in 
1 143, This church consisted of a central stnicture with four towers, and 
was famed throughout the entire Middle Ages in Germany as a place of 
pilgrimage. The church no longer exists, and it would be difficult to 
prove that the one demolished in 1723 was th-' "' ** ■■ " ■'■'"■■ but the old 
church built for niortnar>' purp [Aon as Uie 




Twelfth Century.] ROMANESQUE. 163 

structure destroyed in 1722, which may have been erected at the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century. 

Havelberg — taken in 1131 by the emperor LotHaire, in 11 36 again in 
the hands of the Slavs, in 1137 reconquered — seemed in a most un- 
promising condition when Bishop Anselm, who had been expelled by the 
Slavs, again took charge of the diocese, in 1144. He devoted himself in 
particular to the colonization of the region, and in conjunction with the 
Margrave Albert of Brandenburg led colonists there from the Netherlands 
in 1146-1149. The colonists, accustomed to brick buildings, gave great 
impetus to the architecture of these parts. He directed the erection of 
the Convent of Jericho, which was completed in 1144, but whose church, 
which still exists, was built in 1149-1159. It is a three-aisled basilica with 
a flat ceiling and columns and with widely-projecting transepts, a square 
t:hancel with an apse, and two secondary choirs ending in apses. A two- 
aisled crypt under the chancel and intersection rises high above the floor 
of the nave; so that the choir is reached only by two narrow, steep flights 
of steps. There are two towers at the west end. 

About 1 151 the Church of St. Jacob at Seehausen was built, and in 
1157-1188 the convent-church at Diesdorf, a vaulted pillar-basilica. In 
1157-1160 the conventual Church of Krewese was built in heavy massive 
forms of granite fragments; the side-aisles were originally vaulted, but 
not the central one. Pribislav of Brandenburg also founded the Church 
of St. Godehard in that city; it was destroyed in 1156, but was soon 
reconstructed. In the present church only the western portion of the 
original building — which portion was built of granite — is still extant. In 
1 170 followed the dedication of the Cathedral of Havelberg, and in 1165 
was laid the foundation of the Cathedral of Brandenburg; this was fin- 
ished in 1 194, and the greater part of it still exists in the present 
structure. 

To the twelfth century belongs also the Church of St Nicolas at 
Brandenburg, of which structure the foundations of the nave and the 
•eastern part are still extant. The conventual church at Dobrilugk, 
which was erected after 1181, appears to have had all the aisles vaulted, 
although the vaulting itself belongs to a later time. The pillars are 
plain, with a projection for the reception of the transverse arches of the 
aisles, and every other one has a similar projection for those of the cen- 
tral aisle. Choir and transepts form three equal squares around the 
intersection, and a single apse closes the choir. The Convent of Arend- 
see contains a vaulted pillar-basilica founded about 1184. There were 
erected in 1186 the Church of St. Stephen at Tangermiiude, and in 1190 
*^ Church of St. Mary at Salzwedel. 

r> . ITALIAN ROMANESQUE, TENTH TO TWELFTH CENTURY. 

-*ye ^jpolitical relations of Italy were such that its art diverged in more 

j^r^^^Qcr^^ tlian did that of Germany. In describing Byzantine and 

^^^^k ^tt ^we have noticed that both held sway in the territories of the 



:64 ARCHITECTURE. [Itauam. 

Eastern Roman empire until the twelfth centur}% and even longer. We 
liave seen that Venice built St. Mark's Church in Byzantine style, and 
that its other buildings also followed Oriental tendencies. But Rome 
held fast to the old basilica, the superficies of which decreased, while, 
owing to Northern influences, the proportion of height became greater. 

Old Rome had even in the fourth century been compelled to give up a 
portion of its magnificent structures for the erection of new edifices, and 
later on historv has more to tell of subversion than of construction. The 
ruins offered materials so rich and so abundant that they, more than the 
influence of those ancient stnictures which yet stood erect, impeded 
Rome's progress; so that from the ninth to the twelfth centur\', or 
even longer, though the metropolis of the Church, she did not advance 
a single independent architectonic idea in church-construction. Even 
the palaces were but patchwork formed of antique fragments, except for 
the introduction of the element of fortification, which antique art had 
not cared to admit into the streets of the city, but had confined to its walls. 
Examples of this barbarous patchwork are the so-called ** House of Pi- 
late'' and a palace of Nicolas the Oreat, son of Crescentius, who was 
beheaded in 99S. 

The Roman basilicas of the twelfth centur\' still show the combination 
of the architrave with the range of columns, as in the more modem parts 
of San Lorenzo, in San Crisogono (1128), and in Sta. Maria in Trastevcre 
(1139). SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio is a sufficiently rude pillar-basilica. 
Novel, but erected under foreign influence, is a series of brilliantly-deco* 
rated and ornately-detailed works of small area which are ascribed to the 
artist-family of the Cosmati. Here belong the transepts of S. Paolo 
(//. 27, /f^. 5) and S. Giovanni in Laterano, together with ambones, 
tabernacles, etc., in S. Lorenzo, S. Clemente, Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, 
and other churches. 

The Architecture of Upper and Middle Italy displayed a more independ- 
ent development, for here there was not that abundance of antique monu- 
ments awaiting the spoiler nor that uninternipted tradition which swayed 
Rome. Two factors were important in the development of Italian archi- 
tecture. One was the Empire, whose rule was acknowledged as well here 
as in Gennany, although conflicting interests manifested themselves here 
more defiantly than in the native land of the emperors. The Empire 
established relations with the North which could not remain without 
influence upon the development of Architecture. Another still more 
essential factor was the circumstance that it was neither the emperors nor 
the princes, nor yet princely bishops, wlio erected the Italian architectural 
mounmenls, but powerful cities which had at that perio<l an independence 
and a nolitical influence that the most im]X)rtant German cities were only 
beginning to acrjuire. In Italy the cities were already the centres of 
culture — not because of the splendor of a bishopric or of a princely court, 
but because of the wealth, intelligence, refinement, and artistic taste of 
their citizens. 



Italian.] ROMANESQUE. 165 

In Italy as well as in Germany the churcli-architecture, being the real 
exponent of architectonic ideals, had retained the plan of the basilica 
together with smaller circular structures. The churches are mostly edifices 
with two aisles and a more elevated nave, the walls of which latter rest 
on columned arcades. Along with vaulting, piers came from the North — 
partly from Germany, and partly from France. What essentially distin- 
guishes Italian churches from the German is the greater freedom of the 
spaces and the lack of towers in actual combination with the church itself. 
There is in the German architecture of that period, in the elevated, majes- 
tic calm and solemn severity which are so harmoniously combined into a 
characteristic whole, something of the ascetic and monkish to which the 
freer ways of Italy were opposed, and which is only realized in individual 
works that were evidently erected under Northern influence. 

In Germany the great cathedrals, considered in relation to their expres- 
sion, belong to God on high: their towers rise toward heaven and are 
mirrored in the waters of the rivers for God's honor and glory, and they 
rule the entire city with the peace they bring; the convent-churches praise 
God on lonely heights and in quiet valleys, breathing peace and spreading 
peace around. In Italy the cathedrals belonged to the citizens, who built 
them for the entire community — not only to glorify God, but also as the 
Palladium of the popular freedom. The Italian duomo was built, as was 
the Grecian temple, for the common good and to inspire the citizens with 
local patriotism. This idea, which finds its expression in the widely- 
separated and slender supports of the churches, found monumental vault- 
ing little suited for its purpose, but the wealthy art-loving citizens desired 
rich ornamentation in which there was a ray of fancy; therefore the facades, 
which in Gennany rise smooth and plain, were in Italy bedecked with 
columned galleries and arcaded work. 

While Germany soon abandoned the use of various-colored stones as a 
polychromatic decoration of the walls, the use of this method of decora- 
tion continually obtained wider application in Italy, and was fostered by 
the abundance of colored marbles fitted for such purposes. While in some 
districts the exterior of the west facade of the churches maintains the form 
of the three aisles with their roofs, other structures have a symmetrical 
wide frontispiece with a single pediment masking the three aisles and 
made attractive by sumptuous galleries. 

The double choir which characterized the German cathedrals, so 
specially designed for the clergy, did not suit Italian taste; but the crypt 
was always laid out upon a grand scale, entirely free from the aisles, and 
was employed, not as a quiet subterranean receptacle for the relics to 
which the assembled people drew near in awe, but as the burial-place of 
the patron saints of the city, who belonged to all. These relics ever}' one 
could view; round them the entire people could assemble, whether in 
ardent supplication or with rejoicings and thanksgivings. They belonged 
to the entire people, who perhaps with armed hand had taken them from 
iieighboring cities, and who were ever ready to make secure their posses- 



i66 ARCHITECTURE. [Itauajc. 

sion against robbery or abduction, as the ancient republics protected 
their Palladiums. 

In this spirit the great Italian churches speak to us to-day. Like 
the Gennan churches, they are the work of many generations; but the 
living interest which the entire people felt in them as their property led 
even more than in Germany to perpetual additions and alterations^ al- 
though the want of money was not here, as in Germany, the prime cause 
of the delay. For this reason thorough investigation is needed even 
more than in Germany before a historically-transmitted date— often one 
inscribed on the building — can be applied to the still-existing structure 
in all its parts, for this date may belong to special parts only; conse- 
quently, the reader should bear this in mind when we direct his attention 
to a building without giving a fixed date. 

As such we mention the Cathedral of Fiesole (1028); S. Flaviano at 
Montefiascone (1032); the Cathedral of Pisa (//. 27, fig. 2), which was 
begun in 1063; the cr>'pt of vSan Fenno at Verona (1065); the Cathedral of 
Empoli, the facade of which bears the date 1093; that of Modena, begun 
in 1099 {Jig. 10); that of Vitcrbo, a columned basilica; the Church of S. 
Donato and the cathedral at Genoa; S. Michele at Lucca; the cathedrals 
of Prato and Pistoja; the Church of S. Miniato at Florence, the interior 
of which is shown in Figure i ; the facade of the Cathedral of Verona 
{Jig. 8), with its characteristic example of an Italian portal; the Church 
of S. Zcno Maggiorc (1138) at the same city {figs. 6, 9); the Cathedral of 
Zara, in Dalmatia (7/(^.7); that of Casale-Monferrato (finished in 1 107); that 
of Xovara; S. Michele and S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro at Pavia, and San Am- 
brogio at Milan; the Cathedral of Parma, belonging to the second half of 
the twelfth century; that of Piacenza, in which a tower rises behind the 
facade on one side, similar to the tower of the Cathedral of Trau, in Dal- 
matia {fig. 4). The three apses of the last-mentioned church recall Ger- 
man architecture, though Dalmatia generally follows Italian traditions. 
Some of these churches were not finished until the thirteenth centur\': 
thus S. Martino at Lucca was completed in 1204, Sta. Maria in Toscanella 
in 1206, the others later. 

The Cathedral of Parma as it stands to-day may in its entirety be con- 
sidered rather a work of the thirteenth than of the twelfth centur>'; wc 
shall therefore have to speak of it ai^ain, as of some related churches. But 
a number of baptisteries must be mentioned here, all of them, like the 
churches, decorated with superficial arcades and galleries, in some cases 
over their entire surface. Such are the Kaptistery of Pisa (1153), that of 
Cremona (i 167), and those of Pnrma and Asti. Peculiar small churches 
are vS. Tommaso in Limine near Pergamo and the church at Gravedona. 

The CampijuiU. — The development of the campanili of Italy must be 
noted as peculiar. These bell-towers are almost without exception sepa- 
rated from the church. One of the iK-st kn(»wn is the Leaning Tower of 
Pisa, which is surrounded with galleries; this is shown in the view of the 
cathedral (jig. 2). It was built in 11 74 by a German and an Italian archi- 



French.] ROMANESQUE. 167 

tect working in conjunction, as was also the fine campanile within Diocle- 
tian's palace at Spalato. 

E. FRENCH ROMANESQUE, TENTH TO TWELFTH CENTURY. 

What is now called France was after Carolingian times a number of 
countries entirely independent of one another, each in a similar condition 
to Germany. The eastern portion formed the kingdom of Lorraine; 
interposed between Germany and France, this soon became a part of the 
Empire. The southern part, allied to Italy and adjoining it, was the 
territory of the counts of Toulouse, Gascony, and Aquitania; in the north- 
west was Brittany; in the north, Normandy; while the eastern tract 
adjoining Flanders constituted Champagne and Burgundy. 

France proper, where the kingly power was direct, consisted at first of 
only a small district with Paris for its centre; but it spread more and more, 
until in the thirteenth centur>' it had grown into a powerful kingdom 
nearly including what is now Central and Northern France, leaving 
as independent states Brittany in the west, Guyenne, Toulouse, and 
Auvergne in the south, and the Bourbonnais, Burgundy, and Champagne 
in the east, but already including, toward the south, Tours, Bourges, 
an<J Poitiers, and in the north, Bayeux, Caen, Rouen, Soissons, Laon, 
and Amiens. 

Throughout the entire province Roman civilization had taken deeper 
root than in Germany. France had become less the prey of strangers than 
Italy; the Teutonic people had a less secure hold there, and the Teutonic 
blood had penneated the population to a less extent than in Lorraine. 
The nucleus of the heterogeneous population was formed by the Celtic 
race, through which antique traditions were here kept alive longer even 
than in Italy, and which long before had become thoroughly Romanized. 
Thus, in fact, France, even after the death of Charlemagne, continued to 
be the centre of civilization, though Germany was the centre of political 
power. 

When afterward, as in Germany, there came on a period of constant 
wars in which each individual fought for whatever good his sword could 
bring him, culture sank more and more; still, both art and knowledge 
found a more mellow and fertile soil for their seed among all the people 
than in Germany, where only certain classes welcomed them. Even the 
greater mobility of the character of the people impelled them to attempt 
an active development. Thus, French architecture from the tenth to 
the twelfth century shows greater mobility and a more thoroughly-fin- 
ished detail than the German. A brilliant diversity carried into fanciful- 
ness developed itself upon French soil, but not that all-pervading harmo- 
nious repose exhibited by German structures. The great Ideal which we 
have designated as the Ideal of the age had not so deeply permeated the 
consciousness of the entire population of France, which still strove for 
an ideal. 

Abbey of Cluny. — The founding of the magnificent Abbey of Cluny by 



1 66 ARCHITECTURE. [Itauam. 

sion against robbery or abduction, as the ancient republics protected 
their Palladiums. 

In this spirit the great Italian churches speak to us to-day. Like 
the Gennan churches, they arc the work of many generations; but the 
living interest which the entire people felt in them as their property led 
even more than in Gennany to perpetual additions and alterations, al- 
though the want of money was not here, as in Germany, the prime cause 
of the delay. For this reason thorough investigation is needed even 
more than in Gennany before a historically-transmitted date — often one 
inscribed on the building — can be applied to the still-existing structure 
in all its parts, for this date may belong to special parts only; conse- 
quently, the reader should bear this in mind when we direct his attention 
to a building without giving a fixed date. 

As such we mention the Cathedral of Fiesole (1028); S. Flavian© at 
Montefiascone (1032); the Cathedral of Pisa {pi, 27, fig. 2), which was 
begim in 1063; the cr>'pt of San Fenno at Verona (1065); the Cathedral of 
Empoli, the facade of which bears the date 1093; that of Modena, begun 
in 1099 {Jig. 10); that of Viterbo, a columned basilica; the Church of S. 
Donato and the cathedral at Genoa; S. Michele at Lucca; the cathedrals 
of Prato and Pistoja; the Church of S. Miniato at Florence, the interior 
of which is shown in Figure i ; the fagade of the Cathedral of Verona 
{Jig. 8), with its characteristic example of an Italian portal; the Church 
of S. Zeno Maggiore (1138) at the same city {figs. 6, 9); the Cathedral of 
Zara, in Dalmatia(y?^.7); that of Casale-Monferrato (finished in 1107); that 
of Novara; S. Michele and S. Pictro in Cielo d'Oro at Pavia, and San Am- 
brogio at Milan; the Cathedral of Parma, belonging to the second half of 
the twelfth centur>'; that of Piacenza, in which a tower rises behind the 
facade on one side, similar to the tower of the Cathedral of Trau, in Dal- 
matia {fig, 4). The three apses of the last-mentioned church recall Ger- 
man architecture, though Dalmatia generally follows Italian traditions. 
Some of these churches were not finished imtil the thirteenth centur\'; 
thus S. Martino at Lucca was completed in 1204, Sta. Maria in Toscanella 
in 1206, the others later. 

The Cathedral of Parma as it stands to-day may in its entirety be con- 
sidered rather a work of the thirteenth than of the twelfth centurj-; we 
shall therefore have to speak of it again, as of some related churches. But 
a number of baptisteries must be mentioned here, all of them, like the 
churches, decorated with superficial arcades and galleries, in some cases 
over their entire surface. Such are the Baptisterj' of Pisa (1153), that of 
Cremona (i 167), and those of Panna and Asti. Peculiar small churches 
are S. Tommaso in Limine near Pergamo and the church at Gravedona. 

71i€ Campanili. — The development of the campanili of Italy must be 
noted as peculiar. These bell-towers are almost without exception scjki- 
rated from the church. One of the best known is the Leaning Tower of 
Pisa, which is surrounded with galleries; this is shown in the view of the 
cathedral {fig. 2). It was built in 1 174 by a Gennan and an Italian archi- 



French.] ROMANESQUE. 167 

tect working in conjunction, as was also the fine campanile within Diocle- 
tian's palace at Spalato. 

E. FRENCH ROMANESQUE, TENTH TO TWELFTH CENTURY. 

What is now called France was after Carolingian times a number of 
countries entirely independent of one another, each in a similar condition 
to Germany. The eastern portion formed the kingdom of Lorraine; 
interposed between Germany and France, this soon became a part of the 
Empire. The southern part, allied to Italy and adjoining it, was the 
territory of the counts of Toulouse, Gascony, and Aquitania; in the north- 
west was Brittany; in the north, Normandy; while the eastern tract 
adjoining Flanders constituted Champagne and Burgundy. 

France proper, where the kingly power was direct, consisted at first of 
only a small district with Paris for its centre; but it spread more and more, 
until in the thirteenth century it had grown into a powerful kingdom 
nearly including what is now Central and Northern France, leaving 
as independent states Brittany in the west, Guyenne, Toulouse, and 
Auvergne in the south, and the Bourbonnais, Burgundy, and Champagne 
in the east, but already including, toward the south. Tours, Bourges, 
an<J Poitiers, and in the north, Bayeux, Caen, Rouen, Soissons, Laon, 
and Amiens. 

Throughout the entire province Roman civilization had taken deeper 
root than in Germany. France had become less the prey of strangers than 
Italy; the Teutonic people had a less secure hold there, and the Teutonic . 
blood had permeated the population to a less extent than in Lorraine. 
The nucleus of the heterogeneous population was formed by the Celtic 
race, through which antique traditions were here kept alive longer even 
than in Italy, and which long before had become thoroughly Romanized. 
Thus, in fact, France, even after the death of Charlemagne, continued to 
be the centre of civilization, though Germany was the centre of political 
power. 

When afterward, as in Germany, there came on a period of constant 
wars in which each individual fought for whatever good his sword could 
bring him, culture sank more and more; still, both art and knowledge 
found a more mellow and fertile soil for their seed among all the people 
than in Germany, where only certain classes welcomed them. Even the 
greater mobility of the character of the people impelled them to attempt 
an active development. Thus, French architecture from the tenth to 
the twelfth century shows greater mobility and a more thoroughly-fin- 
ished detail than the German. A brilliant diversity carried into fanciful- 
ness developed itself upon French soil, but not that all-pervading harmo- 
nious repose exhibited by German structures. The great Ideal which we 
have designated as the Ideal of the age had not so deeply permeated the 
consciousness of the entire population of France, which still strove for 
an ideal. 

Abbey of Cluny, — The founding of the magnificent Abbey of Cluny by 



1 68 ARCHITECTL 'RE. [French. 

William of Aquitaine in the year 909 liad become important and decisive 
for the development of architectnre. Not only did the order for which it 
was built spread bovDiid the confines of France, but from it chnrch-archi- 
tectiire also received a i)owerfal impulse. The original structure is indeed 
no longer extant, and in France generally few buildings of that perio<l 
exist. We have, however, as much information concerning a brilliant 
architectural activity as we have relating to that of Germany. Yet we 
cannot follow it into details. 

A building of the beginning of the eleventh centur\', without doubt 
erected in 1007 under the influence of Cluny, is the Church of St. Phili- 
bert in Tournus, the nave of which still exists. Massive round pillars 
part the church into three aisles. Transverse arches span the nave 
from pillar to pillar, and the walls, carried on these, are connected by 
barrel-vaults, a series of which thus roof in the nave, while the vaulting 
of the aisles serves as a buttress to that of the middle portion. 

The Church of Clun\\ one of the most magnificent in its dimensions, 
had five aisles, which were broken by two transepts. At the east end 
there was an apse with a surrounding aisle, and around this a semicircle 
of five small chapels like so many apses, and two such apses face the east 
on each of the arms of the transepts. The two ^rms of the smaller eastern 
transepts ended in an apse to the north and south. At the west end a 
broad portico, or narthex, stood in front of the richly-decorated portal; in 
front of this rose a double-towered western facade. The church was com- 
menced in 10S9 and finished in 1130; it now lies in ruins. 

What a fulness of ideas is displayed in this ground-plan in comparison 
with the simple scheme of a Gennan church! The whole church was 
vaulted, but the entire length of the nave had a barrel-vault strengthened 
by transverse arches which corresponded to the piers. Both transepts, also 
separate, had tunnel-vaults, but the side-aisles were covered by groined 
vaults. The pillars were not plain and massive, like the Gennan ones, but 
were elalx)ratelv moulded. The outer walls took the thrust of the vaults 
upon the buttresses, which had an uncommonly varied detail. This sys- 
tem, more or less simplified, is spread through all the South of France; 
evervwhere the nave is covered with a barrel-vault. 

The Church of Notre Dame du Port at Clermont belongs here, the 
chancel-aisle of which has four apses, while each wing of the transept has 
one. The side-aisles have groined vaulting, above which are galleries 
with a lean-to half-tunnelled vault which acts as a buttress to the vaulting 
of the nave. The nave is thus left without direct lighting, but the tran- 
sept rises high above the nave and choir, and formerly bore in its centre 
a cupola-like tower (//. 28, y?^. 2). The exterior is yet more conspicuous 
through its decoration of colored stone (^/fi^. 3). There is in this edifice a 
grand poetr>' far superior to what appears in the German buildings of the 
same age. 

The church at Conqucs ( /fi,^ 7) and the cathedral at Puy-en-\Y-lay, both 
of the twelfth centurj*, are of similar construction, and the churches of St 



English.] ROMANESQUE. 169 

Gilles and St. Trophime at Aries are also related to Notre Dame. This 
last church, whose rich portal and beautiful cloister are shown on Plate 28 
{Jigs. 5, 6), is ceiled throughout its ancient portions with barrel-vaults 
strengthened by transverse arches. In this place belong the cathedrals of 
Avignon, Valence, and Carcassonne, with the church of the Ainay Con- 
vent at Lyons. In the last-mentioned churches there are no galleries 
above the side-aisles, but the latter are covered with half barrel-vaults. 
The vaulting of the church of Paray le Monial is pointed {Jig. 8), with 
elegant details, and so is that of the Cathedral of Autun, commenced in 
1 132. In this church the nave receives some light under the barrel- vault- 
ing, and the side-aisles have groined vaults. 

The Church of Notre Dame la Grande at Poitiers, whose fanciful 
fa9ade seems almost a copy of a reliquary {Jig. 4), has a tunnel- 
vault over the nave; so has the Cathedral of Le Mans, the nave and 
transept of which may, however, have formerly been unvaulted. A 
1:)uilding which exhibits in itself the entire development of the French 
style is the Abbey-church of St. Denis near Paris. Even in the twelfth 
century much labor was bestowed upon it; what still exists is the facade 
with two towers and three grand portals, like the facades of the churches 
of Normandy. 

In Normandy a peculiar school more nearly related to the German was 
•developed. Antique remnants which display a primitive crude character 
are preserved in the Abbey-church of St. George at Bocherville, which 
belongs to the time of William the Conqueror. The* ruins of the abbey- 
church at Jumi^ges are ascribed to the same period, since the church was 
consecrated in 1067. 

William the Conqueror and his spouse founded in 1066 the men's 
Abbey of St. Etienne (Abbaye aux Hommes) and the women's Abbey of 
Ste. Trinitd (Abbaye aux Dames) at Caen. Both churches seem, like 
the German ones, to have taken a long time for completion; so that many 
later elements have crept into the original plans. They had three-aisled 
naves and a transept without side-aisles, of which that of the men's abbey 
terminates in an apse on each projecting wing. The choir had lower 
side-aisles, like the nave, and an apse which was without an aisle around 
it Above the intersection was a lantern, and the west front had two 
towers {Jig. i). It is scarcely credible that the nave was originally 
vaulted. In what way the original execution was or may have been 
followed out may be seen from the crude details of the crypt and from the 
choir of the Abbaye aux Dames. The choir of St. Etienne may have 
been like this, as it was consecrated in 1077; afterward it was superseded 
by an early Gothic structure. The Church of St. Nicholas at Caen is 
similar to these. 

F. ENGLISH ROMANESQUE. 

William, who conquered England, took with him to that countr>' his 
Korman architects, who upon a new soil which had long been Chris- 



I70 ARCHITECTURE. [Spanish. 

tiau, and on which the old Teutonic culture was yet preserved alive, 
inaugurated a new epoch of architectural development, but still under 
the influence of the not wholly-smothered ancient Saxon culture, which 
introduced some strange elements into the Norman style. 

Characteristics of English Romanesque, — Massive pillars, some simply 
round, others shafted, bear the nave walls; the arches of the arcades 
are divided into several planes; the walls above the arcades are enliv- 
ened by a triforium, or arcaded galler>*; and the nave has a wooden 
roof, except where vaulting was added in later times. A noticeable 
peculiarity of the English churches is the great length of the choir, 
which has side-aisles like the nave and is often of equal dimensions. 
The transepts are also of considerable length, and are provided with 
aisles — at least, on the east side; the apses frequently g^ve way to the 
continuation of the choir. A massive tower rises at the intersection 
and smaller ones at the ends of the nave, choir, and transepts. 

Among the oldest edifices belonging to this period is the church in 
the Tower of London, which ends in a half-round apse surrounded by 
the aisle. There is a gallery above the side-aisles, and this, as well as 
the nave, has barrel-vaulting, while the aisles below have groined 
vaults. Among the most important English buildings of the close of 
the eleventh and during the twelfth century are the cathedrals of 
Norwich (founded in 1096) and Peterborough (i 117-1 140), the abbeys of St. 
Albans, Buildwas, and Waltham, and Castor Church, Northamptonshire. 
The cathedrals of tanterbur>' and Winchester, the Abbey-church of 
Malmesbur>', the cathedrals of Durham and Gloucester, the Abbey- 
church of Croyland, etc., may also be mentioned; yet it should be 
remembered in all cases that the original parts of the structure must 
be kept distinct from the later portions. 

G. SPANISH ROMANESQUE. 

So far as the Spanish peninsula was not subject to the influence of 
the Moors — either to their direct rule, or, after their overthrow, to their 
architectonic traditions — it was subject to the spirit of the French. In 
some cases French architects supervised Spanish works. Thus the walls 
of Avila (1090-1099) were. built by a French architect, and the Cathedral 
of Tarragona is said to have been erected by another. 

Vaulting. — In the Spanish buildings from the close of the eleventh 
centur\' we therefore find the barrel-vault as the covering of the nave, 
while the side-aisles had half-vaults of the same kind, forming an abut- 
ment to the central one. Entire barrel-vaults on all three aisles are also 
met with, and, exceptionally, galleries over the side-aisles. The transepts 
project considerably. The choir has side-aisles, and three apses, two of 
which open into the transept, form the principal choir. The roofs are 
flat. Groined vaultinj^ first began to replace the barrel-vault in the nave 
about the close of the twelfth ccnturv. 

One of the oldest Romanesque churches in Spain is the eleventh- 



■■'•*. 




Spanish.] ROMANESQUE. 171 

century Church of S. Pedro at Huesca. S. Pablo del Campo at Bar- 
celoua/a Benedictine church, was built between 1117 and 1127; a cupola 
rises at the intersection, and three apses form the east end. The Church 
of S. Pedro de las Puellas at the same place is similar. S. Pedro de las 
Galligans at Gerona has a barrel-vault buttressed by two half-barrel vaults 
over the aisles. 

Shrine 0/ S. /ago. — The famous shrine of S. Jago de Compostella in 
Galicia is throughout a French work both in plan and in execution; it is 
essentially a repetition of St. Semin at Toulouse. A three-aisled nave 
borne by shafted pillars, groined vaulting in the side-aisles with galleries 
over, a middle aisle with barrel-vaulting, the transverse ribs or arches of 
which rest on half-columns which, forming part of the piers, reach from 
the pavement to the vaulting, are the chief points of its construction. The 
transept also has side-aisles with galleries over. A lantern rises at the 
intersection, and each wing of the transept has two apses on the east side. 
The choir has side-aisles which run around the great apse. Five small 
apsidal chapels open into the aisle. It was begun in 1078 or 1082, but it 
was not until the beginning of the twelfth century that much progress had 
been made. The transept bears the date of 11 54; from the year 11 68 
Master Matthews worked upon it, and in 1188 he erected the rich portal. 

S. Isidoro at Leon was dedicated in 1149, and has a three-aisled nave 
with barrel-vaulting in both the centre aisle and the widely-projecting 
transepts, while the side-aisles have groined vaulting. Stilted and 
cusped arches in the transept recall the Moorish spirit. S. Millan at 
Segovia, a church of the twelfth century, also has barrel-vaults; it has 
three apses toward the east, with an octangular cupola over the inter- 
section; S. Esteban and S. Martin in the same city are similar in their 
arrangement. In these three churches there is an exact correspondence 
in the open arcades which extend around on the exterior of the side- 
aisles. 

First Appearance of the Gothic in Spain, — The pointed arch makes its 
appearance in the second half of the twelfth century, as in the barrel-vault 
of S. Nicolas at Gerona, a church without side-aisles; in the church at 
Elne, now belonging to France; and in the Cathedral of Lugo, some parts 
of which are round-arched, while others are pointed. The structure was 
executed in 1129-1177. Among the late Romanesque edifices is the Cathe- 
dral of Salamanca, commenced about 1178; it is constructed entirely with 
pointed arches and domical vaulting. Similar to it is the Cathedral of 
Zamora, for the completion of which the date 11 74 is indeed given, but 
cannot refer to the entire structure. 

The intimate relationship of the Spanish architecture to the French 
need not surprise us: it is based upon circumstances. As Christianity in 
Spain lived in constant war with the Moors, it would naturally seek a 
definite outward expression which should bear witness to this opposition. 
This expression it could find only by the strictest conformity to the circle 
of ideas and forms of its Christian neighbors. So long as the war with 




172 ARCHITECTURE. [Smsish. 

tlic Moors claimed all the intellectual power of the couutrj-, France, as 
the nearest neighbor, exercised a predominant influence. It must have 
preponderated so much the more since France was in the twelfth cen- 
tury the land of chivalry which inspired the pious to do battle with the 
unbelievers. 

The Crusades. — This chivalrj- impelled France out of the West into the 
East, there to fight with the unbelievers, to struggle to free from the hands 
of the infidels the land where our Lord had lived, to set up there new 
kingdoms for those who thirsted for larger fiefs than they could hope to 
acquire at home. To these the love of adventure was sufficient, the 
desire to prove themselves noble cavaliers by personal courage and deeds 
of bravery. 

It has before been stated (p. 146) that the great ideal of eternal peace 
under the ordained authorities prevailed principally in Germany, and that 
France possessed least of it; we may add that this ideal was a truly spirit- 
ual one, related to the contemplative life of the cloister. We have said 
that the architecture of Germany was the purest expression of this ideal, 
aud, as Germany was the strongest political power in Europe, its archi- 
tectnre may be reckoned the purest and most complete expression of the 
culture of the period: in this sense we may say that Germany stodd at the 
highest point of civilization. But only in this sense; in £act, another very 
diiTerent comparison may be made. 

That chivair)' which sought neither rest nor peace, but activity and 
battle, rose more and more in opposition to contemplative calm, and it 
was the Crusades that gave the French and their ideas the supremacy and 
made them the unopposed leaders of civilization before the twelfth century 
was at an end. As in France, so more and more every-where, spread the 
spirit which sought to wiu heaven, not by meditation, but by battle. Yet 
this ideal was not rude war; it was not to slay and to devastate: fixed 
regulations made war a knightly game, and the chivalric spirit longed not 
simply for courage aud strength, but for magnanimity, generosity, and 
piety as its inward qualities; for refinement, gallantry- toward women, and 
an awakened taste for the fine arts — in a word, for culture — as the outward 
qualities of the cavalier. Chivalr>', while not conforming itself exclusively 
to the inner life of man, had rendered the world more worldly than that 
ideal of peace would have been able to do, and by so doing it had con- 
quered the world. 

Chivalry, which may be considered a refined worldly idea, had to pass 
through a course of development, but this development was retarded for 
two centuries through the belief, entertained at the beginning of the 
eleventh centur>- by the better portion of mankind, that the world was 
near its end. This development is seen in French architectnre as con- 
trasted with the Gcnnan. The latter had at the beginning of the period 
a clear mark before it; grand harmony lay in it from its inception, or was 
.-.t least present in the germ. 

But the details did not notably develop with t 






French.] ROMANESQUE. I73 

did the taste for rich decoration essentially increase. It was otherwise in 
France; there, even in the building of churches, which alone assigns ideal 
tasks to the architects, harmonious execution was not attained. Unas- 
similated elements, diverse and foreign, stand near together, each mating 
its individual power felt according to the idea and inclinations of men, 
but more worldly and more free than in Gentiany. Little by little Archi- 
tecture attained organized proportions; little by little the love of variety 
led to design, to definite execution, to a rational emploj meiit of materials, 
to richness and elegance of details, and to a wealth of ideas in the deco- 
ration. 

Influence of the Church on Architectural Development. — In France as 
in Gennany it was the Church that inaugurated the development. The 
clergy were the representatives of the culture of the lime: tliey were the 
savants and the poets, the architects and the sculptors. As the German 
clergy embodied in themselves the expression of the German spirit, so that 
of the Freuch people was embodied in the French clergy. Indeed, the 
clergy played in France a greater part in the education of the laity than 
they did in Gennany, and contributed not a little to turn the widespread 
want of culture into chivalry. Little by little, under their influence, the 
lait>- became so possessed of that spiritual power that chivalry no longer 
required spiritual guidance to attain the climax of outward refinement, 
and Architecture no longer asked for the guidance of an ecclesiastical 
architect, but strove on rapid wings to reach the height of an ideal of 
which only worldly temerity could dream, and which spiritual contempla- 
tion could not attain. 



We left the development of French architecture in the middle of the 
twelfth century (p. 169). The nave of the church at Vezelay was built 
about this time. It presents the appearance of a new motif in France: it 
las a groin-vaulted nave. It shows that the Cistercians, whose influence 
increased witti the extension of the order, had brought this manner of 
ceiling the nave from the Rhine into France. It needed, however, but 
this one element to give an impulse to the development of architecture, 
causing it to make within a brief period progress such as is scarcely 
afforded in another instance in the history of art. 

Constructional Development. — We have before stated (p. 167) that 
Prench architecture had not that harmonious unity, that expression of 
rest, exhibited by the German: the character of the people gave it, rather, 
an expression of unrest. To this it is owing that the architects no longer 
allowed the walls to surround the church in all their greatness and unity, 
Varied only with light artistic detail, but strengthened them with buttresses 
*hich destroyed this unity. These were the less required since the barrel- 
Vaults which covered the aisles exercised an equal thrust upon every point 
of the wall,s, and the transverse arches conveyed so inconsiderable a por- 




174 ARCHITECTURE. [F«encm. 

tiou of the lateral tlinist to the points supported by buttresses that the 
latter were of scarcely any const ructiv'e use when the walls were not them- 
selves sufficiently strong, and thus the resthetic expression was exactly the 
reverse of what it ought to have been, according to the usual architectonic 
requirements. 

Groined Vaulting. — With groined vaulting, on the contrary, the 
thrust is couceutratcd on certain points. There is a constructive need 
to strengthen these jxjints; to make that strengthening visible was to do 
what was authorized by internal needs, and the outward effect was that 
which really expressed the system of vaulting. As soon as groined 
vaulting was employed to cover wide spaces the pillars had to bear all the 
weight; the walls between them had no more to carry, and simply limited 
the enclosed spaces: they might even be dispensed with without altering 
tiie coiistrucli\'e relations of the system. Groined vaulting, therefore, 
conduced to the realization of a pure pillar system. This corresponded 
with French taste; it was in technique what chivalry was in life: certain 
props did the entire work for the building, and upon these supports all 
significance was centred. 

Transition to Gothic. — Favorable external conditions are always neces- 
sap.' to enable Architecture to take a new flight; these were present to a 
high degree in France. A series of grand edifices rose one after another, 
and in tliem progress was made step by step. A few years later than the 
Church of Vezelay is its great narthex, which is itself a fuliy-fornied 
nave. The transverse ribs of the vaulting are pointed; galleries still rise 
above the side-aisles, but these have also groined vaulting, the cross-ribs 
of which serve as abutments for those of the centre aisle. 

Pointed Arch. — On purel>- technical grounds the pointed arch had pro- 
cured a place beside the round arch in France somewhere about the middle 
of the twelfth century. In every arch and part of an arch the lateral 
thrust increases as the rise diminishes, and in a semicircular arch the rise 
is much less in tlie two lower thirds than in the horizontal upper third. It 
must also have soon become e\ident to a people whose gaze was not so 
completely fixed upon harmonious repose as was that of the Germans that 
the pointed arch offered constructive advantages over the round arch 
which were all the more necessary in a barrel-vaulted na\-e whose but- 
tresses could not be strengthened, and which were the more welcome 
where a series of arches concentrated the thrust upon one point The 
energetic effect had something more chivalric than the softly-cun-ing 
line of the roimd arch, and there was thus reason enough for llie French 
to adopt the pointed arch with alacrity. 

Pointt-d I'auUing. — But the Architecture of the age was still more 
influenced by the greater development of \-aulting. \'aults were not rare 
at the close of the twelfth century, but it was at the commencement of 
the thirteenth that the sy.stcm was fully completed. It is veT>' difficult to 
trace the dexelopment of the pointed style with certainty, unce so many 
ftnictures of the transitional period have enti &llcn — since 




FiEwcH.] ROMANESQUE. * 175 

there is many a motif which is not preserved to us in its earliest examples, 
but only in later ones, and may thus bear a more recent date than that • 
borne by extant motifs which have sprung up later. 

It is true that in France we meet with simple groined vaults in the 
side-aisles, in crypts, and in small spaces; that we also find them around 
the apse of the choir, where the vaulting is somewhat complicated, 
executed without diagonal ribs in such a manner that smaller, steeper 
pieces of tunnel-vaulting are cut out of the continuous circle fonned by 
the apse, as, for example, in Notre Dame du Port at Clermont and in the 
Church of St. JuHen at Brioud (Auvergiie, 1140); and we also find trans- 
verse arches, as in the choir of the collegiate church at Poissy, but in the 
nave itself we meet with groined vaulting in only a few structures of this 
date, as at Vezelay, and this may be attributed to foreign, and especially 
to Rhenish, influences. 

It is known to every engineer that a groined vault, which is composed 
of two segments of semicircular tunnel-vaults, has in its lower third very 
sharply-marked angles, but that these become flatter and flatter as the crown 
is approached; so that the line of meeting of the various portions can 
scarcely be traced. It thus becomes difEcult to cut the angle-stones of 
the ashlar work with that regularity which is desirable for sound workman- 
ship. This diflicnlty increases with the dimensions of the vault The 
precautions adopted in Germany for the security of the crown, all of 
which tended toward avoiding geometrical regularity, had no great 
following. 

The difficulty is naturally greater the more the vault deviates from the 
square shape and becomes oblong; therefore at Mayence, Worms, and 
Speyer a bay of the nave corresponds to two of the side-aisles. This 
naturally leads to the alternation of the pillars to correspond with the 
requirements, every second pillar being a main pillar, while the alternate 
ones may be called secondary. It is only exceptionally (Laach, Vezelay) 
that the arrangement of oblong central vaults and equal pillars is adopted. 
The technical difhculties in such cases render it desirable, and it is exacted 
by the aesthetic effect, that the groins should be marked. This was 
effected by diagonal ribs. 

Diagonal Ribs. — When and where these were first employed can 
scarcely be known, but certainly earlier in France than in Germany, since 
in the nave of the Cistercian church at Heiligenkreuz, built 1135-1187, 
massive diagonal ribs occur. These not only make it possible for the eje 
to follow the lines of the groining to the crown, but also allow the com- 
partments of the vaulting to be much lighter than they would have to be 
were there no ribs. To make these compartments still smaller, and further 
to express the relation between the intennediate pillar and the crown of 
the vaulting, a rib is thrown from the fonner to the latter. There are 
llms six separate sections, each of which forms an independent vault 
between the transverse and diagonal ribs. Proof of where this method 
originated is as difficult as it is in the cases before mentioned. France has 




176 ARCHITECTURE. [F»e.ncii. 

a series of examples, as in St. Ktienne and Ste. Trinity at Caen, bnt it 
is not certain whether this plan was adopted when the bnildinjj was 
erected. The similarity of the pillars should not induce us to decide 
hastilv. 

While in Germany the alternation of pillars and columns can be 
seen even in un vaulted basilicas, thouj^h the arrangement of the vaulting 
furnished the motive for this alternation, the tunnel-vaulting used in 
France gave no occasion for constructing dissimilar pillars. Thus the 
similarity of the pillars had become so ingrained with the architectonic 
instinct that the necessitv for the alternation was not felt even in he.xa- 
partite vaults, so tliat in the further progress of the development the 
alternation of the pillars fonned the exception. Ste. Trinitd (at Caen) 
perhaps exhibits the intention to use hexapartite vaulting, since when the 
heijrht of the triforiutn was reached two shafts were attached at the sides 
of the shaft which is carried down to the ground. 

Church of St, Gtrntaitf dvs IWs. — Among the most interesting build- 
ings in which the exterior is changed to express the necessities of the 
vaulting is the choir of the Church of St. Germain des Pres at Paris, con- 
secrated in 1 163. It is divided by monolithic columns into three aisles. 
The arcades are broad round arches with roll-mouldings, but at the end 
of the choir, where the spans are narrower, the arches are pointed. Above 
these arcades runs a passage, and over this rise marble columns, which are 
now united by architraves, but were formerly spanned by pointed arches. 
The vaulting is pointed. 

On the exterior the clere-storey has two adjoining pointed windows 
and a cornice with brackets, while chapels fill up the spaces between the 
buttresses of the side-aisles. The buttresses rise above the roofs of the 
side-aisles to half the height of the nave, and arches spring from them to 
the wall of the latter, to conduct the thnust of the vaults to the outside, 
and thus to relieve the columns of a portion of their load as well as of the 
lateral thrust of the groining of the nave. These buttresses and flying- 
buttresses not only introduce a new method of diversifying the exterior 
and at the same time express the arrangement of the interior vaulting, 
but also so far influence the interior itself that the arches no longer need 
massive pillars, the place of which can be taken by light columns, which 
are secured against the thrust of the vaults of the side-aisles by the weight 
resting upon them. 

The Church of Notre Dame at ChAlons, completed in 1183, makes a 
brilliant display of a choir with surrounding aisle and a crown of semi- 
circular attached chapels (forming what is called a chevetX Round pil- 
lars from whose capitals three shafts rise aloft support the arches of the 
choin while the cha]>els are separated from the aisle by slender columns. 
Above the ai.sie of the apse is a semicircular galler>'. The windows of 
the aisl'.\ as well as thc»se of the principal apse, are narrow and high; they 
are enclosed in pointcil arches and placed in groups of three, so that they 
fill almost the whole of the space between the piers. By this arrangement 



French.] ROMANESQUE. 1 77 

the height of the interior is greatly increased. The entire constructive 
scaflTolding is reduced to the buttresses, which project between the chapels, 
and from each of which a massive flying-buttress is thrown to the walls 
of the gallery, while above this a second greater flying-buttress springs 
to the walls of the clere-storey. The pointed arch predominates through- 
out. The wealth of columns gives to the interior a most poetical charm: 
the range which stands in front of the crown of chapels produces won- 
derful perspectives, and the effect is increased by the architecture of the 
galler>^-front and by the columned gallery called the triforium, which 
stands above the gallery and adorns the part of the wall against which its 
roof abuts. 

Similar is the arrangement of the choir of St. Remy at Rhcims, 111 
which, however, the central chapel has several bays of vaulting and pro- 
jects from the main building, which consists of a three-aisled nave with a 
three-aisled transept, while the choir has five aisles as far as the chcvet. 
At Blois is the small Church of St. Laumer, begun before 1138 and fin- 
ished in 1210. This exhibits about the same stage of development. The 
nave has three aisles; the transept, one. The choir, only two bays in 
length, has five aisles, the two outermost of which end in .semicircular 
apses, while the inner ones meet by running around the principal ajjse. 
Three chapels radiate from the aisles of the apse. 

Noyon Cathedral. — A church in which architectural progress is dis- 
played most conspicuously is the Cathedral of Xoyon, commenced in 
1 150, though the choir was not completed until the close of the century 
^d the nave is of the thirteenth centurj'. The plan (//. 2C)^/ig. 6; shows 
that here, as in earlier examples, the side-aisles of the choir ran around 
the apse, which, instead of ending in a naked wall, is reduced to piers 
connected by arches. The upper part of the wall is adorned with a gal- 
ler>% which runs completely around it, but each internal pier of the apfjc 
corresponds to a second massive outer one, and between the<5e, as in the 
French churches of an earlier period, are small aj/sidal chaj^ls. The j/ro- 
jjecting arms of the long transepts end also in an aj/se. 

TTie Church of Sotre Dame at Paris ^fig. ly was the third «triK.-*.ure 
npon the site, and was commenced b>' Bishop Maurice de Sully ^;;</>r- 
1196): the first stone wa« laid in ri^j. At h:s death he Wt a >/:m <A 
five thousand livres for the lead rfji^A of the chfAr, which was ;/ro!y^Wy 
at that time near;v r'ra^iv to be roofed, Th^ nave was c^/rnr/'rV-d in 
the first cr:arter of the thfrte^mth centur/, ^Th^ old Chnrch of St 
Stephen on the ?^::e of Xotr^ Jr<in:*: w-^h ^l^-moVs^h^A in 121^.,) In th*% 
edifice of the c.'/^, of th-!: tr-'-Ifth crrt^^r.' 7t': f r^: the vr,^/^,\ m^'/rAfir*:r*\ 
arrangement of th^: ^S:^/:r, It h^n fiv^ ^W,"^.. th*r c/mtre onf: lofty, thf: 
inner side-a^.^t* %:th Ji /^'>*tv a?xr/e, Th-^ T.-i'^'ar^i >.nA k.rrht>. of *,h*: 
choir have the forrn of rr.^j^:.':': z<r!,rA ^:oriiT.v,^., Tnf: gi>>rr}' f/y:n% 
toward the n;;cc'*: -^W.t V/ >,:i is^r^^df: xfth jy>:r.V'd ^.rr},*-^,. ktA^ ^\.y\\ 
two smaller yAr.*/^, -^z^':,*^, j^rr^ ;/;i/>^ ^/n 'y/.'/r.ry^/"*. The yz'X'.^r^. 'A *h^ 
smAiltT arch*r». h^'/t '/r'/^A re'/&t/n, th': 4r*;jle:* of vh^J-; have z'/'.-mfriA^ 



1 78 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

inj^?, and a roll-moulding also runs round the main arch. The windows 
of the middle aiifle were altered at a later date, and were doubtless similar 
to those which the outside of the entire nave still exhibits — that is, 
simple round or pointed oj>cnings with a colonnette on each side. From 
the capitals of the pillars three shafts rise aloft and cut through the cor- 
nice, to carry the springing of the vaulting. 

Notwithstanding tlie similar section of the pillars, the vaulting is 
hexapartite. The central shaft of the three on each pillar carries the 
main rib or an intermediate rib; the side-shafts of the main pillars bear 
the diagonal ribs, wliile the side-shafts of the intermediate pillars rise 
higher, to catch the wall-arches, which on the principal pillars are 
received on small colonnettes that find a place behind the diagonal ribs, 
upon the capitals of the shafts which carry them. The intermediate ribs 
start at the same level as the main ones, and have also the same span. 
The cnnvn of the vault is no higlier than that of the main cross-ribs, and 
the diagonal ribs approach, therefore, nearer to a semicircle to span the 
greater width. The considerable elevation of tlie wall-ribs was now easy 
to efiectuate, since the diagonal ribs made the compartments independent 
of one another. 

The abutments consist of narrow buttresses projecting far beyond 
the walls of the outer aisles and rising high above their roof. Slight pilas- 
ters mark upon the outside of the middle aisle the position of the spring- 
ing of the vaulting, and against these re.st mighty flying-buttresses, which 
spring over the roofs of the two side-aisles and gallery from the buttresses 
below. The upper surface of these flying-buttresses has a gabled coping 
and a channel to convev the rain-water from the roof of the middle aisle. 
Kelow this large flying-buttress is a smaller, springing from the buttress 
to the wall of the gailcr>'. The middle aisle has a broad and far-project- 
ing cornice. The galleries had also a similar cornice, and had simple 
pointed windows, around the heads of which, on the exterior, ran a hood- 
mould with chamfered angles. The roofs of the galler>' and side-aisles 
were rather flat. A passage ran behind the buttresses in front of the roof 
of the side-aisles. 

It may be remarked that the existing light flying-buttresses are a resto- 
ration of the fourteenth century; the old ones were probably more 
massive and had a lower point of attachment. Also, the wall of the 
side-aisles was removed under the groining and rectangular chapels were 
built between the buttresses, so that their walls are in a line with the 
extremities of the buttresses. 

Laon Cathedral. — The present Cathedral of Laon was built in the last 
years of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth. It is 
remarkable for the great longitudinal extension not only of its three- 
aisled nave, but also of its square-ended choir (//. 29. y?«^. 5). Its towers 
are square at the bottom, with buttresses at the angles, but above become 
octangular, while two-storey baldachin-like turrets are set in the upper 
angles of the square and soften the transition from square to octangular. 



French.] ROMANESQUE. 179 

Slender octangular stone spires rise over the tower itself, as well as above 
the four turretis. Equally remarkable are the great stone figures of bulls 
which stand in the upper storeys of the angle-turrets and form the tran- 
sition between the narrow octangular upper storey and the square bald- 
achin-like lower storey. 

Soissons Cathedral, — Toward the close of the twelfth century the 
Cathedral of Soissons was begun, and its apsidal southern transept was 
probably completed in that century, while choir and nave were built 
in the early part of the thirteenth. Nave and choir are three-aisled, 
and the latter has chapels between the buttresses. The chevet has five 
chapels opening into the aisle of the semicircular choir-apse. 

Noyon Cathedral. — The nave of the Cathedral of Noyon has a broad 
and lofty main aisle, with narrow side-aisles, and galleries over them. 
Clustered pillars alternate with round columns, and are united by some- 
what stilted pointed arches. Five shafts rise aloft from the shafted pillars 
in the nave, while three rise from the capitals of the side-aisles.^ Above 
the arches a cornice runs between the shafts that carry the groining. 
In the two eastern bays this cornice runs around the shafts that rise 
from the intennediate pillars, and these shafts, like those of the choir, 
are girdled with several rings of mouldings. The galleries above the 
side-aisles open into the middle aisle by pointed arcades subdivided into 
two smaller pointed arches borne upon colonnettes. Above the galleries 
runs a passage with small columns joined by round arches. The clere- 
storey has in each bay two narrow round-arched windows side by side. 

The vaults are not the original ones, but were probably built about 
1298. The original vaults were hexapartite, as is proved by the entire 
arrangement; so that, of the five service-shafts of the principal piers, one 
served for the principal or cross- rib, two for the diagonal ribs, and two for 
the wall-ribs, while the three shafts of the intermediate pillars belonged 
to the intennediate rib and the wall-ribs, which latter are considerably- 
stilted round arches. 

Above the galleries of the side-aisles is a flat roof, and above this 
roof rise plain buttresses which are covered by a gable below the cornice. 
A broad set-off projects backward from the buttresses, and rises consider- 
ably above the springing of the vaulting of the side-aisles; against this 
rests a massive gable-topped flying-buttress of considerable depth. There 
IS a gallery in front of the clere-storey windows, consisting in each bay of 
two small round arches on columns, enclosed under a larger round arch. 

Tlie Cathedral of Langres has a choir with semicircular apse and aisle, 
built in the second half of the twelfth century, and a nave with three 
aisles of the early part of the thirteenth century. This nave shows the 
influence of another school of architecture in the section of the pillars, 
the broad transverse ribs, and other features; but the vaulting is already 
entirely executed in oblong bays. Although the pillars are more massive 
Ihan the round stems of the churches of the North of France, yet flying- 

* Probably the writer intended to say ** intermediate pillars." — Ed. 



iSo ARCHITECTURE. [Frssck. 

buttresses are employed to convey the thrust of the vaulting of tlie middle 
aisle to the buttress. 

Noire Dame at Dijon. — The not verj- large Church of Notre Dame at 
Dijon wa- erected about 1220. The exterior appears rather massive, since 
all the weight and thrust are centred in the buttresses, whereas the inte- 
rior exhibits a surpassing elegance and lightness, seeming more a fair>-- 
fabric than one of stone. It is, in fact, an ingenious system of construction 
which required a gifted intelligence to arrange so as to give the interior 
such lightness. 

Noire Dame, Paris. — The nave of Notre Dame at Paris (about 1218) 
has five aisles, like the choir {pi. 29, Jigs, i, 2), Circular columns sepa- 
rate the centre from the side-aisles, and the clustered shafts of the groining 
start upon the capitals. The arches are pointed, and the broad arcliivolts 
have rectangular rebates with roll-mouldings on the edges. A cornice 
broken by the shafts, which have pedestals and bases where they rest on 
the caps of the columns, runs above the arcades. The galler\- above the 
inner side-aisles has pointed arches subdivided into three smaller arches 
on colonnettcs. The space above this had no triforium, but opened by 
round windows into the roof-space over the gallerj-. This had to give 
way to a later enlargement of the c!ere-stor\' windows. The previous 
windows were simple lancet-headed ones without tracer)'. The vaulting 
of the centre aisle is hexapartite, each bay comprising two oblong bays. 
The wall-ribs, on account of the windows, as well as in order that they 
may rise as nearly as possible to the same level as the crown of the vault, 
are stilted u|x>n small colonnettes resting upon the side-shafts, which rise 
from the intermediate cohunns, while on the principal columns they are 
set upon the shafts which also bear the diagonal ribs. The system of 
buttresses and flying-buttresses is alike in the main and intermediate 
pillars. 

Externally, massive buttresses projected from the original wall of the 
side-aisles, receiving their thrust directly, while that of the vaulting of the 
middle aisle was transferred to them. Piers rise above the pillars which 
separate the inner and outer side-aisles, and these piers receive the flying- 
buttresses from the clere-storey and transmit the thrust to the buttresses 
by additional flying- buttresses. There are two series of flying-buttresses 
under one another. The lower scries abuts against the springing of the 
cross-ribs; the upper rests against the middle aisle, a little under the 
cornice, and, l>csides the assistance which it lends to the lower series, 
serves to convey the water from the roof. The lower flying-buttress is 
brought under the roof of the vaulted gallen.' and is not visible, but 
the arch which abuts against it and conveys its thrust from the pillars 
between the aisles to the buttresses is in full sight. Arches under the 
roof of the outer aisle also contribtite to the stability and bonding of the 
entire system. In the middle of the thirteenth centnry considerable 
alteratinns were made which gave the inside it,*; present appearance. 

At the end of the thirteenth ami beginning of the fi c nth centur-^ 




<5e»man.] ROMANESQUE. i8i 

the walls of the side-aisles were removed and chapels built between the 
buttresses. The section of the nave {pL 29, fig. 2) makes clear the 
system of buttresses. The ground-plan {fig. i) shows the later altera- 
tions, particularly the chapels built between the buttresses. The design 
of the facade {fig^ 3) is of great magnificence, though the upper parts 
of the towers are as yet unfinished. Although the greater number of 
the details must induce us to class the structure as Romanesque, yet 
the entire arrangement, the whole conception, is such that we see before 
us not only the inception of a new style, but also the ideal and the 
iighest achievement of that style. 

Church at Vezelay. — Almost equal in development, but smaller in its 
masses and more elegant in its entire effect than the nave of Notre Dame 
at Paris, is the choir of the church at Vezelay, begun in the first years of 
the thirteenth century. It has columns of a single stone, with pointed 
arches. Three shafts rise from each column; the cornice runs around 
ihem, and they are also girt with rings. The bay next to the apse has 
two arches between the stout columns, so arranged that they form a 
transition to the narrower axis of the polygonal apse. That the arches 
may have their full width and the lightest support possible, they are 
separated by two small columns placed one behind the other. 

A triforium lighted the roof of the side-aisle, which was replaced 
by a vaulted gallery at a later date. The triforium had small pointed 
arches resting on small columns, each pair of arches embraced by a round 
arch; two of these round arches, with their pillars, correspond to one of 
the main arches. Over the pillar which separates each pair of these semi- 
circular arches a shaft rises from a corbel and receives an intermediate rib 
of the groining, and also the rib of the highly-pitched, round-arched 
wall-ribs that spring to the shafts over the main pillars. Thus the 
' vaulting is so arranged that a hexapartite vault is erected over a single 
oblong compartment or bay of the choir. In the bay next to the chevet, 
'^vliich is subdivided below by the slender intermediate columns, a rib 
^ilso rises from a colonnette which stands on a corbel. In the very nar- 
ro'w rectangle of the first half of this bay there is a quadripartite 
^grroined vault with diagonal ribs, but the vault of the second half of the 
forms part of the vaulting of the chevet. The clere-storey win- 
are pointed and of tolerable size; so that they fill almost the whole 
t:he space beneath the external ribs of the vaulting. The exterior was 
nally without buttresses, but they appear to have been subsequently 



erman Transition to the Gothic. — By the close of the twelfth and at 
beginning of the thirteenth century French chivalry not only had 
ci a place in Germany, but also held sway there; and with it came 
tli^ elements of French architecture. It did not crush the German ideal: 
ly refined it. The love for rich decoration, for elegant membering, 
ore definite characterization of the details, for a lighter poesy, and 
worldly gayety as opposed to solemn strength were the acqui- 




i82 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

sitioiis. Naturally, it was first upou the Rhine, in the old centres of 
population, in the seats of the bishops, that an architecture developed 
poetical as chivalr>' itself. Thence it spread to Swabia, the home of the 
ruling emperors, and lastly to Austria, the seat of a prosperous and 
princely house and of rich and influential conventual establishments. 
This period may be called the late Romanesque or Transitional, since the 
entire period in which the German idea dominated is falsely called the 
Romanesque. 

One of the elements taken from France was the pointed arch ; a second^ 
the membering of the pillars into angular portions bound up with detached 
shafts which are secured to the main pillars with projecting ring-shaped 
bond-stones. The capitals are broad and projecting and the ribs richly 
moulded. Besides the pointed arch, the trefoil is widely used. All the 
details are lighter; hexapartite vaulting expresses the greater lightness 
of the supported mass. Yet still the ancient ideal for the general plan 
of the church remains intact. The wall-masses yet retain their import- 
ance and furnish the abutment to the vaults, since buttresses are used only 
timidly and singly and are of slight projection. 

At the close of the twelfth centur>' the upper part of the choir of Sta. 
Maria in Capitolo at Cologne was rebuilt. The Church of the Apostles 
obtained its present form in 1219, having occupied a long time in its con- 
struction. The Church of St. Martin le Grand was rebuilt 1206-1211; 
the upper part of the nave and the narthex are of this date. In 1209 the 
foundation of the fanciful Church of St Quirin at Neuss was laid, and the 
church is said to have been built in fourteen years. 

In the first years of the thirteenth century the renovation of St Cuni- 
bert at Cologne was undertaken; the high altar was consecrated in 1222, 
but it was not until 1247 ^^^^ ^^^ ^n^ consecration took place. In 1220 
the octagonal central tower of St. Andrew was built, and at the same time 
the narthex and other parts were added; in 1221 the conventual church 
of Sion was erected; 1227 saw the completion of the still-existing much- 
admired centre tower of St Gereon {pL 2^^ fig. 7), and in the same year 
a part of the conventual church of Heisterbach was consecrated. This 
church was not entirelv finished until ten vears later, and in the ruins of 
its choir one of the most expressive and poetical works of mediaeval art 
has come down to us. To the same age belong the church at Brauweilcr» 
that of Gladbach, the rebuilt choir of Kaiserswerth, and St. Nicholas at 
Wipperfiirth. The nave of the minster at Bonn and the Abbey-church 
of Werden belong to this group. 

To all the edifices on the Rhine, both large and small, from its source 
to its delta, some portions were added at this period; others were renewed, 
the enumeration of which would make an extensive catalogue. In two 
lateral valleys of this river yet stand structures which represent that period 
as characteristically as the group in and around Cologne, and arc so 
unique, withal, that they must be considered "its mc"^ surpassing repre- 
sentatives. These are the Church of Gelnhaui a ( / 6' id the Cathedral 




German.] R OMAN ESQ UE. 1 83 

of Limburg, on the Lalin {pL 2^^ fig, 4), built between 1213 and 1242. 
The exteriors of these churches retain completely the leading features of 
the churches of the older period, while the interior of the latter (//. 2\^fig. 
3), though of rather small size, exhibits in the gallery and triforium forms 
entirely analogous to those French ones which we met with in Notre 
Dame at Paris, though the severe and massive construction shows how 
unwilling the Germans were to abandon their old system. 

Cathedral of Bamberg, — A highly-important structure of this period is 
the Cathedral of Bamberg (//. 25, fig. 5), which has double bays in the 
nave, while the eastern choir is sumptuously decorated and the western 
towers exhibit the highest realization of the richness of forms of the 
Romanesque — not, indeed, with the ancient solidity, but with an almost 
playful liveliness imported direct from France. 

Not far from Bamberg, in Franconia, stands the Cistercian Church of 
Ebrach, the principal part of which was erected after the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, and which was consecrated in 1285. It still retains 
the system of double bays with square quadripartite vaulting in the centre 
aisle, exactly as in the earlier period, only diagonal ribs are present. The 
same system is retained in many buildings, as in the cathedrals of Naum- 
burg and Miinster and in the Cistercian Church of Riddagshausen, the 
choir of which has the same design as that of the Cistercian Church of 
Ebrach. In both the chancel has a square end, yet the aisles are carried 
round it; and around the aisle is a series of square chapels. The double 
bay is already superseded by the single one in the Church of St. Sebald at 
Nuremberg. 

The Cathedral of Magdeburg ^ commenced in 1207, not only displays 
French details, but brings into Germany the French chevet, or polygonal 
apse with aisle and crown of chapels. Still, it retains the severity of the 
massive pillars and the German mouldings of the age. Through the long 
delay in the construction of the building, architecture developed more and 
more; so that parts of the structure cannot be called Romanesque, but 
rather Gothic {pL i^^fig* 2). 

Other structures of the early part of the thirteenth century are the 
west choir of the Cathedral of Mayence and the Cathedral of Paderborn, 
which latter exhibits a different arrangement; for the three aisles are of 
equal height. This system occurs in many churches in Westphalia and 
spread farther, so that from this time forward it begins to supersede the 
basilica system. In this class of church there is no clere-storey to light 
the middle aisle, but the pillars have no high walls to bear, and the side- 
thrust of the centre vault upon them is counterbalanced by that of the 
side-aisles; so that they can be made comparatively small and spaced wide 
apart. 

Cloisters. — The highest ideal of this period was church-architecture, 
and monumental building is almost exclusively confined to it; hence the 
results of this architectural development readily found application in a class 
of secular structures. Convents often adjoined and were united with the 




i84 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

churches. These contained vaulted corridors, called cloisters, running 
round a square court, and various kinds of halls — some, as the chapter- 
house, devoted to connnon edification; others, as the refectories, to com- 
mon recreation. Collegiate foundations were attached to the cathedrals, 
and also to the parish churches of the larger cities, and similar buildings 
occur near most large churches. 

Coni'tut of Maiilbronn. — As an example we give the plan of the 
Convent of Maulbronn (//. 26, fig. i), in which, as in almost all 
others, a part of the structures belongs to a later date. The cloister 
{fig. 2) and the refectory ijig. 3) show the late Romanesque st>'le devel- 
oped in the most original manner, and exhibit its application to distinct 
yet similar purposes. A number of magnificent convents of this kind were 
erected in the beginning of the thirteenth century upon the middle and 
lower Rhine, but most of them have disappeared. Some fine examples of 
such buildings still exist in Austria. The cloisters at Heiligenkreuz, 
Zwetl, and Klostemeuburg are unsurpassed for poetical elegance. 

Austria has also a great number of churches of this age, and thence 
proceeded a school which filled Hungary and Transylvania with edifices. 
We may mention the nave of the Franciscan church at Salzburg, the 
church at Lilienfeld (1202-1220), with its cloister and chapter-house, the 
collegiate Church of St. Michael at Wiener-Neustadt, and the ancient 
remains of St. Stephen at Vienna. Still others are the Church of Tisch- 
nowitz and the original design of that at Trebitsch, both in Mora\na. 
Among the Hungarian churches we find the Benedictine Abbey-church 
of Martinsberg, consecrated in 1222, the c^^urch at L^beny, and the ruins 
of the churches at Tsambek and Nagj'-Kdroly, of the collegiate Church 
of St. Jak, and of the Cathedral of Carlsburg, in Transylvania. 

The Dii'cUing'hoiises of-'this period seldom attained to monumental 
construction; even great palaces and castles which were built of wood 
have for the most part disappeared. A fine structure of the early Roman- 
esque is the still-existing Landgrave's Palace on the Wartburg, which has 
recently been restored for modem dwellings and as a place of recreation. 
The imperial palace at Goslar has also recently been renovated. Geln- 
liausen has the ruins of the palace of the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 
and Wimpfen those of a similar palace. Among the many castles whose 
niins are found ever>'where on summit and slope throughout Germany, 
and v/hich mostly go back to this period, one of the most notable is Castle 
Trifels, in the Palatinate. Only from the close of this period have we 
city-dwellings left to us in sufficient number and completeness to enable 
us to recognize their system. Cologne and Treves have several dwellings 
of this age, but a part of them have been sacrificed for modem purposes. 
Two houses at Cologne dating from the beginning of the thirteenth 
ccntur\* are represented in Figures 4 and 5. 

Ornafucntation. — Before we close the description of this period we 
must cast a glance over the development of ornar ntal detail. An 
echo of the classical may still be found, and in Figa 3 the Corinthian 




German.] ROMANESQUE. 185 

capital may be recognized. As yet the shape of the capitals was not 
complicated, and, since the cubical fonn expressed better the power to 
carry great arches and massive vaults, the simple shape shown in Figure 
7 (//. 26) was widely used, or it was decorated with flat ornament which 
did not disguise its form {figs, 6, 9). The animal world plays a conspicuous 
part in the ornamentation of the period. The peculiarly imagpinative and 
strongly conventional style of these animals points to an Oriental origin. 
Woven silks which exhibited in their patterns animal forms symmetrically 
arranged, turned backward and forward, and interlaced, were brought from 
the Orient in considerable abundance. The forms were partly based on 
primitive traditions. Figure 10 shows a capital with such interlaced 
animal figures. Just as the animal forms are interlaced regularly, so are 
ornaments drawn from the vegetable world similarly intertwined, and 
the frieze and abacus of the capitals, as well as the pattern of the shafts, 
show such symmetrical leaflike figures. 

In France and Italy the capitals bore not only figures of animals, but 
also entire historical scenes (//. z^^figs. 9, 10). This method of deco- 
ration was seldom employed in Germany, where the animals usually carved 
were the lion, the eagle, and the dragon. With the development of art in 
the twelfth century more lightness was attained in all forms, and the 
capitals particularly were often adoftied with elegant interlaced ornaments. 
For the numerous examples extant we can find but little room (//. 26, 
figs. 11-13, 16). 

It is to be particularly remarked that it is not the desire to make an 
exact copy of nature that gives the motive for this foliaged ornament, but 
rather that the precise symmetry of the spacing of the individual leaves 
necessitates placing between them bandlike interlacings almost geometri- 
cally formed from separate vegetable motifs^ and in most cases the ends 
of the twists are developed into leaflike forms. 

Column Base and Cornice. — The base of the column formed a new 
object of adornment. Where the lower roll-moulding sits on the square 
base, bosses are introduced to make a harmonious union; leaves are also 
made to spring from the base and twist themselves around the roll, or they 
arise from the roll and descend to the square base, their ends perhaps rolled 
together, or again with a twist rising over the roll {figs. 19-23). A pecu- 
liar kind of ornament was developed in the cornices, where a series of 
small arches form a frieze {figs. 17, 18). 

Development of For yns. — With the beginning of the thirteenth century 
nature was approached more nearly in France, yet strictly symmetrical 
forms were still used, and a charming contrast was efiected by the alter- 
nation of the convex outer side with the concave inner side of the 
leaves {pi. 29, fig. 4). Particularly characteristic are those narrow, 
liooklike leaves which are rolled into a knob at the end and stand 
out boldly and freely, almost detached from the bell-shaped cone of 
the capital. These leaves are not confined to the capitals, but are 
tised in other parts of the building. They stand in rows under the 




1 86 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

cornice, they form a line along the sloping angles of the spires (crockets), 
buttresses, etc., and occur even on perpendicular portions. 

Both the last-named kinds of ornament were used in Germany 
together with other motifs. Figure 15 (//. 26) gives one of the most 
elegant examples of the application of these narrow, hooklike leaves 
rolled together at the tip, while Figure 14 shows an approach to nat- 
ural forms. If we compare these with Figures 6 and 10, we become 
aware of a difference so wide that we can consider them as belonging to 
the same style only because we find an unbroken series of examples 
from one extreme to the other. The spirit is, indeed, so different that 
we have already reached another style; in such forms as those shown 
in Figures i2-i6 we may as tnily see the commencement of the Gothic 
as the close of the Romanesque. The new style has developed so 
gradually out of the one preceding it that it is hard to fix the dividing- 
line.* 

V. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. 

I. Fren'ch Gothic, Thirtkenth and Fourteenth Centuries. 

When we compare the two styles whose transition-point we have now 
reached, and when we consider their characteristic peculiarities, we find 
that both to a certain extent exemplify nationality rather than time. The 
technical appellations themselves have indeed come down to lis from a ^ 
period when science did not concern itself so thoroughly with the charac- 
teristics of style; therefore the denominations, though we must here 
retain them, stand upon a false foundation. The only appellation with 
a national name that will apply to the styles of the foregoing period 
would not be Romanesque, but Gennanic, since, though not altogether 
confined to Gennany, it was only there that it attained to its fullest har- 
mony and importance, only there that it embodied the ideal which was 
principally entertained by the Germans. 

But that taste which in France brought about so notable a modifi- 
cation of the Romanesque that that style could not there attain to its 
full hannony ought, if it is to have a national name, to be called the 
French Style. The Romanesque in France was but a prelude to the 
development of the Gothic — a .style with which the Goths had nothing 
to do. Not that France alone took part in the development of the 
Gothic: we have already seen what essential elements were derived 
from Gennany. Xor should it be called French because its further 
development was confined to France, nor Ixjcause other nations took it 
exactly as France developed it and preser\'ed it in its Frencli purity. 
Even as the Romanesque extended its sway, with national modifications, 

* It is always hani to fix such a line, since nciihcr in nntiiic nor in art «l«»c* a ripid lx)un(Iary exist; 
ycT if our author wouM ctinHi.lor all such f».)nns a* lh«>^tf "^lnjwn t>n Plate 26 (,/r^'J. 12-10; and Plate 29 
( /?V. 4) a> belonging to the ('io:hic style, even though they were used at the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury, he would be nearer to exacine>». — Ed. 




French.] GOTHIC. iSj 

throughout the whole of the Christian West, and in every land devel- 
oped a different local school, so also did the Gothic, which we have 
designated as French because France inaugurated it and first used the 
existing elements until the new style was completely developed. 

Development of the Gothic, — We have indeed to ask ourselves if 
we were really justifiable in assigning the French monuments mentioned 
on p. 167 to the Romanesque style. But it is only in France that the 
course of development from Romanesque to Gothic can be traced in 
such uninterrupted succession that there is not a link broken, while the 
alterations which in Germany took place in taste and in detail, together 
with the modification of the Romanesque which resulted therefrom, 
are evidently the efiect of motives brought over from France; and if 
we wish to trace German Romanesque to its close, we must first fol- 
low up that evolution of French architecture which influenced it. In 
order to trace the development of the Gothic style, we must commence 
where (on page 181) we left the development of French architecture. 
We there find that church-architecture, which also throughout the 
Gothic period was the climax of architectural achievement, may be 
considered as a constructive scaffold by which the entire load, as well as 
all constructive functions, was relegated to a system of pillars; so that the 
actual walls subserv^ed no purpose save that of enclosure. Naturally, 
when this system reached its full artistic development, the walls, in so far 
as they were not really needed as protecting enclosures, might be dis- 
pensed with; and it is in this direction that development proceeds. 

Effect of the Innovation. — Everywhere over the already-extensive France 
of that period there reigned 2l furore for building, centred in the construc- 
tion of great cathedrals, which rose in all quarters. In some places the 
effort was made to complete what had been begun at the close of the 
twelfth century, while in others structures were commenced upon so grand 
a scale that they were not finished until the following generations, or even 
until after hundreds of years. The long duration of the construction of 
works so magnificently planned precluded their completion exactly accord- 
ing to the original design. Changes in taste brought about a further 
development of st}'le before the edifices were completed, and modifications 
in the plan were the necessar>' consequence; so that scarcely one of the 
great edifices exhibits in its entirety the character of a definite period, 
while most of them, in the various portions which adjoin one another, 
furnish an image of the development of art during the course of two- 
or three centuries. This length of time, with the consequent change 
of style, explains the presence of so much that seems unmotived and 
inharmonious in the ensemble^ though the susceptible eye is enraptured 
with the beauty, the harmony, and the artistic completeness both of indi- 
vidual parts and of those connected portions which belong to the same 
period. 

Through the great energy displayed the number of edifices erected is 
enormously large, and so many of them now exist that volumes would be 




1 88 ARCHITECTURE, [French. 

needed for their description; we can, therefore, only find space to follow 
the development of the style in a few of its <jrand monnnients — namely, 
the threat cathedrals — and alonj^ with them to descrilx? a few smaller struc- 
tures which, since they were completed within a short space of time, are 
mure characteristic than the larger ones, and give a more hannoniously 
complete image of the architecture of their i>eriod. 

.SV. Etienuc at Aiixcrre, — The choir of the Cathedral of St. Etienne at 
Anxerre was rebuilt in 1215-1230. The well-preserved early Romanesque 
cr\i)t, with its semicircular arch, surrounding aisle, and square chapel at 
the extremity, detennined the ground-plan; so that, with the exception of 
the radiating crown of chapels which in the French works before described 
was shown to be characteristic, it is the product of a definite external 
cause. Extreme elegance, exemplified in the employment of entirely 
detached shafts of extraordinary slendemess, characterizes this structure, 
while at the same time a certain tenuitv of the members makes evident 
the endeavor to obtain lightness of apj^earance not only by constniction, 
but also by masking the supporting materials and using more delicate 
mouldings. 

The ornamentation which was called in to aid in giving an appear- 
ance of still greater lightness to the supporting members, as in the case 
of the slender columns which bore the springing of the vaults and sepa- 
rated the square chapels from the surrounding aisles, abandoned the bosses 
and knobs which adorned so delicately the blocks of the capitals, the 
cornices, and the vertical mouldings in the earlier monuments, and in 
their place substituted copies of natural foliage. The idea of supporting 
the springing of the vaulting by great horizontal corbels bedded in the 
outer buttresses, with their anterior angles supported only by a slender 
monolithic shaft upon the interior, had led to l^lliant results in Xotrc 
Dame at Dijon, and throughout a long period it became more and more 
prominent. In St. Etienne at Anxerre it is employed in a most thorough 
manner. The flying-buttresses of the church at Anxerre are without that 
massive masonr>' above the arches to be found in earlier examples, but 
have instead a series of small columns united by arches and supporting a 
stone channel for the convevance of the water from the roof of the central 
aisle. 

Church at Ricux, — The same constnictive idea is apparent in the small 
church at Rieux, near Montmirail, in Champagne; yet here — partly in 
consequence of local traditions, and partly through the nature of the 
building-material — it is not carried out so consistently as in the previ- 
ously-named church of the same period. In the church at Rieux the 
anterior supports of the springing of the vault consist of clustered columns 
which have a proportionally larger mass than the internal supports of the 
]>reviously-mentioned church. In the church at Rieux there are between 
each pair of buttresses two narrow pointed windows with a round window 
above them, the whole, through the extreme reduction of the masses 
separating them, forming one great window, which fills up the entire 



French.] GOTHIC. 189 

space below the exterior ribs of the vaulting. This combination of three 
windows in one is the commencement of what is known as tracery^ which 
plays so great a part in the development of the Gothic style. In the choir 
of the church at Auxerre the individual importance of each opening is 
more apparent 

The Cathedral of Notre Dayne at Coutances was also rebuilt at the com- 
mencement of the thirteenth century. It has a three-aisled nave, a one- 
aisled transept with massive pillars at the intersection, and a five-aisled 
choir with a surrounding of chapels. The massiveness of the pillars at the 
intersection makes it probable that a central tower was projected, but 
never completed. The west fagade has two massive towers with stone 
spires, and displays three portals, the lateral ones leading through the 
towers into the side-aisles. The two great porches which adjoin the 
towers on the northern and southern sides of the cathedral are very 
peculiar. 

Notre Dame at Le Ma?is. — About 1220 the old choir of the Cathedral 
of Notre Dame at Le Mans was demolished and the present beautiful 
choir added to the existing Romanesque nave. Two aisles, the inner one 
the higher, extended around the choir, and the apse and chevet reach 
their fullest development, since the chapels are large and project so far 
that they stand free from one another. The charming details, in which 
strength and delicacy, order and a fanciful abandon, are united, render 
this choir one of the most perfect works of the Gothic period. 

Cathedral at Bourges. — At about the same time, or perhaps a few years 
later, the choir of the Cathedral of Bourges was built. This exhibits two 
aisles with a series of chapels, small but of original design. The inner 
aisle is also in this case higher than the outer, and has a triforium, as in 
the centre aisle, occupying the height of the lean-to roof of the lower 
outer aisle. The arrangement of the buttresses is heavy. Three flying- 
buttresses from the wall of the central aisle are concentrated upon a single 
buttress in that of the inner side-aisle, and from this three flying-buttresses 
placed one over another spring to the pinnacle, which rises over the wall 
of the outer aisle to almost double its height Beautiful though this mag- 
nificent arrangement makes the interior, and though grand is the high- 
aspiring arcade of the middle aisle, with its slender columns and its per- 
spectives through the two side-aisles, yet the complicated system of 
flying-buttresses makes the exterior heavy and unsatisfactory. 

Cathedral of Rouen, — The ground-plan of the Cathedral of Rouen is 
of the same period, though a few of the older portions of the choir have 
been retained. Normandy had always its peculiar local school, and thus 
the ground-plan of this church displays many peculiarities. Besides the 
three-aisled principal choir, two lateral choirs open into the three-aisled 
transept, while around the principal choir only two of the Romanesque 
chapels are preserved, the place of the central three being occupied by a 
Gothic chapel of several bays. The arrangement of a galler>' under the 
arcade of the nave is especially singular. The openings leading to this 



I go AR CIIITECTURE. [ French. 

are pierced at about the half of the height of the arches, on the upper 
surface of which the broad gallery is carried, and since it was essential not 
to pierce the pillars, the separate parts of this galler>- are connected with 
one another by portions which are carried around the pillars upon 
elegantly-constnictcd corbels projecting from them into the side-aisles. 
Many parts of the building belong to a late period. 

Cathedral of Rhcims, — The old Cathedral of Rheims was completely 
destroyed by a conflagration in 121 1, and in 1212 the foundation of a new 
structure was laid, which was placed under the direction of Robert de 
Coucy. As in all these great edifices, the construction lasted through so 
long a series of years that manifold modifications were made in the plans 
before the edifice was finished as we now see it. The nave and transept 
have three aisles; the choir has five. The chevet has five radiating chap- 
els, which, according to the manner of the age, are semicircular instead 
of polygonal, and are tolerably massive in structure. The pillars are 
circular, with four circular attached shafts at equidistant point.s. A capi- 
tal crowns the whole and supports the arcade on two sides, the vaulting 
of the side-aisles on a third, and on the fourth a cluster of five shafts, 
which ascend the wall of the middle aisle (//. 29, y7^. 8). The system of 
buttresses belongs to a later period. The facade is arranged like that of 
the cathedral at Paris, and has three very richly embellished portals, 
which, decorated with conventional foliage, terminated by pointed gables, 
and adorned with a multitude of statues, fonn a rich frontal to the bodv 
of the building. The upixrr portion of the towers is less harmonious; it 
was probably intended to be terminated with spires similar to those shown 
in Figure 3. 

Tlie Cathedral of Rheims shows also gradations in architectural devel- 
opment that were brought about during the long course of its erection, 
and to which Robert de Coucy himself probably contributed ver>' little. 
It may be noticed that Robert brought the choir to the height of 
the chapels and erected the side-aisles of the nave, with the exception of 
the last bay, which he scarcely commenced. He probably left the work 
about 1230; the erection of the principal choir may have been continued 
about 1240, and the western bay of the nave l^egim about the same 
time. The fa<;ade was probably completed, much as we now see it, about 
the opening of the fourteenth century, but much was added to it in the 
fifteenth. 

Cathedral of Amiens. — The old Cathedral of Amiens was destroyed 
by fire in 12 18, and in 1220 the present building was begun under Robert 
de Luzarches. The nave was first taken in hand. Robert could only have 
laid the foimdations, for a few years later we find the architect Thomas de 
Cormont at work. He raised the nave rapidly, and it may have been 
finished by his son. In 1246 it stood completed, together wnth the stone 
central tower and the chapels of the choir. The.se were damaged in 1258 
by a fire, which caused a delay in the works; so that the choir was not 
completed until 12S8. The facade, which was without doubt altered 



Trench.] GOTHIC. 191 

many times and was still worked upon in the fifteenth century, has not 
the harmony expressed by those parts which were erected in the middle 
of the thirteenth centur}'. The section of the nave i^pl. 29, fig. 9) shows 
a simple system of abutments imposing by its mass. In 1527 lightning 
destroyed the stone central tower, and in its place was erected the elegant 
spire of wood and lead which is still the delight of the lovers of art. 

Architectural Activity. — The most earnest school of architecture was 
•occupied in the construction of great cathedrals, but activity was mani- 
fested in an extensive series of works. Not merely smaller churches, but 
the royal palaces at Paris, a series of royal palaces and castles in the 
country, convents for the peaceful life of the monks, the fortification of 
cities, the residences of citizens, and public buildings, gave opportimities 
for the execution of monumental architecture. 

Convents. — It is true that many structures for secular purposes were 
still built of wood; j-et we must now mention the majestic cloisters 
of Fontifroid, Laon, Noyon, Elne, St. Lizier, S^mur-en-Auxois, St. Jean 
4es Vignes, Soissons, Toul, Langres, Rouen, etc., as well as the refec- 
tories of St. Martin des Champs, of the Abbey of Ste. Genevieve, and of 
St Germain des Pr^s at Paris, as brilliant examples of the convents of 
the period. 

Private and PiMic Works. — As appropriate illustrations of the archi- 
tectural splendor which pervaded all the provinces, we may instance the 
dwellings at Cordes, St. Antonin, St. Yrieux, Montpazier, Toulouse, 
Caussade, etc.; the hospitals at Chartres and Angers; the cities of the 
thirteenth centur>', laid out with great unity of plan; the bridge over the 
Charente at Saintes; the Calender-bridge at Cahors (1251); bridges at 
Rouen, Lyons, etc. ; episcopal palaces at Paris, Rheims, Meaux, Soissons, 
Rouen, Laon, Narbonne, Sens, etc. ; and the castles at Coucy and Mon- 
targis. . 

Saiftte Chapelle. — Of surpassing importance was the royal palace at 
Paris, and particularly its chapel, Sainte Chapelle, the work of Pierre de 
Montereau, and one of the most complete works of the Gothic style ; 
it is now restored to its pristine brilliancy. It was erected 1 242-1 247, 
and consists of a basement-storey of no great height and a lofty up- 
per chapel, the latter a single hall consisting of four oblong groined 
bays and a polygonal apse. There are no walls. Traceried windows 
stretch from buttress to buttress, and the parapet below them is deco- 
lited with an arcade. Ever}- mass apparent in the interior is lost in the 
richest detail, and the whole is gilded and adorned with color which is in 
full harmony with the stained glass of the grand windows; so that the 
interior produces the richest imaginable impression and seems rather the 
work of a goldsmith than that of a stone-mason. It is a reliquary upon a 
grand scale, by which the goldsmiths of the period excite our wonder, for 
the king had it built to contain relics which he esteemed as his greatest 
treasures — namely, Christ's crown of tlionis and a piece of the true cross. 
Pierre de Montereau built a similar chapel in the Abbey of St. Germain 



192 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

des Prcs. The ca>tle-ch:i]>el of St. Gennaiu-en-Laye was built some 
'•ears before that at Paris, and that at the Castle of Vincennes a few vears 
after it. 

The Cathedral of Tours was built about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, and copied the arrau;^cnient of the great cathedrals with some- 
what smaller dimensions. Notwithstanding its smallness, it was not entirely 
completed, and the fa(;adc belongs to the sixteenth centur\'. The Cathe- 
dral of Troves is also an example of the nonnal arrangement of French 
churches. It has a five-aisled nave intersected by a transept of one aisle 
and continued by a hve-aisled choir to a wreath of chapels ranged round 
the polygonal end of the clioir and its aisle. The nave was erected in the 
fourteenth century; the west front, in the fifteenth. 

Couveniua! Buildinin^s, — A highly peculiar group of buildings was 
erected on Mont St. Michel. There rises on a cliff bv the seashore a 
group of edifices — half-castle, half-convent, or proix^rly both together — 
dominated by a great cathedral-like church which crowns the summit of 
the rock. The erection was commenced earlv in the thirteenth centurv, 
and was comi)letL'd in 1260. Kverv dav the sea flows over the entire 
sandv circuit of the rock, which seems to have been destined bv nature 
for one of the most important points in the fortification of the coast, but 
which bore for many centuries a convent of the Benedictine order, to 
which King Philip Augustus contributed the means to construct the 
buildings not only for the comfort of the monks, but also for the defence 
of this important point. The church, almost Romanesque, belongs to the 
commencement of the thirteenth century; the secular structure, to the 
course of the same centur\'. The whole displays the realization of that 
ideal which the author of **Parzival '' describes as Schloss Montsalvatscft. 

The Church 0/ S/. Deuis, which plays so great a part in the architec- 
tural development of France, was again rebuilt in 1240, and the works 
may have been finished about 1260. The arrangement corresponds to that 
of the great French cathedrals. 

The Cathedral of Beanvais^ whose constniction belongs to the same 
period, is but a fragment, since only part of the five-aisled choir next to 
the clievet.and the eastern side-aisle are completed. The foundation was 
laid in 1225, but no part of the existing structure can be older than 124a 
In 1272 the building was finished much as we now find it; in the sixteenth 
centur>' its continuation was proposed, but little was done. Figure 10 
{pi, 29) gives a section of the chevet, and shows to what lightness and 
slenderness and to what a degree of formal elegance the system — ^which 
originated at the most forty years earlier, in the nave of Notre Dame at 
Paris — had in that comparatively short space of time been developed. It 
is, in fact, of the greatest interest to compare the four systems shown on 
Plate 2Q, to which m:;st hft added that of the Cathedral of Cologne, repre- 
sented on Plate 31 ( //> 6). It has gone through a remarkable evolution. 
The upward aspiration, the effort toward the infinite, has brought the 
edifice to the most extreme proportion of slenderness; but the master who 



French.] GOTHIC. 193 

iu the beginning of the thirteenth century had to struggle both with his 
construction and with his forms now developed the whole as a strong and 
logical entity out of the internal requirements. 

Improveinent in Forms, — About the middle of the thirteenth century 
the rich experience gained rapidly from the superintendence of so many 
cathedrals gave to the masters a stock of knowledge which they now 
exploited and followed. The spirit of this system influenced other depart- 
ments, and so there was developed upon the given basis a system of forms 
which above all aimed to animate the dead masses. Thus the system of 
the Church of Beauvais shows the aspiring buttresses no longer as heavy 
masses — though it is just in these that their constructive significance 
lies — but by means of elegant details they are made to appear like turrets, 
which merely from artistic motives are formed to please the eye. 

The Cathedral of Bayciix^ some older portions being retained, was 
renewed in the second half of the thirteenth century. Though smaller 
than the edifices before mentioned, it still has its chevet. The thirteenth 
century did not see its completion: work was continued upon it until the 
sixteenth century. The parts built after the Middle Ages contribute to 
disturb the unity and harmony of the structure. 

Friars* Churches, — About the middle of the thirteenth century the 
number of convents multiplied, while the Dominican and Franciscan 
orders erected their assemblv-rooms in the middle of the cities. Paris has 
preserved in the Convent of the Jacobins a remarkable monument which 
St. Louis built for them. The church was a great rectangular hall 
divided into two aisles by a row of pillars, without chapels, without 
polygonal choir, and without lower side-aisles, the east and west ends 
unbroken. The refectory, built in 1256, had exactly the same plan, but 
was smaller than the church. 

The preaching orders had in their church-buildings a purpose different 
from that exhibited in former churches. Hitherto the church was the 
place where God was worshipped, and where with great solemnity the 
bloodless offering could be placed before Him; where perpetually from 
the various altars individuals might through the mass approach personally 
near to Him; where a numerous priesthood maintained by rich endow- 
ments could intone their hymns and psalms in honor of the Most High; 
and where processions singing and praying could move with the dis- 
play of a magnificent ceremonial. Hence the great extent of the sanctu- 
ary, where, besides the high altar at which a bishop displayed the host, 
stood the stalls for the clergy; hence the many chapels with their altars 
for individual masses; hence the great apsidal aisles of the choir. The 
nave was of secondary importance: the sacrifice could there be offered, 
and there could resound the sacred songs chanted by the priests, though 
the people took no part. But when by participation of the latter the dig- 
nity of the ceremonial was increased, then it was that they could present 
in the spacious nave their offerings of praise and co-operate in the sacred 
ceremony. The aim of the structure was exclusively ideal; hence the 

Vol. IV.— 13 



19 ^ ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

inspiration which tlie artist drew incited him to ideal achievements. The 
Dominicans c^ave litile room to this ideal in their churches, which were 
{•rinK.rily erected to accommodate the people who con^egated to listen to 
their tvrachinjrs. For this reason their churches are scarcely more than 
great assembly-rooms. 

T'lc Church of the Jacyoius at Agen was built about tlie middle of the 
thirteenth cent;ir\-: it also had two aisles. That at Toulouse descends 
from t>.e second half of the centur\\ and its two aisles are tenninated in 
a i»ej.utin:i and ori;.rinal maimer by a wreath of chapels around the choir, 
forming a semicircle alx)ut the last pillar. The circlet of cha|>els is not 
of the ^ame dale as are the rest, but is a work of the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centtiries. 

As has been stated (p. 1S7), few buildings were erected complete at 
once. All churches were foundations which proceeded from the donations 
of believers: to these, from king to beggar, all contributed according to 
their means. In the beginning of the thirteenth centur\* these sources 
seemed inexhaustit>:e, though they did not always flow equally. Con- 
str.:cti'.»n w.:s co::<t.tr.t!y prosecuted with more or less cnerg\'; yet in the 
co.:rse kA the century some of these sources faileti, while others flowed 
in varying vo'.umes, and consequently in many instances work was sus- 
pended until the time wlien it could be resttmed. 

.S.'/.v. /;. r.r/ M \i:/u\i:iot:i. — The progress which Architecture made, the 
ever-increasing richness of fonns, was also the cause of the demolition of 
ma:iv str:ictures whicli had been erected oniv a few decades. Since thev 
no Io::;cer pleased the eye suff.ciently, the recently-constnicted portions 
were unhe>itat4n.:'y demolishetl, to give place to more splendid substi- 
tutes, hvlividuals and families also desired separate, endowed compart- 
mer.ts, :\:rticular!y chapels, in which they could ofTcr up their devotions, 
in which l>^th jo\ ous and solemn events could be ct^Iebrateil, and in which 
the me:::>jrs of the lamily could find their last resting-place. Such single 
parts were aJded to the great buildings, even thouv:h lliey fonneJ no por- 
tion oi the original T^'.an. The enclosure of the side-aisles was broken 
through, and chapels were built between the buttresses of both nave and 
choir wherever there was room. 

Cat*\dra! at Paris, — Especially instntctive is the cathedral at Pan», 
to which, although here there was no lack oi means — or perhaps because 
the means were not lacking — additions were constantly m.ide. About 1260 
important works were there undert.ikcn. The two transept fronts were 
torn down in 12^7, and in the c\v,irse of several ^ea^< were n*built with 
greater splendor. The cliajx^ls of the ch.oir wcrt* commenced about I2i>6, 
and great windows in the triforium, dcci^ratetl extemailv with pibles, 
together with richly-ornamented pinnacles, adapted the solemn archi* 
tectv.re of the choir to the artistic taste of the day. 

Catht'Aral of Sitz, — But other eilinces were Kidlv execttted, either 
because they were too ha^tilv built or Ivcause the insufficient means were 
in no proportion to the magnificence of the stnicturrs, and it was soon 



French.] GOTHIC. 195 

necessary to make thorough repairs, or even to rebuild separate parts. 
Among such is the Cathedral of S^ez, the nave of which was built in the 
beginning of the thirteenth centur>' and was renovated in its upper por- 
tion fifty or sixty years later, while the choir, built about 1230, was taken 
down about 1260 and rebuilt, only the middle chapel of the chevet being 
allowed to remain. Early in the fourteenth century, notwithstanding the 
extreme lightness and the insignificant dimensions of the masses, a 
strengthening of the choir-buttresses was necessitated by the insufiiciency 
of the foundations. Even this strengthening — probably because the foun- 
dations were not secure — availed little, and rift after rift appeared, until 
at last, in the commencement of the present century, the vaulting fell in. 
The fagade, with its two magnificent towers, was repaired in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

At Clermont, in Auvergne, at Limoges, and at Narbonne were built 
three great cathedrals which are so exactly alike that they appear to be 
the work of the same architect. The school had become so established, 
so definite were its rules and so familiar its methods, that as men built 
cathedrals they became masters. The Cathedral of Clermont was com- 
menced in 1268; that of Narbonne, in 1272. The choir of Clermont was 
completed about the close of the thirteenth centur)'; some bays of the nave 
were erected in the course of the fourteenth, and with the continuation 
of the structure the old Romanesque church, around which the new one 
was built, was demolished. But the west front still remains uncompleted. 
At Limoges the construction was continued in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, and yet the nave was not entirely finished. At Narbonne the 
choir alone reached completion between 1272 and 1330. 

Influential as were the French Gothic schools in all parts of what is 
now France, they could not entirely overpower local traditions in the 
general plan of the buildings, and it was only in details that construction 
and fonns were adapted to the new system. Thus, even in the Roman- 
esque period, a certain arrangement had gained importance in the South 
— that of a single spacious vaulted nave supported on both sides by but- 
tresses which were enclosed within the structure. During the reign of 
St. Louis two churches were built at Carcassonne according to this system. 
The chapels reach only to half the height; so that the nave obtains direct 
lighting through large windows above them. Other churches in which 
the arrangement is similar are that at Monpezat, built at the end of the 
thirteenth centur\', and the cathedral at Alby, in the fourteenth century. 

TJie Cathedral at Alby has a single spacious nave about 20 metres 
(65^ feet) wide, with chapels on each side, between the buttresses. The 
nave obtains no direct light above the chapels, of which there are two 
series, an upper and a lower. The eastern end is a semi-decagon, adjoin- 
ing which are polygonal chapels between buttresses. The exterior of this 
church is widely different from that of the cathedrals of Northern France: 
it is a veritable fortress. From immense wall-masses with comparatively 
:small windows project shallow semicircular buttresses like flanking-towers, 



196 ARCHITECTURE. [Fkench. 

while at the western extremity a tower which might as well be the keep 
of a castle as the bell-tower of a Gothic cathedral rises defiantly above the 
edifice. 

Carcassonne Cathedral, — Bishop Peter de Rochefort erected in the 
beginnini> of the fourteenth century a Gothic transept with an eastern 
side-aisle and square chajx^ls, similar to the Ciennan Cistercian churches 
before mentioned, and also a polyg^onal apse without surrounding aisles or 
chapels, at the eastern end of the ancient Romanesque Cathedral of Carcas- 
sonne. In these additions the changed tastes of the period may be traced 
without takin;:^: into account the increase in the dimensions of the struc- 
ture. Many motifs of the still-existing Romanesque portion are repeated 
in the newer Gothic part, evidently without any intention to imitate; and 
thus there results a certain harmony l>etwecn the older and the newer por- 
tions, althou;^h the latter attain the most extreme elegance of form. Par- 
ticularly charming is the tracery of the screens which separate the chapels 
from one another. The mouldini^fs of the pillars at the intersection of 
the nave and transepts have a certain Romanesque severity; furtheniiore, 
the transept is separated from t!ie adjacent side-aisle by plain circular 
columns. The mouldings, so far as Romanesque reminiscences are not 
uppennost, are sharp and meagre. The circular pillars are continued 
above their capitals, and the mouldings of the arches merge into the round 
shaft. The mouldings of the small columns which form the front of the 
screens between the chapels are for the most part pear-shaped rolls. Thus 
the antique idea of the column which we find expres.sed in the round 
form of the shafts has been abandoned, and the pillar is treateil as a unit 
the moulding of which has the purely-decorative purpose of diminishing 
its apparent size. These mouldings, having the same profile as the ribs 
of the vaulting, render still more mauifest the unity of forms, w*hich is 
continued from the ground to the summit of the groining. 

We have already found occasion to indicate in a work of the thirteenth 
centur>' — the Church of Xotre Dame at Dijon — that by means of skilful 
construction all massiveness is removed from the interior and all the 
constructive functions are transferred to the buttresses on the exterior. 
In Carcassonne Cathedral the extreme development of this system is 
demonstrated, ina-much as the entire design here aids in divesting of 
its constructive character sucli inas<iveness as still remains, and in build- 
ing up entirely an ideal world of forms. Ideal still is the whole system. 
The forms are noble, pure, and appropriate, the tenuity which here and 
there makes itself felt is not disturbin;^. but the inward significance of the 
foruis which a hundred vears earlier were so clearly and sharplv defined, 
an-1 which gave comi^lelion to the works of the first. half of the thirteenth 
century, is no louj^er contained in them. 

The masters eslablished for the school an ideal whose principle of 
Kvauty was artistic, and each new master who enioye<l some authority 
ad<le<l new forms which found their justification in their hamionv. Re- 
garding constniction, the idea was to diminish the actual masses as much 




i 



French.] GOTHIC. 197 

as possible, siuce these masses were to disappear entirely by subdivision 
into mouldings. The eye was no longer to behold a skilfully-constructed 
stone edifice, but a system of forms which by correct geometrical propor- 
tions is blended into harmonious unity like a diapason. 

SL Ouen, — A great northern church in which a similar development 
is displayed, but whose leading ideas belong to the old French system, is 
the Church of St. Ouen at Rouen. The arrangement is that of a nave with 
three aisles, a transept with side-aisles on the western side, a choir with 
three aisles and chapels on each side between the buttresses, a polygonal 
apse, and a chevet of five chapels. The west front has two towers. The 
diagonal position of these towers is peculiar. A slender elegance charac- 
terizes the details, and all parts are clothed with a rich display of forms. 

In general, the fourteenth century did not produce that wealth of 
architectural monuments which distinguished the thirteenth. The works 
of the thirteenth sufficed for the needs of the following centuries, and 
only gave them the opportunity here and there to continue what was 
commenced, to add chapels, and, above all, to devote themselves to the 
decoration of the churches with altars, lecterns, and pulpits. Many 
cloisters — among them those of the Cathedral of Bordeaux and of the 
Abbey of Mont St. Michel — were completed in the fourteenth century. 
Finally we have a great series of secular structures — dwellings, castles, 
and palaces-— which had their origin in this century. Chief among these 
are the two palaces of the Louvre and the Hotel St. Paul, built at Paris 
by Charles V. 

Palaces: The Louvre. — Philip Augustus had in 1204 erected the 
Irouvre as a strong castle in front of the walls of the city. St. Louis 
prepared it for habitation, but Charles, with his architect Raimond du 
Temple, entirely rebuilt it. Of this new structure a magnificent stair- 
case formed the part which was most admired, as until then stairs had 
been regarded simply as a means of ascent, and not as a part calling 
for a grand architectonic expression. 

The Hdtel St. Paul was chiefly destined for grand festivities. The 
principal room was the great banqueting-hall, called the Salle Charle- 
magne, and besides this there were several courts — among them, one 
for tournaments — extensive gardens, and a menagerie. Like the Louvre, 
the structure was destroyed in the sixteenth century. 

The Papal Palace at Avigno?i^ built in the fourteenth centur}' and 
for the most part still in existence, rivalled these royal palaces. Bene- 
dict XII. built the northern part (1336); Clement VII., the southern 
part. Innocent VI. finished the structures of his predecessors, together 
with the upper chapels, and Urban V. (1362-1370) had the principal 
court hewn out of the rock and erected the eastern wing. The struc- 
ture had a number of towers and was surrounded by outworks, so that 
it formed a perfect fortress; but in its interior it contained splendid 
dwelling-apartments and state-rooms. The principal entrance was on 
the western side, and on the south was the grand staircase, consisting 




198 ARCHITECTURE. [English. 

of straight flights and landings. The chapel, a lofty vaulted hall about 
50 metres (164 feet) in length, adjoins the staircase. The great banquet- 
iug-hall was in the northern wing, and all the halls were richly deco- 
rated with wall-paintings and other adornments. 

The Chdtcau of Pierrcfonds^ near Compifegne, at once a strong castle 
and a comfortable habitation, belongs to the fourteenth centur>'. Of 
ancient origin, it was rebuilt in 1390. It forms a somewhat irregular 
rectangle, with round towers at the angles and semicircular ones in the 
centre of each side; it is surrounded by a ditch and encloses a court. 
Living-rooms, banqueting-halls, and structures for defence and for service 
form an exceedingly picturesque whole. The smaller but equally pictur- 
esque Chateau de Sully, on the Loire, is of the same period. 

2. English Gothic, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Century. 

As may be imagined, the *great energj* displayed in an architectural 
direction in France at the close of the twelfth and the commencement of 
the thirteenth centur>- drew the attention of other lands to the progress 
made. We have already noted (p. 181) the influence which spread from 
France to Germany at this era. England could not escape this influence, 
and the less so since thechivalric Normans brought with them to England 
a part of that spirit which has been an inciting factor in the development 
of French culture, and indirectly of French architecture. 

The architecture of the previous period was distinguished, as com* 
pared with the German, by a wealth of surface-ornament. Not only are 
the arches richly moulded, but the mouldings themselves are also 
enriched. Chevron or zigzag ornaments give to the arches which they 
follow a somewhat fantastic peculiarity. Meandering and undulating 
members alternate with the predominating zigzag. Detached ornament 
runs around the roll-mouldings. The surfaces are decorated with scale- 
like or checkered patterns (diapering), and larger wall-surfaces with a rich 
array of arcades in relief. To display still greater richness, the columns 
of these blind arcades are placed together so closely that they cover the 
wall almost like tapestry — ^an impression which is still further increased 
by the intersection of the arches, which spring from alternate columns. 

The entire effect of this animated architecture allows the working of 
Oriental fantasy to appear more comprehensively than in the edifices of 
France or of Germany. Not that a direct transference of an Oriental set 
of forms had taken place — such a thing could scarcely be proved — but the 
taste for the fantastic was encouraged in a high degree by travels in foreign 
countries and by glimpses of Oriental edifices. The Sicilian possessions 
of the Normans, where Arabian culture ruled, must have been an inciting 
cause. A strong affinity to Arabian art finds expression in the fact that 
the entire wealth and imaginativeness of the English architecture are 
purely decorative and have not been worked out of a more highly-organized 
constructive svsteni. 

Early English Gothic: Canterbury Cathedral, — The superiority of 



English.] GOTHIC. 199 

a system of construction which had developed in France must have 
become known early in England, since even in 11 74 we find that when a 
conflagration had reduced Canterbury Cathedral to ashes a French archi- 
tect, William of Sens, was called to superintend the reconstruction, which, 
according to a contemporary account, commenced with the transept; then 
the choir, with its side-aisles, was added; then a second transept; and then, 
on account of an existing crypt, the choir was drawn into a narrower width 
and terminated by a semicircular apse with an aisle around it. To this 
was added a great circular chapel, and also in the course of time various 
other structures. To the original plan belong two towers at the western 
angles of the older transept, and two semicircular apses on the eastern 
side of each wing of the transept. The exterior of this older portion has 
a completely Romanesque character; the construction of it may have con- 
tinued into the thirteenth century. Its interior is entirely in accordance 
with the French system as it had developed at the close of the twelfth 
and the beginning of the thirteenth century, and particularl}' recalls the 
cathedral at Sens. In 11 79, William of Sens fell sick and left the work to 
an Englishman, also named William, who continued it in the master's 
spirit. The great longitudinal extension of the choir may be cited 
as a specifically English feature. 

Temple Church at London, — A similar mingling of Romanesque and 
Gothic elements is shown in the Temple Church at London, begun 
by the erection of a circular church in imitation of that of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and consecrated in 1185. At the beginning of the 
thirteenth centur}' a choir with three aisles, of equal height, was added, 
and was completed in 1240. 

By the commencement of the thirteenth century the French princi- 
ples of construction had made themselves completely at home in Eng- 
land. The plan followed that of the earlier period, always with three 
aisles instead of five, with a square-ended choir surpassing the nave in 
extent, and with a large chapel continued in a straight line beyond 
the choir. Two transepts, with side-aisles on the eastern side, inter- 
sected the longitudinal axis and projected far beyond the face of the 
side-aisles of the nave and choir. Over the intersection rose a grand 
central tower greatly surpassing the towers upon the west front. 

Worcester Cathedral, — The choir of Worcester Cathedral was con- 
secrated in 1218, and shows the peculiarities of early English Gothic in 
all their fulness. 

Salisbury Cathedral furnishes a brilliant example of an arrangement 
such as is described above; its magnificent choir was built 1 220-1258, and 
the nave and west front immediately after, while the massive central tower, 
with its lofty stone spire, was probably erected not ver>' long afterward.^ 
The windows of the side and central aisles are as yet narrow, high, and 
arranged in groups of two or three, which are not united by an embracing 

* Lady Chapel, choir, transepts, and nave were built between 1220 and 1258; the tower and spire, 
between 129P and 1320; the we>t front, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. — Ed. 



200 ARCHITECTl 'RE. [Emjli^h. 

arch except in the transepts, where the area between the arch and the 
lancet windows is pierced by qnatrefoils. The French system is exem- 
plified more markedly in tlie extreme lightness of the pillars between the 
nave and its side-aisles. In order that each part may exhibit its useful- 
ness, tiiese pillars consist of groups of detached and extremely slender 
shafts of the hardest stone, which are united only by a moulded bond- 
stone at half their hei,«^dit and by the capital. As not one of these shafis 
is continued up the face of the clere-storey wall, it might be inferred that 
when the structure was commenced no vaulting was contemplated in the 
centre aisle. Hut the great projection of the buttresses of the side-aisles 
[Toves that they were intended to take the burden from the pillars. 

The triforium has a low-pitched arch of a span equal to that of 
the main arche; below; beneath this arch are two other pointed arches, 
eacli of which embraces two smaller ones resting on an intermediate 
column. All these arches rest on short columns with bases and capi- 
tals. The whole forms an interesting transition from the Romanesque 
svsteni to the later (lOtliic tracerv, and is in France to be found onlv in 
certain cloisters: but it belongs to a ixrriod when tracen' had almost 
deveiojKil its indepeuilence. The vault of the middle aisle is partly sup- 
ported by >hort clusters of shafts which stand upon corbels placed above 
the ju'.'.iirs of the triforium, and partly by others which start immediately 
under :lu)se pillar.*;. 

7V/«' Mhisfrr at Hevcrlev exhibits resemblances to Salisburv Cathedral, 
for, tliou;;h in certain places the shafts which bear the groining of the 
nave >tart from the ground, in others the cluster of shafts commences 
u{>on a corbel above the arches of the nave and widens as it ascends. 
Kach b.i\ of the triforium has four well-pro{X)rtioned openings sunnounted 
by treU)il arches, r.ehind these stand very .short colonnettes joined by 
pointed, arches. The clere-storey windows are narrow and pointed, and the 
spaces between them are filled with arcaded work. The arches, cor- 
responding to the sh^ipe of the groin, rise ever higher, and thus attain 
that exav;.;;erated sliar]>ness and pointedncss to which the Knglish writers 
iMi art have i^iven the cliaracteristic title of ** lancet-shai")ed.'' 

/..;y/.- .' An/ns are common in Knglish structures of the period. These 
arches, in connection with other exaggerated proportions — as in the arches 
o\ I lie triforium at Heverlev, in the dei>re*i>ed arches of the triforium at 
Sali>Si;T\\ and in the j>illars formed by the slender .^ihafts united — bear 
winK-»> tli.it the I\r.i;li>li broui^ht into use in their buildings bizarre pro- 
]v'^rti^»•.l'^ T.ither tli.m such as were strictly harmonious and inily classical. 
'ri:e\ ;;-.e the echo oi that striving after the strange and the imaginati\*e 
wiiicli was e\:>resMHl in the Kui?li>h buililiui^s of the twelfth centurv, bnl 
\\\\\c\\ tl'.ere» hel»! in clieck by the solenniilv o\ th.o massiveness arotiud 
t!:e!u. \\a> !e.v< inharmoniou*; than heu\ where comjxirison with the clas- 
sic.!*. li..::uv^n\ of the iMench biiildiui^s o\ the same date is so easv. The 
U'.ir.su 1 ..: lH'\er.e\ h.i> two ti.uiMi^ts and a sqr*arc end to the choir. The 
we-: \\o\\\ .show> >impl\ tlie thiee ai>ies of the n.ue, while in the Ca- 



English.] GOTHIC. 201 

thedral of Salisbury an upper horizoxital stnicture of the height of the 
middle aisle, richly inembered with arcades and niches, lies in front of 
all three aisles. 

Lincoln Cathedral was begun in the twelfth century, and in some 
parts — as in the chapels which are added to the sides of the choir as a 
second eastern transept — exhibits forms which appear nearly related to 
those of Canterbury. Yet the structure, with its three-aisled nave, tran- 
sept with an eastern aisle, and its peculiar west front, is essentially a 
work of the thirteenth century. The upper part of the interior exhibits 
many systems, yet all combine to compel the shafts which bear the vault- 
ing to commence on corbels above the arches instead of continuing down- 
ward to the pavement. The square eastern end has in all three aisles a 
magnificent traceried window, that of the central aisle being the largest. 
The exterior shows a second traceried window in the gable of the middle 
aisle, above the one just mentioned. The side-aisles also terminate in 
gables, which rise high above the roof, forming an Italian arrangement 
the history of which is given below (p. 229). The western fa9ade is a large 
structure of the height of the central aisle of the nave, dominated by two 
turrets containing staircases, and by the gable of the nave. Three lofty and 
deep niches make the profile of the three aisles visible externally,^ while 
the whole of the remaining surface is covered with arcaded work. Imme- 
diately behind this lofty wall rise two square western towers with slender 
round turrets at the angles, without spires, but with a platform such as is 
found in most English towers, as if the idea of spires had been renounced 
or as if they had not yet been completed.^ Only a few towers have lofty 
spires. 

The great churches of England are usually accompanied by extensive 
subsidiary structures grouped around a large cloister. The most consider- 
able of these structures are the chapter-houses. Wells Cathedral has an 
octangular chapter-house, and Salisbury another, both with a column in 
the centre. That of the Cathedral of Lincoln is a magnificent decagon. 
The nave and transept of Wells Cathedral were built 1214-1239, the fa9ade 
with its two towers in 1242, and the beautiful chapter-house was added 
soon after. The choir of Ely Cathedral was added to a Romanesque nave 
and transept between 1235 and 1252. In the interior system of this choir 
the peculiarities of early English Gothic are not only seen at their richest, 
but are also brought to their fullest hannony, the noble proportions being 
retained throughout. 

In Lichfield Cathedral shafts are continued from the pavement to the 
springing of the vault. The arcades and the triforium have noble pro- 
portions, but from want of space, which precluded the construction of 
clere-storey window^s like those of the choir of Ely, the clere-storey has 
traceried triangular openings. 

> Bishop Remigius commenced his Norman cathedral in 1074, and the tliree lofty and deep niches 
of the west front are part of his work enclosed in Early English (thirteenth-century) work. — Ed. 
• These towers formerly bore spires. — Ed. 



202 ARCHITECTURE. [Engusm. 

The system of vaulting in the choirs of Lichfield and of Ely has made 
a step toward perfection in the increase of the number of the ribs and the 
diminution of the size of the separate groins, by which the execution of 
the vaulting is essentially made lighter, while the separate courses of the 
vaulting-stones, which had so long been entrusted to the binding power of 
the mortar, are interlocked, become shorter from rib to rib, and on accouut 
of this can be closed in more quickly. The summit of the vaulting is per- 
fectly horizontal throughout the entire length of the middle aisle, and is 
even traversed by a horizontal rib which, like a continuous keystone, 
catches all the separate ribs of the groining, while, since it is stouter than 
the shafts, it bears heavily upon the entire structure beneath (//. 30, fig. 
4). The side-aisles have a straight eastern termination, while the nave is 
continued beyond them and ends in a polygon. The cathedral has a single 
transept with an eastern side-aisle, and on the west front are two fine 
towers with stone spires, which latter occupy more than half the total 
height of the towers; the entire facade, except these towers, is covered 
with arcaded work. At the intersection rises a similar but larger tower. 
The choir belongs to the fourteenth centur>'. The chapter-house is an 
octagon with one axis lengthened. 

IVtstmittstcr Abbc\\ at London, was commenced about 1245. ^^ 1269 
the choir was consecrated; it has a polygonal apse with aisle and chevet 
of chaj^ls, after the French system. The northern transept has three 
aisles, while the southern, where other structures occupy the angle between 
the nave and the transept, lacks the western side-aisle. Transept and choir 
have simple groined arches in the middle aisle. The nave, which was 
commenced immecliately after the choir and was completed before the 
close of the century-, has fan-groining in the middle aisle. The upper 
part of the interior, with its shafts rising from the ground, not only is 
noble and hannonious, but has also, like the arrangement of the choir, 
the greatest resemblance to the beautiful French system. The proportion 
oi the triforium to that of the arcade beneath is a correct one, but it is 
here widened into a regular galler\', which nins above the entire side- 
aisle. The tlyiiig-butlrcsses, which in English architecture usually play a 
comparatively insij^uificant roU\ are doubled, according to the French 
mode, one over the other; yet another s{x:cificaily Knglish peculiarity 
stands Kndly out — namely, tlie rather tlat rv^K^fs of both the middle and 
the side aisles, wliicli recall the antiriue ratlier than the northern Gothic 
T:ie r»ara:x::s i:iav be ciuevl as ano:her Knvjlish ixvuliaritv. It must also be 
::.^:e'.l a< remarka^lv* t!;at the choir has not that cv>i:s:derable longitudinal 
.ljvc!o:MTK::t w!iicli wo have found in the otlur builvliu;;? before men- 
::o!i'.\:. si'i-.v. !U;.*aN-:red fro:!i the intcr^-ction. it li.is but one-third ihc 
l;:::^::! of tlie ::.ivj. .\t :!:e iKi^inr.irv^ of tlic >".\tecn:h centun* the 

i.j 'vlv'otia! cIia:H.l of ::k' olie\e: wx^ takvU ilv»wn, and in its 

c — i:: s::c:i o.:r;.c: coTiiiectioii wit'i tl'.v- elioir t'lat it i:ia\ , in fact, be 
o^::<: :^7v*! a< o::!v a contiauativMi of it — w.is l»uil: a \;Tvat chapel with 

c ..:>\'s ar.d with five small c::avc!s aiou!id its chaac^l-end. This 



« « 



. • .1 ^ « 



• ■ . * ^ 



English.] GOTHIC. 205 

is known as Henry VII. 's Chapel {pL 30, fig. 5), and is a fine specimen 
of the architecture of the time of that monarch, who founded it. 

Exeter and York Cathedrals. — Exeter Cathedral, built between 128a 
and 1370, exhibits magnificent decoration. Grand and noble stands out 
York Cathedral, built from 1291 to 1330. The choir belongs to the close 
of the fourteenth century; the fagade, which is also of that period, was^ 
finished in 1405 {pi. 30, fig. i). The chapter-house of this cathedral is 
one of the most interesting of its kind; it is an octagon 20 metres 
(65)^ feet) in diameter, and of equal height, is ceiled with a magnifi- 
cent fan-vault, and has no central pillar. 

Melrose Abbey. — To this date belongs the restoration of Melrose 
Abbey by King Robert Bruce. Its foundation was laid in 11 36 by David 
II. ; the abbey was dedicated in 1146. Having been destroyed by Edward 
II. of England in 1322, Bruce undertook its restoration, but the edifice 
was burned by Richard II. in 1385. The abbey-church, dating mostly 
from the fifteenth century and now in ruins, presents a splendid example 
of the Gothic style. 

Especially characteristic of the course of development taken by the 
style is the nave of Winchester Cathedral, rebuilt in 1393. Canterbury 
Cathedral {fig. 2) received at the close of the fourteenth century a 
third transept with a lofty central tower, and a three-aisled nave with two 
towers flanking the western fa9ade. These new structures were com- 
menced in 1376. In 1381 was built the great cloister of Gloucester 
Cathedral, with its beautiful fan-groined ceiling. 

Timber-construction, — The ancient timber-construction which early in 
the Romanesque period attained to rich development and general use in 
England was not entirely abandoned even during this period. Though 
vaulting found entrance into the grand cathedrals, the national traditions 
remained in full force in simple churches and perpetually became stronger; 
So that wooden roofs soon procured recognition in important buildings. 
We find a rich, artistically-fashioned wood-construction adopted as a cov- 
ering of the structures adjoining certain churches wherein ideas taken 
from secular edifices could to some extent be used. . The improvement of 
timber-construction is strictly connected with that of secular buildings,, 
which in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries assumed a characteristic 
style of decoration. In Figure 6 we give the wooden roof of West- 
minster Hall, completed in 1398. 

Among churches with beautiful wooden roofs may be mentioned St. 
Stephen's at Norwich, St. Mary's at Oxford, St. Mary's at Beverley, and 
the churches of Lavenlram and Melford (Sufiblk). 

Characteristics of English Gothic. — In the course of development 
arose many peculiarities which may be considered national and espe- 
cially belonging to English Gothic. We have already stated that 
the entire arrangement of an English cathedral is essentially different 
from that of a French one; we have remarked upon many peculiarities 
of the superstructure of the interior. As we go farther and consider the 



f 



L . 



204 ARCHITECTURE. [English. 

iiioiildinj^s aiul the ornamentation {pL 30, Jigs, 9-12) we shall discover 
.'si ill more of these national characteristics, which plainly manifest that 
thoy owed their origin less to a sense of their fitness and inward signif- 
ic.uicc than to a wild and luxuriant imagination.^ 

/V//f */////< v//</;*. — One such i>eculiarity, which is extraordinarily promi- 
nent, is shown in the windows, particularly in the development of the 
tracery. The j^reat windows are divided by perpendicular mullions, 
which when they approach the top are simply connected once or twice by 
pointevl arches, but are destitute of those rich rosette-like intertwinings 
which j^ive so unique a charm to the windows of the French cathedrals. 
With the lK*)^inninj; of the fifteenth century this feature became so strik- 
iuy: that the English call this stage of Gothic architecture ** Perpen- 
dicular/* An esT>ecial characteristic of this Perpendicular is that flat- 
tened, low-pitchcil outline of the pointed arch which bears the name of 
the *^ Tudor arch** ( //>. 8). 

Another jx^culiarity is the importance of the cornices, or '*hood- 
numlvis,'* aror.Uil the windows, which in some cases were borne upon cor- 
Ikns at liie springing of the arch, and in others were returned horizontally 
Ui^aii-.s: i!:e wall. Both dinars and windows were surmounted by a rect- 
angular luxxl-uiould ^ figs, 3, 7). Other marks of the Perpendicular are 
t!ie alreadv-nientioned lack of spires upon the towers, the slight rise of the 
i^x^iV. and the j^eneral development of Iwttlements, which were even carried 
u;> the sides of the v?ables: so that these works often have a somewhat sober 
cl:a:a. tor ilrv^r.i^li the very extravagance of their fancifulness {fig^ 3). 

/\ifi-: *t:4.\;ng. — This {x^rivxi brought about a still further iutricac>' of 

' 1 "«.* \-.\.. Vj: ; hA>c> 1 1" the Vi '.r.xc.\ <\\c m:i:h{ h.ivc l»tcn nvTc clcar!\ lii^tinprUhed. There were an 

r\r\ Ki.v^h- : vi "r.;;-.-.!;; i.» fu '..".i^vi jut: *'I' ;he lui'lnh av.-.I the ^^iji'.r.n'.r^; uf the ihirteciuh century — a 

\*io:-'.v*'. ».'. K:.-"vV., Ai'.i A I a:o Vut-oh. o.^'rm. r.'\ km-un .i*" /.'..•".■". i :«.'.. n acciunt t>f ihe flaming or 

>c -.x"".; f J\ v'.N t !hc m.nlow trA»fi\ In I'-'.c vinie m.u thiTc vfii .\i. K-arly En^^jiish, a Deojralcd or 

vic\'".%'i: .%\\j I rijj.ivh, a:u! ,\ l-Uo K.'j;'i»>.h. ot l\ri*riiK-u'.Ar The iWi^mctncAl Gothic <.f the tm-o 

c.>. '.::.c>» :!o s;\\* ^M ihi :.''-.:r:oci.:h ».t ;;;i;i-\ -vv. i.-.ihv:. » :" the !a"^: tjuar^cr of the thirteenth and the 

1: .\\:,: i *; : N J^c i .:.:ik:':^ wa^ ^I- .:.u!ii..i. ; vJ-urlx l-\ :'.":. f .f -.r.v .i>^::TTie.i hv the minJow tracerr. 

1* . * . • \*, v.->» . . . : .-wn ;v. :*, 1a % i -. ' k* :'-. .-r «. :^ v.:;t .'-hcA \-\ ]:^\\'^ were erolmctrd beneath a 

\ .' Mv"'. . '. :* x' «:r.:rx^ ^i*.-.*"*- 'aju.c--. ;*• v .■.i».h ,-.:.! t!.f »c:vir.\:e Ir^Vir-i. Ncl >w was ocmr^e^l br 

^xN . :: . ■/. :v;»x > i'^r't^n a ^tx'a! . r^io h !v.i mv*: i ! iho w ::^.:."*w h? a,K. l-'jt th:*, a^:R. wa» divided 

.; ;: , :. N '.. .•.':.'■ x" .-..vs >.;', "/'vT *:.:c'c< »'':":v:n t'.inKC.: ^'^r v ir:;i^»u-.tc.: the larjjer. The angle* 

-..':■.'■*.:,.- :',"*•' -. r-^ .i".'\ :•*.'. : :*■.• >v.\'.\'T A:»hr>. In! h — "ccov.ir.'.y of irregular shape 

\« . . . > ", * . . --^ . ' . . :v :, • : V V'-c r. w" :vo <^-*- 'he ir.^'. '.;»•:>* .^r crc'.j'ht dii'isiom 

V. . . . -■ ■»;••:•.; ;^» :■-... r> ir K".;- cr :h> cc- 'r.irv.CAl irAcenr. which 

V x -v- , .-, X,-.: -x » :v ,.. . t- ;• .» .V v\ ■■.v..\«o.: : » v'lVi-.-r M ::< vV<r.ic savle as such. 

. »• ■ •- : . \ .*;'.'..'.. .;.'.. ;■■. . •, »x . • :^/ \ .-,. "v \ -. w^.c ;;; I', .^'jir.: it ir.tze into the 

I» .-...: ;%■■.■.■ -^ X* ,:.».;.. ^' . ^r: , ;. ;? c err.: racing arch, and 

• ^* ' ' ■ .• '^ .' . ... V ■■-.« :^, -u . , ■ : , *.. 7 -^ ^iic ^•p^xmuniry for 

- . * «■ , '--. ■ I- . :' . ^ '■"*• ' ■*■ v^ w. : ' * X c •\€": t. raiher than the 
» .■ 1-" . ,. ly* ..v. }\; ....••..»: * 'j: •'. McsB^ to hare 

v. . -^ • -,.xc: iho: h<|:h«pitched 
,:* -A :«c!..njj:: and thos 






' • ^ ^ '^ . .-. . „ ■•. .: ' rr.ir.reT. OhIt the 



German.] GOTHIC. 205 

vaulting, so that out of the radiating starlike groining was evolved the 
palm or fan system, which was in some cases by a peculiar construction 
developed into pendants of great size apparently suspended in the air 
(//. 36, Jig. 5). 

Castles. — The fifteenth century g^ve England a series of castles 
which still exist and prove that convenience and comfort as well as 
strength and security were found in them. Hampton Court, Warwick 
Castle, Windsor Castle, Bramhall and Adlington in Cheshire, Eltham 
and Beddington in Surrey, and the ruins of Kenilworth, are splendid 
examples. The most important part of these castles is the great hall, 
which corresponds to the salle of the French and the Palas of the German 
castles {pL 37, Jig. 8). Yet through the requirements of the two countries 
the English castle is more of a palace than is the German. Externally it 
exhibits a well-developed facade animated by a large series of bays, while 
internally numerous chambers are connected with the great hall and 
express wealth and luxury as well as all the conveniences of life. 

3. German Gothic, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Century. 

We have already spoken (p. 181) of the comprehensive changes which 
French influence produced in German architecture at the end of the twelfth 
and the beginning of the thirteenth century. We have also recorded the 
poetical appearance which it gained through the admixture by holding 
fast the grand but simple solemnity of Romanesque architecture, with 
the addition of the fanciful but innately consistent and rational circle of 
forms of French art. We have shown how this poetical admixture en- 
dured far into the thirteenth century, at which time the Gothic style had 
in France attained the highest point of its development. During this 
time a few edifices were erected in Germany which manifest the full accept- 
ance of the French style in all its purity. 

The Church oj Our Lady at Treves, which constitutes the chapel of the 
archbishop's palace, shows both in design and in execution a direct lean- 
ing toward France. That it was made polygonal may have been for the 
purpose of imitating the series of palace churches which can be traced 
back to the first centuries of the Christian era and are allied to the cir- 
cular structures of the antique palaces and baths. But the arrangement of 
this church — a ring of chapels around a central structure, with a larger 
chapel projecting as a principal choir — the presence of round pillars, with 
which the vaulting-shafts are in part connected, the entire design of the 
vaulting and that of the windows, the profiles of the mouldings and of 
the ornamentation generally, and lastly the arrangement of the buttresses, 
— are all of them French. In all other German structures of the same 
date or earlier the buttresses had less projection. Without doubt a French 
architect commenced this building in the year 1227, and it may have been 
executed bv French workmen. It mav have been a Gennan who com- 
pleted it in 1244, since the tower in the centre has a completely German 
outline. The portal also shows some German influence. 



.\JS. [Gi.RMAN. 

jiivle of the Holv Grail is descril>ed 

. i as a central church surrountlcil 1j\- 

. >i;ch a structure as he describes was 

^. . that we no lonj^er possess the ori;^in;:' 

^v: borrowed from a French model (f«<r 

•> lierman sister even more than French 

. ::\,iv.\ ), but only a reproduction by a maste: 

!'» i: there can Ix* no doubt that this latte: 

■' ^lis entire descrii)tion. 

,• of the (irail is as a niajruificent casllc-chapcl 

■. -U-.u castle, and therefore tlie poet descril)es it a.- 

.'.'.J.^d by chapels, because such structures form a 

.. ! '.'.ic ranlhe<*n at Rome throuj^h the Church of Sta. 

i»"'lc to tliat of St. Marv at Treves. Ihit doubtless 

: :. .IS the ideal of the architectitVe of the jwriotl, the 

.: -lu lit of the be;;iniiinj^ of the thirteenth century. The 

.iM 1 the towers, the central tower, the slender l)ronze 

... ■':!: of folia;^e upon the capitals, all appertain to French 

.. i:u- iliirleenth century. In slenderness these jnllars couhl 

.•!':M-.'-e.l by tlie stone pillars which were the ideal of the 

. 'i.:.v-:.'. ; they were also the founilali*>n of the inharmonious 

, . \ ;.-.;eiations which are only the expression of that lightness at 

. ..... li l''ie!ieh and lui^lish aimed. 

I • '\ / ai Treves is likewise a small Temple of the Holy Grai! 

. , lu lutret had before his eyes the same ideal as the jKJet, but who 

... I ix vMH-uted in stone ail that was jHJSsible, while the poet gave his 

, . ,,1 ii'i.n hill i)!ay and built up in words an ideal which the architect 

,.» , I .ible It) express in stone, and which baffles all attempts to form a 

...uuiiie plan because the i>oet collected the various ideals furnished 

ItiMi \*\ eaeh individual architect. We may therefore see in the unique 

.im, line at Treves an image of the Temi)le of the Holy (irail, just as we 

»xx ii 111 the exce;>tional Church on Mont St. Michel, and as we shall find 

,1 Mi -.«»me i)ther exceptional (ierman castles and churches. 

//;. i'/\/( rrii7ff i'^'/nr/i at Marienstadt, in Nassau, was commenced in 
I ! '^ , the year in whicii the chai)el at Treves was founded. This exhibits 
I 111- I'ompletely-deveioiK-d Gothic style, yet in the treatment of the details 
j-iM". the impression that a (lermau architect here put into practice his 
liiiu'h studies. 

////• IVi }uonstriitinsiau Chuvih of All Saints in the Hlack Forest, com- 
Mi. Mi'etl in 122^, shows verv reinarkablv the gradual introduction of the 
i.nilii..* stylo. Some portions are pure Romanes'pu', while others are as 
pMnl\" (fothic. The side-ai^^les have nearlv the same height as tlie rave 
HI .iiran;L:enieiri which we have found in the Romanes(jUe architecture of 
i.iiin.iiiy (J). 1S3), wliieh is general also in certain districts of I^rance, 
.111.1 whieh in the Cithedr.il of Toitiers, of aboiit the same date, attained 
|..-.ir.!i:nl r.-nlt^. In Foiticr*^ the three aisles m ' \' arc of nearlv the 



w 



\k 



1^ 



German.] GOTHIC, 207 

same height, but are also of nearly the same width, while the German 
design still retains the narrow side-aisles. 

The Church of SL Elizabeth at Marburg, begun in 1235, also retains 
the narrow side-aisles; and in this church we find French forms exclu- 
sively, yet of a severity that makes it scarcely credible that a French 
architect executed them. The ground-plan is not French ; the polygonally- 
tenninated choir and transepts have the proportions of those of a German 
Romanesque church — namely, a square closed by an apse — only that the 
vaulting does not mark the square form and the apse is a half-decagon in- 
stead of a half-circle. The surrounding aisle and chapels — which a French 
architect would certainly not have omitted — are here wanting. Yet the 
internal arrangement of the choir is exactly like that of French structures, 
as are also the lofty clere-storey windows, while in place of the arcade 
there is a second, lower tier of windows like those which would be visible 
in a French structure between the arches of the apsidal aisle of the choir. 
The three-aisted nave has massive pillars with four shafts, as in French 
architecture, but the disproportionate size of these shafts is the more con- 
spicuous since they have no wall to support, and the ratio of height to 
diameter is much less than in the French cathedrals. The structure was 
completed in 1287 by the addition of two towers on the west front. These 
have many French traits, especially in the design of the massive buttresses 
at the angles, and in the manner in which the octangular spires above the 
gable rise out of the square towers. 

Spread of the Gothic in Gennany, — Although the last poetical manner 
of the Romanesque style was general in Germany until the middle of the 
thirteenth century and it is only exoeptionally that we meet with works 
containing so many French elements, yet we may assert that the intro- 
duction of the Dominican and Franciscan orders largely contributed by 
the erection of new churches to the spread of the Gothic style throughout 
Germany. It is Lnie that these begging friars did not erect works of great 
magnificence; it was not the splendor of the form-system of the great 
cathedrals which determined the style, but the lesser massivcness which 
lay in the French system of construction. On page 193 we gave a descrip- 
tion of the plan adopted in some French buildings belonging to these 
orders, particularly in Dominican churches. 

German buildings of the most advanced Romanesque style — as the 
Cathedral of Limburg, on the Lahn, the nave of St. Sebald at Nurem- 
berg, etc. — still have heavy pillars placed near together and thick walls 
which were not only costly as well as massive, but scarcely afforded space 
for an assembled crowd to circulate between them from the narrow middle 
aisle to the side-aisles. Thus a system of constniction which afforded 
slender pillars that scarcely separated the aisles, supported the wall masses 
upon a few points, and needed only thin walls between these points, must 
have been welcome to these orders, since it made it possible at a very 
reasonable cost to enclose comparatively spacious churches. 

The Dominican Church at Esslingen, which was constructed 1233-1268, 




-3S ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

:5 a pattern of a church built for a practical purpose. The French con- 
>:r::ct:on is there surpassed. The architect has erected upon widely- 
spaced, thin, round cohinins connected by great pointed arches a groined 
nave which has scarcely more height than width, and has thus reduced 
t]ie mass of the buttresses, notwithstanding the thin walls. The but- 
tresses seem very small, but the French had a certain fondness for but- 
tresses, and used them more to decorate the design than to supply the 
absolute needs of the case. Thus it was that the German, or perhaps 
French architect, could not resolve to decorate his wall-masses with great 
windows reaching from pillar to pillar, but has preferred to follow the Ger- 
man penchant for visible walls, which he has made exceedingly thin, and 
has pierced with onlv verv small windows in both the aisles and the nave. 
He has, in fact, endeavored to tone down the great soberness of the sys- 
tem by the sparsely-distributed light. When we take into account that 
the only decoration was that of color, the interior does not lack dignity^ 
while the exterior pleases by its modesty and expressiveness, and even now 
presents a most agreeable appearance in the midst of the simple dwellings 
of the burghers. 

What we have said of this stnicture applies more or less to a series of 
other structures — to the Dominican church at Constance, begun in 1234; 
to tliat at Coblentz, commenced in 1239; to that of the Minorites at 
Cologne, the nave of which, with its simple buttress-system, is again a 
true piittern of economic construction; and to the churches of the orders 
at Colmar, (iebweiler, Schlettstadt, Basle, Zurich, Bern, Konigsfelden, 
etc., the construction of which reached, indeed, into the fourteenth 
century. 

The French svstem had bv the middle of the thirteenth centur\' become 
more general in Gennany, and soon occupied the groimd exclusively and 
in many ways accommodated itself to German ideas. Walls were never 
entirely dispensed with to make way for great windows reaching from pil- 
lar to pillar, but a mass of masonry was le^t on both sides of the window, 
which attained slender proportions, as we have already remarked of St. 
Elizabeth's at Marburg. German taste was not inclined to give ini|x>rtant 
extension to the system of buttresses, and especially to flying-buttresses; 
neitlier did it love that almost exaggerated height to which the French 
cathedral-system had given rise. It generally made use of entirely plain 
massive pillars, but for the narrow spacing of the Romanesque substituted 
wide spacing and broad side-aisles, and finally it showed a particular taste 
for churches with aisles of equal height In some edifices French qual- 
ities are more prominent, and, without doubt, in most cases intentionally 
so — i)robably on account of the superintendence of a French architect. 
It is a fact that great cathedrals were not erected in Gennany during the 
thirteenth century, but in the flourishing cities municipal and collegiate 
churches were built in great numbers, as they were, also, in the four- 
teenth century. 

An iin^x)rtant church, beautiful in its design and rich in its adorn- 




German.] GOTHIC. 209 

ment, is St. Marj^'s at Reutlingen, built between 1247 ^^^ ^343- ^^^ 
nave of Strasburg Cathedral, with its fine triforium — which was rebuilt 
about the middle of the thirteenth century and finished in 1275 — is French 
in style; yet even here the relatively wide side-aisles and comparatively 
small height of the nave, and the distance of the strong pillars from one 
another, are German elements, which were, however, partly necessitated by 
the need of a hannonious adaptation to the existing Romanesque eastern 
part The erection of the Church of St. Vincent at Metz was begun in 
1248, and was completed one hundred and thirty years later, after a long 
interruption. 

The Cathedral at Metz was begun about the middle of the thirteeilth 
century, but the works were soon discontinued, and were not recom- 
menced until the next century. About the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, evidently under the influence of the works at Strasburg, the church 
at Weissenburg, in Alsace, was built; it was finished in 1284. In it is 
repeated the octangular cupola over the intersection which at Strasburg 
belongs to the Romanesque system — a repetition which proves how tena- 
ciously the Germans clung to their ancient traditions. 

The Minster of Freiberg^ also, in some bays which perhaps date from 
before the middle of the thirteenth century, shows a Gothic system of 
forms associated, almost intermingled, with the Romanesque of the tran- 
sept and the octangular cupola on the intersection, while the remaining 
bays, built in the second half of the thirteenth century, bring the system 
to fuller and freer perfection. Here, as at Strasburg, the side-aisles are 
wide, the pillars are widely spaced, and the nave is of comparatively 
small height, though higher than the Romanesque portion. The tri- 
forium is absent, and the upper part of the nave in general is somewhat 
abridged. But the beautiful tower, finished at the close of the centur)', is 
of wonderful development (//. 32,7?^. i). 

The Cathedral of Cologne^ the most important work executed in the 
second half of the thirteenth centur>', is entirely French. The foimda- 
tion-stone was laid in 1248, and the choir was completed in 1322; but the 
transept, nave, and towers were recently executed according to the ancient 
design, and were completed only a few years ago. The plan (//. 33, fig, 
1) shows a nave and choir with five aisles and a transept with three. The 
choir has its apsidal aisle and crown of chapels, precisely after the fashion 
of the French cathedrals, and the transepts, the flying-buttresses with 
the great pinnacles, the tremendous height of the nave, the complete 
want of walls between the piers, and the great windows (//. 31, fig, 
6) fill up the entire circle of the fonns of the French cathedral. As the 
section is upon the same scale as those of French cathedrals shown on 
Plate 29, it is easy to see that the whole is but a further evolution of the 
French system. The facade with its two towers (//. 2>^^fig* 3) is also a 
step farther in the same direction — the last artistic result of the entire 
series. 

The choir of the Cistercian abbey-church at Altenberg, near Cologne, 

Vol. IV.— U 



2IO ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

was rapidly built between 1255 and 1265, and the nave immediately after, 
though it was not completed until the second half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, after the works had been discontinued for a long time. In its general 
design it is similar to Cologne Cathedral, though very simple in its fonns, 
compared with that magnificent edifice. The collegiate church at 
Wimpfcn, on the Xeckar, was erected 1262-1278; we know that it had a 
French architect, and that his work was constructed opcrc Francigeno — 
i.(\y in exi)ressly French style. The PVench system was also carried out 
in vSt. Calharine's at Oppenheim, which was contemporaneous with the 
Cologne Cathedral ( 1262-13 17). This church exhibits an almost prodigal 
richness of the exterior, particularly of the nave. There is no chevet to 
the choir, which is laid out more according to Gennan simplicity, express- 
ing the simple purpose of a collegiate church. An octangular cupola- 
tower rises at the intersection, and the nave, notwithstanding all the 
complication of the design, is relatively low. 

Other structures of the second half of the thirteenth century are the 
churches at Maucrmiinstcr, Schlettstadt, Rufach, and Neuweiler, the great 
buildings which were added under Bishop Conrad Probus (1272-1290) to 
the cathedral at Toul, and the cathedral at Minden, and St. Marj'^s at Osna- 
briick — two beautiful churches with aisles of equal height, the latter 
completed in 1318. We must also mention the churches built in Hesse in 
imitation of St. Elizabeth's at Marburg, and the arrangement of which 
was carried to perfection at Friedberg, Wetzlar, and other places of the 
district. If we finally state that hundreds of small city and village 
churches were built, we have a general picture of the constructive encrg>' 
of Western Germany, in which, as follows from its geographical position, 
the French architect had most immediate influence, and which he first 
conquered. 

MiK^dcburg CathcdraL — But pure Gothic made its way into the Saxon 
countries about the middle of the thirteenth centur\'. The Cathedral of 
Magdeburg, erected in the beginning of the centur\', showed French 
influence in the complete chevet; yet we believe that this edifice must still 
be considered as Romanesque in its older parts, though as the works pro- 
gressed the forms and methods of constniction of the Gothic style came 
more and more into the foreground. The clere-storey windows of the 
principal apse are Gothic; the transept is completely so, and in the nave 
the plan was altered: the system of double bays in the nave was changed, 
so that the intcnnediate piers were done away with and the side-aisles 
made considerably wider than those of the original design, which con- 
templated aisles of the same width as those of the choir (//. Z^yjig. 2). 
Great arches span the spaces between the main pillars, which alone 
exist; yet as a sur\'ival of the older plan, and in order that the side- 
aisles might be well lighted without too disproportionate a width of the 
windows, the exterior wall is divided into two bays by an intermediatae 
rib parting the vaulting of the side-aisles, and each bay has two windom 
and a wall-rib. As the superstnicture progressed and the vaulting of tbc 




•Gmiii an:] G O THIC 2 1 1 

middle aisle came to be considered, the same desire not to have the win- 
dows too broad made itself felt, and, as oblong bays had then for af long 
time been usual, a shaft resting upon a corbel was carried from the 
crown of the nave-arches (occupying the position of the intermediate pil- 
lars of older churches) to the springing of the vaulting, and each bay 
was thus divided into two oblong bays of groining. The construction 
was delayed far beyond the end of the thirteenth century, and the 
completion belongs to the close of the Gothic period. The Cathedral 
of Halberstadt saw scaffolds and workmen again in the second half of 
the thirteenth century. The design of a portion of the lower part of 
the side-aisles corresponds to that of the Cathedral of Rheims, but this 
plan too was soon abandoned, and the fourteenth century saw the work 
•completed. 

The Church of Schulpforte would seem very peculiar did we not recog- 
nize in it the continuation of the evolution of the style. The building 
was commenced in 1251, and the choir, with its polygonal apse and chapels, 
without a surrounding aisle, was first erected. Evidently the architect 
was acquainted with the school of Champagne, and, as in the already- 
described church of Rieux, constructed a polygon with very strong 
walls, with deep niches of the height of the windows; so that only the 
angle-pillars actually retained the full thickness. These angle-piers 
are pierced below, so as to give a free passage in front of the windows. 
The nave has its bays of vaulting equal to two of those of the aisles, and 
the pillars are rectangular, as the)' were even in the latest period of Ger- 
man Romanesque. Shafts are added on the side-aisles and others are 
borne on corbels in the nave to support the square vaults, which remain 
as a survival of the Romanesque amidst perfectly Gothic construction and 
mouldings. 

Decidedly German is the design of the very high and narrow windows 
•of the nave, which allow by far the greater part of the masonry of the 
wall to be exposed. The buttresses in the wall of the side-aisles, corre- 
sponding to the double-bay plan, are alternately large and small, the less 
massive having only to withstand the thrust of the vaults of the side- 
aisles, while the large ones rise above the roofs of the side-aisles and send 
simple flying-buttresses to the walls of the central aisle to take the thrust 
of its vaulting. 

The Cathedral of Meissen is without Romanesque survivals, but also 
without elements which allow direct French influence to be traced. It 
ivas commenced with the most noble forms in 1247, ^^^ ^^^ nave, planned 
upon the ancient basilica, was completed in the first half of the fourteenth 
century. 

In the second half of the thirteenth century nai >f three aisles of 
•equal height was added to the choir and t iurch 

Nienburg. In the older part the Rot ^ I 

the nave, unlike that of St. Elizabeth's 
-aisles and widely«spaeed, blender pillan. 



2 1 2 ARCHITECTURE. [Gekmasi. 

teenth century a transept and choir were added to the Romanesque nave 
of St. Mary's at Arnstadt. The choir has three aisles of equal height, 
ending in three corresponding apses, the central largest one of which pro- 
jects farthest eastward. This arrangement was during the fourteenth 
century the normal one throughout a great part of Germany. The portal 
of the transept shows many resemblances to Amiens, also the richly- 
constructed traceried windows, reaching from pillar to pillar and super- 
seding the walls. The piercing of the buttresses of the choir is likewise 
an echo of the French manner. 

To the second half of the thirteenth centur)' (but partly also to the four- 
teenth) belong St. Mar>'s at Heiligenstadt and St. Blasius and St Mar\''s 
at Miihlhausen, the last a basilica with five aisles of equal height, transept 
of a single aisle, and choir with three, arranged as at AmstadL A con- 
siderable part of the cathedral at Erfurt was executed at this time, and 
the same is true of the church of the Barefooted Friars. 

Old Church at Ratisbon, — It was late before the Gothic stvle was en- 
tirely adopted in the region of the Danube. The so-called '*01d Parish 
Church" at Ratisbon (St. ririch), near the cathedral, was evidently 
orii^inally tlie chapel of the bishop's palace, though it was designated the 
parish church of the cathedral as early as 1263. It has so many Roman- 
esque features that we should reckon it as belonging to that style were it 
not widely sejvirated from it in methods of construction, while part of the 
mouldings also express the French system. The plan is square, and it is 
evident that the stnicture had originally two storeys, since groined vaults 
carried on low pillars form a low cr\*pt-like hall beneath. The more lofty 
second storey probably had originally five aisles — three high ones of equal 
width in the centre, and two lower side-aisles of equal width — unless the 
middle portion formed a cupola-like central tower. At the present time, 
together with many other alterations, the middle vaults of the lower 
chapel are taken away, and thus a central room of the height of both 
storeys is formed; so that it gives the impression of a \"er\' high pic- 
turesquely-constructed hall with galleries. 

Stic Church at Ratisbon, — In 1273 ^ '^^ destroyed the bishop^s palace 
and the old cathedral, and in 1275 Bishop Leo laid the foundation-stone 
of the present cathedral. Early in the following year a portion— evidently 
the southern aj>se — was consecrated, so that worship could be held therein, 
while the old cathedral was entirely denu»lislied and the new one raised 
little by little, until in 130c) the work must ha\e come to a preliminary 
conclusion, since transept and choir were finished and the na\*e and fa^de 
with two towers were laitl out. The entire plan (//. 31, jfig, \\ which 
lKl->ni;^ to til is {x^rivxl, is a^mplctcly ttcrman. 

The choir I //c- 3^» ^vith its three apses, which we have already pro\*ed (as 
at Arnstadt^ tv> Ik* a nonnal tterman arrangement, in no wise recalls French 
UKxlels. Also the bro^ul side-ai.^^les and the arrangement of the transepts, 
which do \\\>\ project Ivyond the latter, aie r.erman; yet the profiles of 
the pillar> and the intenial suinrrstructutv of the choir and tianseptS| with 



German.] GOTHIC. 213 

their triforium and immense windows, are French. Probably these were 
not copied directly from French models, but from German — ^perhaps from 
the Strasburg Minster, since already the walls are superseded by richly- 
developed traceried windows. The windows of tlie principal apse are 
extremely beautiful, and are entirely in the spirit of French architecture; 
the triforium is carried completely around as a separate division; the win- 
dows below it, corresponding to the arcades of the longitudinal part of 
the choir, are each set on the outside of separate niches, while a second, 
upper series of windows, set farther inward, continues those of the clere- 
storey. 

The Dominicans also, who came to Ratisbon early in the thirteenth 
century and had established an old church there, commenced a new struc- 
ture at the same time that the cathedral was building; from the simplicity 
of the design, it was finished in 1277. Fully-developed Gothic forms 
were still later in spreading beyond the Danube. The cloister of the 
College of Klostemeuburg, built about 1291, has traces of Romanesque; 
yet by the close of the thirteenth century even the Danubian regions had 
accepted the Gothic style perfectly and universally, and only those mod- 
ifications which German taste had generally wrought in it were evident in 
these districts. Everywhere in Germany smaller churches were erected 
in this style. 

Later German Gothic, — Meanwhile, another spirit had in the course 
of the thirteenth century obtained the upper hand in Architecture, and 
none the less because of the circumstance that Gothic was practised as a 
foreign style, principally on account of the sumptuous external effects 
obtained from it. The modest Romanesque cycle of forms was in its con- 
sequent development nothing but the result of a simple constructive 
method and of an intention to make the entire result characteristic, and 
unintentionally a charming display of individual details, brought out by 
sparing ornament, was regularly yielded by it. 

The complicated Gothic style also developed purely out of construc- 
tion; only, since in its outer expression it afforded more resting-points to 
the eye, the question arose how this construction should be externally 
displayed so as to render apparent to the eye the functions which were 
subserved by each constructive part. So long as only the constructive 
system continued to develop, the course of the development of the details 
was strictly connected with it; and when construction had reached its 
highest point and could develop no farther, the evolution of forms was 
compelled to stop at the same point. Yet the attempt was made to find 
an expression which should be always practicable, to refine the forms that 
had been introduced, to search for reciprocally favorable geometrical pro- 
portions which should always produce a pleasing impression upon the eye. 
As ideas developed in this direction, the feeling that the outward form was 
only the result of the inward working of physical forces by degrees lost 
its strength, and the form came to be regarded as something important in 
itself. 



2 1 4 ARCHITECTURE. [Geeman. 

Diirlopmcnt of Form-system. — Foniis which grew directly out of the 
construction seemed too harsh, and were toned down; other forms pleased 
the eye, and were for that reason brought in as ornaments in situations 
where they had not that inner significance out of which they were first 
evolved. As soon as the giving of pleasure to the eye, in place of inward 
meaning, became the basis of form-development, a purely aesthetic school- 
svstem was evolved which was foimded and established entirelv on theorw 
Gennany accepted Gothic as a completed whole the outward aspect of 
which gratified the eye, and studied to perfect whatever was pleasing. In 
consequence of this, the established scholastic German form-system is, in 
fact, the most attractive and the purest 

We have noted (pp. 192, 196), in describing the cathedrals of Car- 
cassonne and Beauvais, that this change was effected in France early in 
the thirteenth centur>*. In Gennany it was also completely efiected by 
the close of the centur\' — unless, indeed, we put it back to the middle of 
the centur\', to the moment when, in consequence of its beauty, the 
entire form-system of Gothic, with its necessities of construction, was 
deliberately accepted and no further attempt was made to introduce new 
elements into the native Romanesque. It cannot in fact, be said that 
Germany, after it had taken this step, added one iota to constructive 
Gothic. What Gennanv did concerned onlv the evolution of detailed 
form, except such small changes as were rendered necessar>' in construc- 
tive relations by the altered purposes and var\'ing materials of particnlar 
districts. But, though Gennany accepted the entire form-system only 
out of regard for its outward attractiveness, it took henceforward the 
greatest interest in the external conventional development of the stj'le. 

Though probably a member of a French masonic guild, whether a bom 
Frenchman or an affiliated Gennan, designed the plan of the cathedral at 
Cologne, yet the system of details displayed in the entire superstructure, so 
far as the choir rises al>ove the crown of chapels, is entirely conventional 
C»erman. This is expressed chiefly by the striving after symmetr>' in the 
details, by the correct pro{x>rtion of each profile, the relations between the 
hollow and the round mouldings, and the arrangement of the ornaments^ 
all matters which would nearlv concern the Ciennan architect Bv this 
riiiidiiv a jx^rfect symmetr\' of the sinjjle jwrts was reached — a greater s\*m- 
motr> than was attained by either the F'rench or the English school. The 
latter was tix> r.wvw while in France the jx*qietu,il development of con- 
strtiotion had cxtraonlinarily shaqxMioil the sense of what was character- 
istic: h\\\ sinct? the charaoteristio usually stands in direct opposition to 
t'Kxneiical unmalism, the I^iench did not |>assess that feeling for the 
al>sohuo idealism of purv ihoorv which was native in Gennany. 

«j^f'»v.7v /,:\\7':sf»: c\>nstructcd a scluH>l-svstem which was in fact an 
:c.cal one — that is, it was noMc, harmv^nous, an^J fv.ll of delicacv of ont- 
1:"0. Not c\on in this stage had a little of the frigidity of a school, and 
'acki\l all that fivshnoss and character which enchant us in the solemn 
ca!m of the iic:tr..ui RiMuauosijuc and in the genial development of the 



German.] GOTHIC. 215 

French Early Gothic. Even the slight want of fulness and harmony in 
the French school, even the rococo of the English, deprived them of this 
frigidity, since there can be seen in them traces of the older characteristic 
use of detail, or a substitute for such detail, which — ^at least, for the mo- 
ment — ^satisfied an eye not perfectly trained. 

The idealism of the conventional school of German Gothic, as shown 
at Cologne, has almost attained to the fulness and delicacy of beauty of 
the Greek system of forms. But it could not keep it for so long a time. 
The theory was the ideal work of a great master, but ever>' master 
who enjoyed recognition and a following could set up another theory of 
harmony and line-beauty, and each master of less importance could by 
imitation increase the rigidity, but could scarcely reach the delicacy. 
Thus early in the fourteenth century an astonishing sobriety manifested 
itself as the result of this pure ideality through the operation of conven- 
tional methods. It is beautiful, but tiresome, since it lacks character. 
This at last wearied the people, and attempts were made to remedy the 
monotony through fantastic forms. 

Fancifulness of Forms, — Since the idea that form must have an inward • 
meaning had been lost and the desire was simply to please the eye, a bold 
master did not see why, if pinnacles and canopies constructed out of right 
lines were proper for this or that position, he should not make them 
curved if they were but beautiful. The pinnacle of the tabernacle work 
was purely an applied decoration the aim of which was to animate a deco- 
rative work. Ought it not to subserve this purpose in a yet greater degree 
if, instead of standing upright, it twined three times around itself or 
around its neighbor? 

Thus it was with all the parts, and the door was opened to the greatest 
capriciousness of form — not a caprice which allowed each individual to do 
what he liked, but one which was firmly established upon rules; for by 
the outward constitution of the masonic guild each member, whether im- 
portant or insignificant, belonged to the school and was held fast by it. 
But after the rigid severity of the fourteenth century was broken, the 
school of the fifteenth century was ready to introduce whatever the wildest 
caprice could imagine. This brought new life. Fresh and freely bubbled 
here bold humor, there conservatism assumed an undreamed-of dignity, 
and in another place arbitrary severity made itself felt; in short, it gave 
again a varied image of full life as many-sided as life itself; but ideality 
was gone. ^ 

When we said that the form was no longer the result of the inner 
forces, we referred only to those physical forces operative in construction 
which are based on the qualities of the materials and on natural laws, 

* For the adornment of surfaces English Gothic for the most part used ornaments which were 
purely decorative. The faults of German Gothic are quite evident in Cologne Cathedral, which can- 
not be called Gothic in the sense in which the name is applied to Chartres, Amiens, Rheims, St. Ouen, 
Westminster, Salisbury, or Lichfield. Italian Gothic, though still less Gothic than is German Gothic, 
since it is never freed from an admixture of classicism, makes up for its want of purity by its 
beauty. — Ed. 



2 1 6 ARCHITECTURE. [Germas. 

particularly upon gravity, the resistance of which must be overcome by 
construction; the place of these was taken by an intellectual force which 
guided the direction of fonn-development This intellectual force was 
the expression of popular taste endeavoring^ to find its corresponding 
i(ka], and therefore the works produced were still in a sense characteristic, 
tlioujfh their direction was no longer natural, though they no longer 
found their ideal of beauty in the expression of construction and in the 
display of the forces working therein. 

Notwithstanding the degeneracy of these works, they were significant 
of the Gennan popular taste at that time. They represented the tenden- 
cies of the prosperous burghers of the German cities, who not only erected 
utilitarian structures, but also built churches in which they could worship 
Goil in their own fashion. If we regard the Romanesque architecture of 
Gennany as the expression of an ecclesiastical taste and designate Early 
Gothic as that of a chivalric spirit, we must consider Gennan architecture 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as tjie genuine and fullest out- 
come of the citizen spirit, with all its preferences and all its weaknesses 
expressed according to citizen ideas. 

We cannot enumerate each individual work which the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries produced in Germany, and it would require too much 
space to designate the peculiarities of the local schools. Churches, large 
and small, were built ever>'where, but we must content ourselves with 
mentioning a few. 

Fa(^ade of Strashitrg Cathedral. — We have already mentioned (p. 209) 
the completion of the nave of Strasburg Cathedral. Two years later, 
in 1277, Erwin von Steinbach began the erection of the facade with 
its two towers, the principal part of which, as far as the platform, is 
essentiallv a work of the fourteenth centur\', and in the two lower 
storeys, which are ascribed to Erwin and his son, has all the charac- 
teristics of that period. Above the platform the towers were desijipied 
to be octagonal, but only one was completed in 1439, by John Hultz 
of Cologne {pi. i^^Ji.i^* 2). 

In 1 3 13 the foundation of the Wiesenkirche at Soest was laid- It 
was commenced by John Schendeler, but its execution was delayed through- 
out the whole of the fourteenth centur>', and the two towers were left 
even to the fifteenth centur>'. These were begun in 1429, and their 
entire execution recalls the fifteenth rather than the fourteenth centurw 

SL S/iplirn's at I'ufDia. — The choir of St. Stephen's Church at Vi- 
enna, commenced in the early part of the fourteenth centur>- and finished 
in 1340, exhibits the calm, pure, and noble fonns of that time. Like the 
Wiesenkirche at Soest, it has three aisles of equal height, ending in 
three apses. The nave was begun in 1359, and has a middle aisle 
slightly higher than the side-aisles, which are almost equal to it in 
width; the splendid architecture of the exterior of these aisles is exceed- 
ingly harmonious. Two massive towers at the sides of the aisles take 
the place of the transepts. The southern {Jig. 4) was finished in 1433; 



German.] GOTHIC. 217 

the northern still awaits completion. Since the naves were not suffi- 
ciently lofty, in order to make an imposing exterior appearance the 
height was doubled by a steep roof, whose great elevation was made 
tolerable by gables regularly placed one over each bay, their lower por- 
tions being connected with the architectural formation. A Romanesque 
fagade with two towers still remains, but its effect is injured by two 
chapels, built upon the same plane with it, on each side; and the gen- 
eral appearance of the building does not gain by the addition of these 
chapels. 

A Gothic choir, commenced in 13121 and completed in 1431, was 
added to the Cathedral of Augsburg. The emperor Lewis of Bavaria 
built at the establishment endowed by him at Ettal a round church 
which may be considered a copy of the Temple of the Holy Grail. The 
construction of Metz Cathedral was resumed in 1330. Nothing of import- 
ance had been done in the thirteenth century, and even the fourteenth has 
left us but a fragment. In 1340 the Church of Our Lady at Miinster and 
that of St. Catharine at Osnabriick were commenced, while the choir of 
the Cistercian church at Zwetl was begun in 1343, and finished forty years 
later. This choir has three aisles of equal height, yet the side-aisles 
surround the apse, and there is a wreath of low chapels around the whole. 
» The arrangement is largely influenced by that of the church of the same 
order at Pontigny. The love for buttresses and flying-buttresses is also 
evidently taken from France, for, though the chapels are separated by 
massive walls which naturally would have taken the thrust of the vault- 
ing, buttresses are here unnecessarily placed in advance of the outer walls 
of the side-aisles, and take the thrust of the vaults by flying-buttresses to 
the wall of the middle aisle. It is clear that nothing but a liking for the 
external aspect of this constructive device has here occasioned its use. 

Cathedral of Prague. — In 1343 the emperor* Charles IV. commenced 
the construction of the Cathedral of Prague with the aid of a French 
architect brought from Avignon, Matthias of Arras by name. He was 
followed in 1352 by the German Peter Arler of Gmiind, in Swabia, who 
at this time was but twenty-three years old, and who completed the choir 
in 1385. The only modern portion is the restored vaulting of the nave. 
Figure 2 {pi. 33) gives the ground-plan; Figure 3, the interior. The 
arrangement is naturally completely French, as Charles IV. drew his 
inspiration for the cathedral directly from French architecture and pro- 
•cured his architect from France. The plan of the cathedral follows 
-exactly that of the French, since it has a complete chevet. The system 
of construction, from triforium to pillars, has an unequalled lightness; 
the German master has therein perfectly followed the arrangements of his 
French predecessor. 

In the execution of the details there are two different systems. The 
most advanced one, with pear-shaped roll-mouldings in the pillars, is 
found not only in the end of the choir, but also in the part first begun, 
but, from its lesser idealism and its resemblance to the profiles of the 



2i8 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

choir at Carcassonne, where similar roll-mouldings occur, may be the 
work of the French architect. The apparently older system, with round 
mouldings prominent in the shafts, as at Cologne, in the older French 
buildings, and in most Gennan structures of the fourteenth century, prob- 
ably owes its existence to the German sentiment of the still young Peter 
Arler, who in portions which he executed later, as St. Wenzel's Chapel, 
developed another set of mouldings characterized by considerable tenuity. 
The apparently older form was adopted in the finishing of the edifice, 
and thus the interior appears as represented on Plate 33 {fig. 3). 

To show what would be the appearance of such an edifice built at 
this period, we have depicted a great Gothic cathedral, the flood of 
light moderated by passing through the stained glass of all the win- 
dows and falling on statues and pillars, altar, shrines, and, above all, 
upon the screen, which, itself a fonnally-developed and splendid struc- 
ture, entirely separates the choir from the nave. Since a tower was 
necessar\' to contain the bells, and since even at the close of the four- 
teentli centur\* it had become doubtful whether the structure would ever 
be entirely finished, a tower was commenced next to the transept, cut- 
ting into the plan in an arbitrary* manner; but it was never entirely 
completed. 

About the same time that Prague Cathedral was constructed those 
of Kaschau and Cracow were built, the first distinguished by its peculiar 
plan and by a certain fancifulness of execution. 

St. Laicrcnce at Nuremberg, — The nave of this church was perhaps 
constnicted before the middle of the fourteenth centurw It has low 
side-aisles, buttresses which originally projected considerably (the spaces 
between which were afterward occupied by chapels), and simple flying- 
buttresses. The west front has a portal of the noblest proportions, 
above which are the emperor's arms, a beautiful rose-window and gable, 
and two square towers of several storeys, recalling the Romanesque period 
and terminating in two low octangular upper storeys (//. 31, fig. i). 
The upper part of this facade belongs to the second half of the four- 
teenth centurx-; the lower part, as the coat-of-arms proves, to the time 
of Charles IV. 

In 1346 the small basilica at Strassengel, in Styria, was begun, and 
without doubt its elegant tower was finished in a few decades — ^perhaps 
in one. In 1351 the great collegiate Church of the Holy Cross at 
Gmund, in Swabia — the birthplace of Master Peter of Prague — was built, 
and his counsel and influence may have had much weight; for, though 
the edifice was long in course of constniction, not only do many details 
recall Peter Arler's Bohemian work, but also the disposition of the che\'et 
agrees with that of the choir of St. Hartholoniew's at Kolin, probably 
commencetl by him in 1360, and finished in 137S. Here, indeed, there 
is neither in the profiles of the pillars nor in the vaulting any trace 
of the idealistic tendency of the beijinning of the fourteenth centnr>% 
The mouldings of the ribs and arches pass downward into the perpen- 



German.] GOTHIC. 219 

dicular parts without any separating capitals, and are broken only by a 
simple bevel around the base. The same master built the polygonal 
Karlshoferkirche at Prague. Like the English chapter-houses, it is 
octagonal. Its diameter is more than 20 metres (65 feet); it is without a 
central column, is vaulted with beautiful radiating groining, and has a 
small choir on one of its eight sides. 

The Church of Our Lady at Nuremberg was also built (1355-1361)- 
under the influence of Charles IV. The choir of the Church of Maria 
Stiegen at Vienna was erected between 1358 and 1365; the lofty choir, 
with three equal aisles, of St. Sebald at Nuremberg belongs to the dates 
1361-1377, and St. Mary's in the market-place at Wiirzburg was com- 
pleted in 1377. The tower of this church was recently finished. 

The Church of St. Lambert at Miinster — a gem among the Gothic- 
monuments of North-west Germany — belongs almost entirely to the four- 
teenth century, but some of the most decorated parts were finished in the 
following century. Some great buildings were commenced at the close 
of the fourteenth century, and were not finished until far into the next. 
St. Barbara at Kuttenberg was in 1380 laid out by Peter Arler in the most 
magnificent style of the French cathedral system, but the structure was 
for the most part carried out in the fifteenth century. 

The Minster at Ulm (//. Zi^fig. 4) was begun in 1377 and principally 
constructed in the fifteenth centur}'^, but the execution of the tower (//. 
31, y£^. 5) was suspended in the sixteenth century; so that its completion 
is reserved for our age. This is one of the most characteristic examples- 
of the wild eccentricities of Late Gothic. The minster at Ueberlingen, 
also, though commenced in the fourteenth century, was for the most part 
constructed in the fifteenth. 

Antwerp Cathedral, — The edifices of the Netherlands are in many 
respects nearly related to those of France. It is, therefore, not surprising 
that the Cathedral of Antwerp, originally designed with five aisles, the side 
ones very narrow, should conform to the French system {pi, 33, fig, 5). 
Later on, a third, wider side-aisle was added on each flank. The facade,, 
designed to have two towers, was commenced in 1422 by the architect 
Jean Amel of Boulogne, and has one tower carried up to a dizzy height^ 
while the other does not reach to half the elevation {pi, Z2^fig. 5). 

The constniction of the choir of the upper parish church at Bamberg 
was begun in 1392, and that of the nave of Maria Stiegen at Vienna in 
1395. The beautiful turret of this church marks its conclusion in the 
fifteenth century. The parish church at Bozen was also built at the close 
of the fourteenth century, and the Theinkirche at Prague between 1407 
and 1460. This has on the west front two towers the slender wooden 
spires of which have four small turrets at their base and four others at 
half their height. The construction of the towers of the Cathedral of 
Frankfort-on-the-Main lasted from 1415 to 151 2, and that of the Minster 
of Berne, begun in 142 1, was also continued into the sixteenth centur}'. 
The Church of SS. Peter and Paul at Gorlitz was built between 1423 and 



L 



-22 AkcmrixTi -ri:. [glkman. 

a-Miun-S iiiorL- or k-.'is iiiiporlain.c; Uiiis ihe walls of the iiniister at I'im 
arc ciiii>inii.li.'il ui liriclc, tliuui;]! llic use of this material lias no influence 
on ihc characttTisiic l'i)nn>. Urick is also ciii]iloyod in a series of liavariau 
fiiilices, as in the Chrruh of ( )iir I-ady at Iii^ulstadt 1 1.125-1439), the iiia- 
jfsiie iiittrior of wliieii pro'lucL-s an extraordinary t-fTeci of spacionsncsN 
wliili.' the (.xterifir, \\\\\\ tlie two dia;ionally-ii]aced lowxrs of the facade, i.- 
sohtT. This (.■h:u\-ii has thiLi- aisles of ci|nal ln.-ii;ht, an aisle runiiiiij^ 
around the aii>v, and liultresms eneioM-d within the interior, AhoIIkt 
hriek strucf.ire i- the Cliureh of Our I-ady at Munich [146S-14SS), in 
which hnildin;^ the briek-con^lruction makes its characteristic fonii> 
apiarent. 

To the catejiory of hriek edifices belonjjs also St. Martin's at Lands- 
hut, aI>o a Iwsiiico with slender pillars which produce an impression of 
dariii;^ almost hazardous. The tower stni\v> the peculiarities of brick-work 
ciimliiiR'd with those of stone-work, and rises with a ricliness of details 
far inferior to that of the towers of Strasliury. Vienna, and Antwerp, but 
with leuiarkahle >len!erne.-.>, to a similarly di^c/y height. 

S,,>n\ir Sfiiufm;^ 0/ Ihr Tliirt,;»th Outiiry. — We have followed Ger- 
man ecclesiastical Ciothic without a break and without a ;;lancc at con- 
lempor.iry >tcuiar structure-, and have seen that many buildinj;s follow 
closely tile I-'nuc!] maimer, while others modify that inauner so as to pn)- 
dnee one siieeifie.dly ( "lerman, which, thou;;h rei;ariled as a nnity, is seen 
to lie diviiled into various schools. Tliou;;h characteristic fonii-develo]*- 
nii-nt may have remained delicient in (lermany, the tiifmihl,- of the entire 
j,'ri>i!p of huildiuj-s was very characteristic, and Ixjth the entire structure 
and the individual parts express their purixjse most clearly. 

The sinnc is true of secular architecture, which, indeed, Icanie*! its 
form-speech from church arehileclnre, and only intrwlnced into it such 
slight niotiiticalions as were necessary to fjive expression to the entirely 
different prohleuis, and therefore to entirely <liffi-reut conceptions. But in 
their itninil'lf these secular edifices exhibit the most thoron^h character- 
ization and present an ap(Karance which affects us so differently that wc 
can scarcely believe tliat the secnlar structures of the thirteenth to the six- 
teenth century are the expression of the same popular taste that is 
exJiibited in the churches of the same period; and yet this is the case- 
It 1ml expresses the difference of purpose. 

Jhf.iiM:. //;'»-^\*.— Castles, city walls, fortress-towers and gates, do not 
express a snlilime enthusiasm. They are not hymns of praise to the Must. 
Hijili; in deliaul soleuniity they menace the approaching enemy, whon% 

1 single ijart is so arranged and so pl-'"d as to repel most etfcctuaUy . 



Tlicre is also in these atrucliirts— iu '•Msive sombtenesa and »m». 



_^^^^^^__^__, I aspect whicfcfc , 

though to""*^^ ^^^^__-. matraiticd»:ye* thic 



; occTi: 



the 
dip' 




Gekman.] GOTHIC. 223 

tory artistic play of lines. This is, however, in no wise the case: the 
highest characterization is expressed in all this. In private structures also 
the spaces are regulated according to tlieir requirements. Each window 
is placed exactly where need dictates and is of the exact size that need 
prescribes. Only when necessity is satisfied come in secondarily the 
artistic ideas of proportion and symmetry, which develop themselves, in a 
regularly axial direction, into a system of equally-balanced masses. 

Fortifications had their small openings, long or wide, through which 
the approaching enemy could be assailed with arrows or bullets, with 
stones thrown down upon him, or with boiling water, without affording 
him the opportunity to place his scaling-ladders. Even in military archi- 
tecture there is evident a development which is interesting in the highest 
degree, since the progress of the entire art of war, and the various kinds of 
assault and of defence, as well as the continued improvement of weapons, 
are mirrored in it. In the same manner the development of the dwelling- 
house expresses that of the bourgeoisie and the gradual entrance of the 
refined necessities of life into the circles of the higher classes, while the 
advance of the cities in importance is expressed by their Ratlihauser 
(town-halls). If we regard the often splendidly-decorated fountains and 
the hundreds of other public monuments, we must renounce the attempt 
to follow the development of each separately. 

Jawti-kalls. — Industrial cities of importance were first developed in the 
Netherlands, where weaving flourished exceedingly. It was in these cities 
that those mercantile halls which were absolutely necessary to the common 
weal first attained monumental development, and the Cloth-hall of Ypres, 
which was erected in the thirteenth century, with its massive tower, is 
among the most imposing secular structures of the Middle Ages, Equal 
to it is that of Bruges, which was executed in several divisions, beginning 
with the year 1284. Its tower has several times been increased in height, 
until it now rivals the highest cathedral-towers. 

Dwellings. — Treves and Ratisbon have a series of examples which 
show in what manner burghers' dwellings were constructed at the close 
of the thirteenth and at the beginning of the fourteenth century. In 
Treves particularly these have that gable-facade turned toward the street 
which shows a continuation of the Romanesque type, and which through- 
out the Middle Ages was the ruling fashion in most cities. As, in order 
to obtain the most efiScicnt protection, it was the rule to make the walls 
of , the city enclose the least possible space, the streets were necessarily 
ttaxTOW and the sites of the separate houses very small and especially 
^fZBinped in width, while the houses were carried to a great height. 

On the ground-floor were the workshops, in wliich, under wide arched 
Openings, as is still the case in the Orient, the master and his journeymen 
"^Worked, while tlic customers transacted their business from the street, 
j-l>»it, instead of workshops, the ground-floor might be the great eutry-hall 
PJa w hich merchants' goods were loaded and unloaded, and from which a 
^^HBM> staircasi led to the dwelling-rooms in the upper storeys. In the 



220 ARCHITECTURE, [German. 

1497; the great Church of St. Michael at Hall, in Swabia, and St George 
at Xordlingen date from 1427; the collegiate church at Stuttgart from 
1436; while the great choir of St. Lawrence at Nuremberg, which has 
three aisles of equal height, was built between 1439 and 1477. St. Nicho- 
las at Zerbst was erected Ixjtween 1446 and 1488, and St. Mar>* at Zwickau 
between 1453 and 1536. Wort was carried on at the Cathedral of Halber- 
stadt in the fifteenth century, and concluded in 1490. 

The works of Peter Arler at Kuttenberg (Church of St. Barbara) were 
also discontinued in the commencement of the fifteenth centurv: thev 
were recommenced in 1483 under Master Hanus, and continued in 1499 
by the celebrated Bohemian architect Raysek, who constructed the vault- 
ing of the eastern part of the choir, which has three aisles and an apse 
surrounded by an aisle and crown of chapels. The western part of the 
choir, which has five aisles, with a galler>' above the inner aisles reaching 
to the same height as the central aisles, was finished in the sixteenth cen- 
tury by Benedict von Ivann. The transepts and nave remain unfinished. 
The rib-tracery of the vaulting is of considerable interest from the fact 
that it does not fonn straight lines, but a series of curves; so that 
the last constructive signification of the ribs is set aside and they are re- 
duced to a decoration applied to the under surface of a simple self-support- 
ing vault. 

The church at Pima was erected between 1502 and 1546; the tower 
of St. Mar>' at Esslingen was finished in 1528; in 1520-28, Master Bene- 
dict built the Church of Lann, his native city, and the construction of the 
Marktkirche at Halle was carried out between 1530 and 1554. With this 
building the constniction of Gothic churches in (iermany practically came 
to an end, though some fragments of a later date arise here and there 

Brick-construction, — The. Gothic form -system as brought over from 
France was essentially dependent upon the building-material^-a stone 
which could be readily cut into large blocks, each of which could be 
made to bear the most complicated forms. The lowlands of Northern 
Germany could not thus construct their works: the onlv natural stone 
existing there was granite, which occurred only in small quantities and 
was very diflficult to work. The use of brick, which had already served in 
Romanesque times, essentially changed the manner of building. A sys- 
tem of pinnacles and tracery does not express the nature of brick, which 
calls for massive, smooth wall-surfaces upon which varied patterns may 
be fonncd by niches and relief-work in variously-colored glazed materials, 
and which may l)e decorated by friezes with ornamentation partly cut 
through, partly in flat relief, with or without glazing. This denotes, 
therefore, the general character of brick buildings. The massive walls, 
consisting chiefly of dark-colored materials, the simple lines of most of 
the structures, particularly of the towers, which have usually four small, 
low, square storeys terminated by a simple wooden spire above four gables, 
liave cjuite a Romanesque character. But along with all this some entirely 
decorative ornaments are bound up by the employment of a great number 



German.] GOTHIC. 221 

of cut stones which have among their surroundings an appearance in 
the highest degree fanciful. 

Brick Churches. — The Cistercian Convent-church of Chorin, which 
was begun in 1273 ^^^ ^s without towers, is among the finest of these 
churches. St. Mary's at Liibeck has a massive tower and is a three-aisled 
structure without a transept, but with an apse and a chevet. The nave 
is of considerable height and has four attached chapels. This church was 
begun in 1276, and was for the most part constructed in the fourteenth 
century. The Cistercian church at Dob*beran, commenced in 1291, and 
the Cathedral of Schwerin, fouijided in the commencement of the four- 
teenth century and vaulted in 1430, have almost exactly similar plans, 
• with a raised middle aisle and chevet; the first is particularly distin- 
guished by the harmony and nobility of its proportions. Similar to these 
is the design of the Cistercian church at Dargun, the nave of which has 
the double-bayed vaulting of the Romanesque period. St. Jacob's at 
Thorn, begun in 1309, and St. Nicholas at Stralsmid, commenced in 131 1, 
are also important. A choir with three aisles of equal height and a chevet 
was added to the Romanesque Cathedral of Lubeck in 1317-1341. 

St. Mary's at Prenzlau — the extern gable of which (//. 34, y?^. 2) is 
one of the finest works executed in brick — was built between 1325 and 
1340. St. Catherine's at Liibeck and the Cathedral of Konigsberg were 
commenced in 1335, and the magnificent Church of St. Mary at Dantzic 
in 1343, though the greater part of the latter was constructed in the fif- 
teenth century. Casimir the Great commenced in 1342 the construction 
of St. Catherine's at Cracow, the nave of which was executed in the 
fifteenth century. The same king commenced in 1349 the erection of 
Corpus Christi at Dantzic. This church was finished in 1505; its west 
gable is shown in Figure 6. 

The choir of St. Mary's at Cracow was built about 1360; the nave and 
its two towers, in the fifteenth century. The nave of St. Stephen's at 
Tangermiinde was erected about 1376, and St. Mary's at Rostock about 
1398. The churches dedicated to St. Mar>' at Stendal, Stargard, and 
Sttalsund — the first completed in 1447, the last in 1460 — are essentially 
works of the fifteenth century, as are also the magnificently-adorned 
Church of St. Catherine at Brandenburg {fig. 5) and the finer one at New 
Brandenburg. The beautiful cathedral at Stendal was built between 1423 
and 1450, and in 1463 one of the spires was roofed with lead. The choir 
of St. Stephen's at Tangermiinde was commenced about 1470, 

Brick was not in all cases the sole building-material, but was here and 
there varied with stone; so that pillars, cornices, window-tracery, and 
other parts to which it was necessary to give characteristic forms, were of 
hewn stone, while the walls were of brick. By glazing the brick a 
means was found to bring a display of color to the assistance of the dis- 
play of forms. Such is especially the case in the structures erected at 
Cracow by Casimir the Great. 

In South Germany also there are some districts in which brick 



222 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

assumes more or less importance; thus the walls of the minster at Ulxn 
arc constructed of brick, though the use of this material has no influence 
on the characteristic forms. Brick is also employed in a series of Bavarian 
edifices, as in the Church of Our Lady at Ingolstadt (1425-1439), the ma- 
jestic interior of which produces an extraordinary effect of spaciousness, 
while the exterior, with the two diagonally-placed towers of the facade, is 
sober. This church has three aisles of equal height, an aisle running 
around the apse, and buttresses enclosed within the interior. Another 
brick structure is the Church of Our Lady at Munich (1468-1488), in 
which building the brick-construction makes its characteristic forms 
apjxirent. 

To the category of brick edifices belongs also St. Martin's at Lands- 
hut, also a basilic;! with slender pillars which produce an impression of 
daring almost hazardous. The tower shows the peculiarities of brick-work 
coiu])incd with those of stone-work, and rises with a richness of details 
far inferior to that of the towers of Strasburg, \'ienna, and Antwerp, but 
with remarkable slenderne>s, to a similarly dizzv height. 

Si.\t!,}r Stiiiiturcs of the Thirttcuth Ceutury. — We have followed Ger- 
man ecclesiastical CfOtliic without a break and without a glance at con- 
lem{K>r.iry secular structure, and have seen that many buildings follow 
cioseiy the hVcnch manner, while others modify that manner so as to pro- 
duce vine s{X'cifK\illy Cierman, which, though regarded as a unity, is seen 
to be diviileil into various schools. Though characteristic form-develop- 
ment mav have remained deficient in Gennanv, the enstmblc of the entire 
grv^up K-^i buildings w;is very characteristic, and both the entire structure 
and the indixidual parts express their purpose most clearly. 

The same is true \>i secular architecture, which, indeed, learned its 
form-sjvech from clnirch architecture, and only introduced into it such 
slight moilitications as were necessary to give expression to the entirely 
differeu: problem.s and therefore to entirely different conceptions. But in 
their cks^ nihu' these secular edifices exhibit the nia^^t thorough character- 
ization and present an apjK\irance which atTecls us so differently that mx 
can scaicely In^lieve tliat the secular structures of the thirteenth to the six- 
teenth century are the expression of the same popular taste that is 
oxhibitcil in the churches of the s.ime periovl; and yet this is the case. 
It but c\prcss^\^ the difference of puqx-fcsc. 

/>. u lis:: I 1/ \rks. — Casilev ciiv walls, fortress- towers and gates, do not 
e\prc» a sublime enthusiasm. They are not Inmns of praise to the Most 
High: in iiefiant solemnilv they menace the appro^iching enemy, whom 
each >iny:le j\irl is si> arrangeil ami so placcii as to rejx*l most effectually. 
Tlicic :n aInv^ in these* struoluix's — in their massive sombreness and in 
t!;c iVv;;Mvuce, in nianv puuvs, yA a varielx of mvwV — an aspect which, 
ihiv.ioh b\ no tr.cans ideal, is \cl so tascinatin*.: that untrained eves think 
\V.v* or.tr.o .iM.;ucc!ncn:, auei the ground-plan has l>ecn designed, has been 
i::v';.i;v\i c^MurlricS b\ ]^:ctuTrNi;uc capnvx\ iluu the agreeable alternation 
o: uM'^'^o an.l ojvn::;gN, ot low and loft> ixutiouN shows only a satisfac- 



German.] GOTHIC. 223 

tory artistic play of lines. This is, however, in no wise the case: the 
highest characterization is expressed in all this. In private structures also 
the spaces are regulated according to their requirements. Each window 
is placed exactly where need dictates and is of the exact size that need 
prescribes. Only when necessity is satisfied come in secondarily the 
artistic ideas of proportion and symmetry, which develop themselves, in a 
regularly axial direction, into a system of equally-balanced masses. 

Fortifications had their small openings, long or wide, through which 
the approaching enemy could be assailed with arrows or bullets, with 
stones thrown down upon him, or with boiling water, without affording 
him the opportunity to place his scaling-ladders. Even in military archi- 
tecture there is evident a development which is interesting in the highest 
degree, since the progress of the entire art of war, and the various kinds of 
assault and of defence, as well as the continued improvement of weapons, 
are mirrored in it. In the same manner the development of the dwelling- 
house expresses that of the bourgeoisie and the gradual entrance of the 
refined necessities of life into the circles of the higher classes, while the 
advance of the cities in importance is expressed by their Rathhauser 
(town-halls). If we regard the often splendidly-decorated fountains and 
the hundreds of other public monuments, we must renounce the attempt 
to follow the development of each separately. 

Xown-halls, — Industrial cities of importance were first developed in the 
Netherlands, where weaving flourished exceedingly. It was in these cities 
that those mercantile halls which were absolutely necessary to the common 
weal first-attained monumental development, and the Cloth-hall of Ypres, 
which was erected in the thirteenth centur>', with its massive tower, is 
among the most imposing secular structures of the Middle Ages. Equal 
to it is that of Bruges, which was executed in several divisions, beginning 
with the year 1284. Its tower has several times been increased in height, 
until it now rivals the highest cathedral-towers. 

Dwellings. — Treves and Ratisbon have a series of examples which 
show in what manner burghers' dwellings were constructed at the close 
of the thirteenth and at the beginning of the fourteenth century. In 
Treves particularly these have that gable-facade turned toward the street 
which shows a continuation of the Romanesque type, and which through- 
out the Middle Ages was the ruling fashion in most cities. As, in order 
to obtain the most efficient protection, it was the rule to make the walls 
of the city enclose the least possible space, the streets were necessarily 
narrow and the sites of the separate houses very small and especially 
cramped in width, while the houses were carried to a great height. 

On the ground-floor were the workshops, in which, under wide arched 
openings, as is still the case in the Orient, the master and his journeymen 
worked, while the customers transacted their business from the street, 
but, instead of workshops, the ground-floor might be the great entry-hall 
in which merchants' goods were loaded and unloaded, and from which a 
narrow staircase led to the dwelling-rooms in the upper storeys. In the 



\ 

i 



224 ARCHITECTURE. [Guiman. 

dwellings of the rich a great hall situated in the first or second storey was 
the place where the children played, where the housewife had her store- 
closets, and where the elders amused themselves with drink and games 
when the winter's cold did not force all around the stove. Toward the 
street the upper storeys had windows placed close together, so as to per- 
mit all the light possible to reach the more distant rooms. The extensive 
attic contained also a series of storevs lighted bv as manv donner- windows 
as possible. These rooms were partly used as bedrooms, but among the 
merchants served chieily for the storage of merchandise. The narrowest 
and most distant rooms were situated in one or more back-buildingb 
connected with the main structure by an open corridor on each floor. 
Nobles often had a high tower in connection with the house, partly as a 
reminiscence of the keep of the ancestral castle, indicating that the house 
was noble, and partly to afford the protection necessar\* in those unquiet 
times, Ratisbon especially retains a series of such towers. 

Si cular Structuns of the Fourteenth Century, — At the beginning of the 
fL»:irteenth century the prosperity and importance of the German cities 
had reached their climax, and monumental mercantile and town-halls 
:nultiplied. To this period belongs the oldest portion — namely, the great 
hall of the Rathhaus of Nuremberg and the Monumental Exchange of 
Mayence, erected in the reign of the emperor Lewis the Bavarian and un- 
fortunately demolished in modem times. One of the most magnificent 
palaces of the Middle Ages is that of the Teutonic Order at Marienburg. 
The part surrounding a square court and intended to be the main build- 
ing was begim in 1341. The principal part of the Rathhaus of Ratisbon 
belongs to the middle of the fourteenth centur\', and that of the Rathhaus 
of Prague to the reign of Charles IV. Charles's architect, Peter of Gmund« 
built the great bridge over the Moldau in the last-named city, and also 
the strong castle of Karlstein, which the emperor destined for the recep- 
tion of the crown-jewels of Gcnnany and Bohemia, as well as of the relics 
which he had collected in all parts of the world. He intended this castle 
to be the realization of the Schloss Montsal\*atch — not, indeed, from its 
extent, but from the costliness of the decorations, w*hich he applied chiefly 
to the three chapels, the walls of which were adorned with gilding, pre- 
cious stones, and enamels, while the colored mosaics of the windows were 
not of glass, but of transparent gems. 

In 1358, Cxsimir the Great of Poland built the Cloth-hall of Cracow, 
and also rebuilt in solid stone the royal palace, which had pre\nously been 
of wood. The town-hall at Bniges was commenced in 1377, and in 1382 
the central castle at Marienburg, which enclosed, among others, the 
dwelling of the grand master of the Teutonic Order (//. 35, yf^. 2). 
The town-hall at Miinster ( /r<;. 4^ those of Old and New Brandenbnrg, 
and p.irts of the town-ha'J.s at Liibeck, Breslau, etc., belong to the four- 
teenth centur>'. The Schone Bninuen t Beautiful Fountain^ of Nurem- 
berg was erecteii between 13S5 and 1306, and the town-hall at Brunswick 
was begun in 1393. The Schliisselfeld House at Nuremberg — which in 



{ 



German.] GOTHIC. 225 

more recent times has without any reason been called the Nassauerhaus 
(//• 35, fig, i) — comes down to us with the forms of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, though it was erected in the beginning of the fifteenth, just as is 
the case with the beautiful choir of St Sebald. The Hotel de Ville of 
Brussels was commenced in 1401, and the tower of the Town-hall of 
Cologne was built 1407-1414. 

Secular Structures of the Fiftecjtth Century, — To the beginning of the 
fifteenth century belong the beautifully-decorated parts of the Castle of 
Vajda-Hunyad, in Transylvania (//. 36, fig. 6), the towers which defend 
the bridge over the Moldau at Prague {fig. i), St. Paul's Gate at Basle 
{fig. 2), the Neustadt Gate {fig. 3), and the Town-hall of Tangerniiinde 
{pi. 34, fig. 3), also the Uenglinger Gate at Stendal (//. 36, fig. 4). The 
Giirzenich Exchange at Cologne was built 1441-1474, and the cognate 
stone house at Frankfort-on-the-Main possibly at the same date {pi. 35, 
fig. 3). That jewel of Louvain, the H6tel de Ville {fig. 5), which seems 
rather a reliquary from the hand of the goldsmith than a veritable town- 
hall, dates from 1448-1463, the stone house of Kuttenberg from about 1470, 
and that of the Castle Albrechtsburg at Meissen, in which occur later 
portions belonging to the sixteenth century, from 1471-1483. To the 
same period may probably be referred the town-halls of Basle, Ulm, and 
Ueberlingen; the Hotel de Ville of Ghent (begun in 1481), which is over- 
loaded with fanciful ornamentation, was chiefly executed in the sixteenth 
century, and has come down to us only as a fragment. The University 
of Cracow was burned in 1492, and at the close of the fifteenth century 
was rebuilt nearly in the style it now presents. The court is shown on 
Plate 34 {fig. 4). Probably the Florian Gate of this city {pi. 36, fig. 5) 
belongs to the same date. 

To the close of the fifteenth century may be referred the Gothic foun- 
tains at Ulm and Basle, and a polygonal spring-house adorned externally 
with rich decorative architecture was erected at Kuttenberg in 1497. 
The Rathhaus of Breslau, as it now stands, belongs to the close of the 
fifteenth or the beginning of the sixteenth century (//. 35, fig. 6), and the 
Town-hall of Oudenarde {fig. 7) was begun in 1527. Great is the num- 
ber of private houses which from the end of the fifteenth and the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century have come down to us in every part of 
Germany, and which present varied forms according to local customs and 
to the building-material. Nuremberg has some particularly beautiful 
examples, but the brick buildings of the North German cities of Dantzic, 
Wismar, Rostock, Liineburg, Greifswald, Hanover, etc. may be put in 
comparison with them. In very many cities both in the North and in the 
South of G-ermany by far the greater number of the dwellings, and even 
the town-halls, were still of wood — that is, they consisted of a framework 
of carpentry, the panels of which were afterward walled up. Groups of 
such structures, with their projecting upper storeys and the rich carv^ing 
of the red-painted woodwork, afford a most characteristic picture {pL 34, 
fig. i). (See Vol. n. pp. 257-261.) 

Vol. IV.— 15 



226 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

4. Frkxcii Gothic, Fiftekkth CF.xTrRY. 

Church-architccturc, — The inagiiificeiit cluirches erected in France in 
the thirteenth centurv were conchided in either the fonrteenth or the 
fifteenth, but few were absolutely finished. The inspiration of the thir- 
teenth century had passed away, and the belief that no church could be 
laid out with sufficient size and niaj^nificence — the dislike to erect a work 
which could be finished at once, lest in the near future it should be taken 
down to make way for a more splendid one — had given place to want of 
zeal which did not ixTuiit the finishing of what an earlier time had com- 
menced with the intention that subsequent ages should acquire merit by 
its completion. Still weaker was the desire to undertake magnificent new 
buildings. The old churches were now large enough and good enough. 
Whatever was executed in the ecclesiastical domain was inconsiderable, 
compared with the works of the preceding period. Characteristic forms 
had passed away, and conventional ornamentation, not hannony of form, 
had taken its place. The works of the fifteenth century may almost be 
called rococo; especially in the quality of naturalism they cannot vie with 
the (fernian works, which are almost always distinguished from the 
French by their nobler proix^rtions. 

Secular Architecture. — Hut, though French architecture during the 
fifteenth centur\' could not develop great works in the domain of church- 
building, it attained to brilliant results in that of secular stnictures. 
The fortifications of the cities had, as in Germany, to be strengthened 
after firearms had made untenable the entire system of defence previously 
used (//. 37,y?v^. 4). Citizens' houses in the increasing and multiplying 
cities — partly monumental, partly constructed in wood — palaces of the 
nobility, hotels de ville, and hospitals exercised the builders, and as ii: 
the preceding i>eriod scarcely a church corresi>onded to the original ideal, 
so was it now with the buildings serving for either public or private needs. 

Chtitenu of Poitiers, — The rebuilding of the Castle of Poitiers, which 
belonged to the counts of Poitou, was commenced in 1395. The spacious 
hall, with its gable richly decorated both inside and out, its magnificent 
fireplace at the gable-end, and its flanking angle-towers, is still prescr\'cd, 
as is also the roof, the construction of which dates from the beginning of 
the fifteenth century. Dating also from the same time, there stands by its 
side a structure capped with machicolations, but on its side adorned with 
rich architectural decorations, which offer serious obstacles to the use of 
the warlike portions; so that the latter are to be viewed rather as rem- 
iniscences. 

The Kastille at Paris, destroyed during the Revolution, was also a 
castle with round angle-towers, battlements, and machicolations. The 
Xesle Tower at Paris (/f^^. 5)* which was long ago swept away, ser\'ed 
also for military purposes. The hospital at Beaune, in Burgtmdy, was 
built in 1343, and about the middle of the centur\- the beautiful light- 
house at La Rochelle and the belfrv at Evreux. The Hdtel de Ville 



Spanish.] GOTHIC. 227 

-of St. Quentin belongs to the fifteenth century. A richly-magnificent 
design of the same century is the house of Jacques Coeur, at Bourges. 
An extremely picturesque group of buildings surrounds a trapezium- 
shaped court, and has come down to our day almost uninjured; the 
entrance is shown in Figure 2 (//. 37). A portion of the Abbey of 
Cluny at Paris is still preserved, and contains a museum of mediaeval 
art- treasures {Jig, 3.) The Palais de Justice at Rouen {Jig, i) has a deco- 
rative exterior. The H6tel de la Tremouille, at Paris, which was de- 
stroyed in the present century, was a splendid structure built. by Louis 
de la Tremouille about 1490; of its rich decoration some idea is given 
by the window shown in Figure 7. 

Citizens' residences of wood, such as exist in Germany, also remain 
in France in considerable abundance. Quite a number constructed at 
the close of the fifteenth century were destroyed in Paris a few years 
since. Many still exist at Rouen, and among them the Abbot's House 
of St. Amand is distinguished by its extraordinary wealth of carvings. 
Houses of this kind exist also in Rheims and other cities. At St. 
Antonin, in Tarn-et-Garonne, two fireplaces of the fifteenth century are 
still preserved. 

Two highly-original structures are the great pigeon-houses at Cre- 
teuil and Nesle; but we should not leave unmentioned the palace of the 
grand duke of Lorraine at Nancy, Chateau Meillant, near St. Amand, 
built about 1500, or the contemporary Chdteau Josselin, in Brittany, a 
window of which is shown in Figure 6. Louis XH. built the charming 
Chambre des Comptes at the Palais Royal at Paris, the elegant-roofed open 
staircase of which was greatly admired. The Chateaux of Creil and 
Chantilly belong to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Chdteaux 
of Verger, in Anjou, and Bur>', near Blois, as well as the H6tel Bourg- 
therould, at Rouen, conduct us already into the Renaissance. 

5. Spanish Gothic. 

The Iberian peninsula, which borrowed the Romanesque style will- 
ingly from France, afterward took with equal alacrity the Gothic also 
from its neighbor. Burgos Cathedral, commenced in 1221, has a choir 
laid out in the French manner with an aisle and five chapels. The Ca- 
thedral of Toledo, commenced in 1227, ^^ ^ve aisles, with a double aisle 
around the choir, as in the Cathedral of Paris. The upper part of the 
structure, with its triforium, resembles internally the French cathedrals, 
though mixed in some places with reminiscences of the Moorish style. 
The Cistercian Church of Las Huelgas, near Burgos, erected in the forms 
of the thirteenth century, has a polygonally-terminated choir with four 
small side-choirs, also ending polygonally.* 

The conventual church at Batalha, also of the thirteenth century, has 
a similar plan; to a three-aisled nave are attached a one-aisled transept 
and five parallel choirs with polygonal ends, the central one rather wider 

* Part of this building has Romanesque details and is evidently older. — Ed. 



228 ARCHITECTURE. [SrAsisH. 

than the side ones. The Cathedral of Leon, begun in 1250, has a three- 
ai>ied nave and a choir ending in the French chevet. The sleudcmess of 
the architectural system was such that stability was sacrificed, and soon 
after its construction a part of the o[x;nings had to be walled up; so that 
it has recently been found necessary to take down and rebuild a large 
portion of the edifice. The Cathedral of Aviia is Gothic with a Roman- 
esque arrangement, and that of Valencia, begun in 1262, has two chapels 
attached to each side of the polygonal aisle around the apse. The prin- 
cipal part of the Cathedral of Avila was executed in the beginning of the 
fourteenth century. 

Rarccloua Caihcdral^ begun in 1298, for the most part built in the first 
half of the fourteenth century, but with parts reaching into the fifteenth, 
has in many resj)ects emancipated itself from the French system. The 
details, indeed, are completely based upon it, but it has, as is the case in 
Italy, widely-spaced and proi>ortionally slender piers, and side-aisles car- 
ried up so high that only small openings remain to admit light into the 
middle aisle. Hach bay of the nave on both sides has two polygonal 
chapels between the buttresses. 

Tlie choir of tlie Cathedral of Gerona, commenced in 1312 and com- 
pleted in 1346, has an apsidal aisle and nine chapels, and the collegiate 
Church of Manresa, commenced in 1328, has seven square chapels around 
the apsidal aisle. Santa Maria del Mar (1328-1383) at Barcelona has a 
middle aisle roofed with four square vaults of about 12 metres (40 
feet) span, and Sta. Maria del Pino and St. Just y Pastor of the same city 
have only one aisle, with a vault of even wider span. The middle aisle 
of the Cathedral of Palma in Majorca is nearly 20 metres (65 feet) wide, 
and consists of eight bays, to each of which, on either side, is attached 
a polygonal chapel. These chai^els are somewhat larger than the polyg- 
onal choirs which close the side-aisles toward the east, while a princi|Md 
choir of entirely German plan tenninates the middle aisle and has at its 
eastern polygonal end a small polygonally-terminated chapel of several 
bays. The single transept of Valencia Cathe<lral dates from 1350, the 
Church of St. Giles at Burgos is of the fourteenth centur>', and the bell- 
tower of Valencia Cathedral was built 1381-1418. The cathedral at 
Oviedo was commenced in 1388. 

Seville Cathedral, commenced in 1403, has five aisles and a series of 
chapels also on each side; the middle aisle is but slightly higher than the 
side-aisles. Tlie cathedral at Pamplona, commenced in 1397, has a French 
arrangement of the choir and is chieflv a work of the fifteenth centnrw 
St. Pablo at Burgos was built 1415-1435, and in 1416 the nave of the 
Cathedral of (lerona was adiled to the choir. This nave consists of a 
single ai<le with a widesprending vault as wide as the three aisles of the 
choir adjoining it, and is sjxmned by four fine groined vaults, to each side 
of which two iK>lygonal chapels are attached. TJie fa9ade of the cathe- 
dral at Toledo dates from 1418-1479; in 144 1 the Cathedral of Astoria, 
which has three simple parallel choirs and two western towers, was com- 



i 



m 

Italian.] GOTHIC. 229 

menced; the towers of Burgos Cathedral were erected between 1442 and 
1456;* the vaulting of the Barcelona Cathedral was finished in 1448; the 
Church of El Paral at Segovia was begun in 1459 ; the splendid octangular 
chapel at the head of the choir of Burgos Cathedral dates from 1487; San 
Juan de los Reyes at Toledo was begun in 1476; the Cartusa at Miraflores 
was finished in 1488, and in 1499, San Benito at Valladolid, which has 
radiating groining, was commenced. The Cathedral of Huesca belongs 
to thei fifteenth century; that of Salamanca was erected between 1510 and 
1560, and that of Segovia was begun in 1522. The Mausoleum of King 
Manuel, attached to the conventual church of Batalha, follows the type 
of the circular churches and is decorated in a fantastic manner. The 
equally fanciful conventual church at Belem belongs also to the sixteenth 
century. The cupola and the transept of Burgos Cathedral were executed 
previous to 1567. 

Seadar Buildings. — The evolution of the Spanish secular edifices of 
this period is most interesting. Arabian survivals and borrowed Northern 
forms compose the designs for dwelling-houses and palaces intended for 
Southern habits, and the serious is in them mingled with the gay in the 
most agreeable manner, while structures erected for military purposes 
were made less severe by an abundance of decorations. We may mention 
the Puerta de Serranos at Valencia (1349); the Casa Consistorial at Barce- 
lona (1369-1378), which has a great hall; the Casa de la Disputacion, and 
the Audiencia, with arcades of several storeys and a great open staircase 
in the court (//. 39, Jig. 6), as well as the Puerta del Cuarte at Valencia 
(1444) and the Casa Lonja, which was begun in 1482. 

6. Italian Gothic. 

Course of Development. — The circumstances under which Architecture 
developed in Italy from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century were 
entirely different from those of Northern Europe (and even of Spain, 
where Northern influences predominated), and Northern Gothic found 
little acceptance in Italy. That Architecture here had different tasks to 
perform was due both to circumstances and to the course of Italian cul- 
ture, which more than in the North induced a predominant consideration 
of that which is agreeable to the eye. The people, because of their greater 
sensibility, superior culture, and critical taste, found their aesthetic ideal 
in a direction different from that in which it was sought by the North. 
The striving after spaciousness, the penchant — based upon nature — for 
magnificent arrangements of lines, found no pleasure in the severity of an 
Architecture based upon construction, nor in the slender lines evolved by 
the school-system of the later Gothic, suitable for the meagre light of the 
Northern heavens. Still less could Italian eves tolerate the mad freaks of 
the Gothic of the fifteenth centur>^ There were, indeed, desultorj" 
attempts made at various times to introduce the Northern style into Italy, 

* These towers, of open tracery like Freiburg, are attributed to a German, Juan or Johan of 
Cologne. — Ed. 



230 ARCHITECTURE. [Italian. 

but the edifices which resulted from these attempts did not lead to the for- 
mation of schools through which these traditions could be continued. On 
the contrary, a peculiar Italian school was formed which scarcely had 
more in common with the Northern school than the frequently-recurring 
pointed arch and the reminders of the gables and canopies; which school, 
however, even in these modifications, was by no means able to repress the 
influence of the older local schools. 

Church-architecture, — As the basis of the system of church-architec- 
ture we find a dome around which choir and transepts are variously com- 
bined, while toward the west a three-aisled nave is added, to which some- 
times a series of quadrangular chapels is attached on either side. The 
middle aisle is usually only slightly higher than the side-aisles, so that the 
vaulting is lighted only by small round windows. The piers are slender 
and widely spaced. What the German system of church-construction 
attempted with the Hallcnkirche arrangement is here put in practice in 
a much higher degree. Buttresses have but little importance; flying-but- 
tresses are nearly unknown. 

The full Italian daylight must be admitted only by a few small win- 
dows if that mystical impression which is identical with the conception 
of a Christian church was to be produced. To this end the wall-surfaces 
assumed greater importance; so that in the interior the universal adorn- 
ment of wall-painting, which had taken the place of the older mosaic, 
might find unlimited application, while upon the outside the varied colors 
of costly materials enlivened the surfaces. Above the facade, whenever 
the system was carried out in its entirety, three immense gables rose in 
front of the flat roofs behind them — a decorative screen placed before the 
facade. The union of the tower with the church is discarded and a simple 
square bell-tower or campanile is erected near the church as an entirely 
separate stnicture, or at the most is inserted in an angle contrary to the 
plan. The magnificent arrangement of the French choir with its wreath 
of chapels found even less acceptance in Italy than in England or 
Gennany. Where there were not three equal cross-arms spreading out- 
ward from the cupola the simple apse remained in force. 

Transitional Style, — We left the development of Italian architecture 
upon the confines of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and showed 
what were the differences and what the resemblances between it and the 
German Romanesque (p. 163 sq.). A transition style was developed partly 
under direct French influence — partly, perhaps, even under that of Ger- 
many as long as the emperor exercised political power in Italy. In this 
style the distinguishing qualities of the Italian architecture were not 
entirely ignored. 

The nave of the Cathedral of Parma belongs to this transitional style. 
Here the original double-bayed arrangement of the vaults was abandoned; 
so that each double bay is covered with two equal oblong groined vaults. 
The Cathedral at Piacenza also, commenced in 11 22, waschiefly executed 
in the thirteenth century, and finished in 1233. The middle aisle of the 




i 



\ 



iTAUAN.] GOTHIC. 231 

nave is covered with hexapartite vaulting, and has thus the character of a 
Northern church of the transitional period. The Cathedral of Trent, 
commenced in 12 12, is even by its site distinguished as midway between 
Italian and German architecture, A still greater proportion of Gothic 
elements appears in the frequently-altered Cathedral of Asti, in the 
Church of Santa Maria di Costello at Alessandria, and in San Andrea at 
Vercelli, begun in 12 19. San Francesco at Assisi was commenced in 1228 
by Jacob, a German master; it was consecrated in 1253, ^^^ must be con- 
sidered as Gothic, yet with the wall-surfaces conspicuously prominent. 
Here there are two churches, one over the other, the lower round-arched, 
while the upper has one aisle with wide-springing groining carried on 
clustered pillars. Notwithstanding its disproportionate lowness, it pro- 
duces an impression of space and freedom. The outer wall is set back a 
little below the springing of the vaulting; so that the broad wall-ribs of 
the groining enclose deep niches which are united to one another by 
apertures in the piers. 

San Antonio of Padua almost entirely renounces all Gothic motifs. 
This church was laid out in the fourth decade of the century, and about 
1256 the works were first earnestly prosecuted. The relics of the saint 
were brought to the church in 1263, and in 1307 the structure was com- 
pleted by Fra Jacopo of Pola. It was restored in the fifteenth centur>', 
after it had been seriously damaged by lightning in 1394. The cupola 
over the choir was erected in 1424. St. Mark's at Venice doubtless fur- 
nished the idea of the plan, since the church has six cupolas arranged so 
as to form a cross, two of them composing the nave, in which position St. 
Mark's has but one. Throughout the whole church the round arch pre- 
dominates over the pointed. The entire construction, leaving free devel- 
opment to the side-aisles, as in St. Mark's, is Romanesque, yet of the 
greatest simplicity; so that the ensemble is nowhere influenced by the 
detail. The choir with its chevet of nine square chapels shows a later 
foreign ingredient, but is French only in the arrangement, not in the 
details. Sta. Trinity at Florence, built about 1250, has five aisles, and 
may be considered as a Gothic edifice. 

Siena Cathedral^ begun in the middle of the thirteenth century, has a 
nave with round arches and semicircular vaulting. The interior architec- 
ture is in a sense Northern, yet the effect, through the employment of 
alternate courses of light and dark marble, is essentially different. The 
cupola was completed in 1264. The splendid facade was commenced by 
Giovanni Pisano in 1284, and has three large and richly-decorated gables 
separated by pinnacles and placed above three round-arched portals sur- 
mounted by gables. The central gable, above a rose-window opening 
into the nave, rises above the side-gables. In 131 7 the choir was enlarged 
toward the east in a manner corresponding to the nave. 

Sta. Maria dei Frari at Venice was begun about 1250, but was com- 
pleted in the next century. The construction of Arezzo Cathedral was 
commenced in 1277, and Giovanni Pisano built the famous Campo Santo 



232 ARCHITECTURE, [Italian. 

at Pisa between 1278 and 1283; he also directed the enlargement of the 
cathedral at Prato. 

Witii the rule of Charles of Anjon in Southern Italy, in the seventh dec- 
ade of the thirteenth centur\*, the Northern Gothic style was finnly estab- 
lislied by French architects, and thus the Grotto-church of S. Angelo on 
Mount Gargano, the Cistercian church at Casamara, and Sta. Maria 
d'Arlx)na are Gothic. The cathedrals of Acerenza and Aversa have the 
French chevet, as have also the convents of Sta- Triniti at Vinosa and 
S. Ivorenzo Maggiore at Naples. The cathedral of the latter city is un- 
vaulted. 

The Dominican Church of Sta. Maria Novella at Florence was begun 
in 1278, and Sta. Anastasiaat Verona in 1290. The latter has slender 
round pillars and a transept with five apses, the central and largest corre- 
sponding to the middle aisle. The Cathedral of Orvieto, the middle aisle 
of which is unvaulted, was begun in 1290; its fa(;ade (//. 38,7?^. 5) may 
be considered as the purest expression of Italian Gothic. The magnificent 
Franciscan Church of Sta. Croce at Florence, commenced in 1294 by 
Arnolfo di Cambio, is also unvaulted. 

Florence Cathedra!, — Arnolfo di Cambio commenced in 1294 the 
cathedral at Florence, by the erection of which the republic intended not 
only to honor God and the Blessed Virgin, but also to leave to posterity 
a monument of its might and magnificence; the architect was therefore 
directed to surpass ever>'thing that Architecture had hitherto accomplished. 
The ground-plan (Jig> 3) shows the arrangement chosen by him. The 
magnificent decoration of exterior and interior has made out of the 
grandly-conceived design a veritable work of ornament After the death 
of Arnolfo, in the beginning of the fourteenth centurj', Giotto undertook 
the superintendence, and in 1332 began the facade, which was never 
finished, and the part which he had erected was afterward demolished. 

Lucca Cathedral was begun in 1308 — not, indeed, with the great 
dimensions of that at Florence, but it shows the development from 
Romanesque to the architectural forms of the first half of the fourteenth 
century. In 1334, Ciiotto constructed the campanile near the Duomo of 
Florence {Jig- 4). Between 1336 and 1340 the grain-market {Mercato 
de' Graft i) at Florence, built in 1308, was converted into the Church Or 
San Michele, which alteration was completed by the erection of the mag- 
nificent altar, the work of Orcagna, shown in Figure 6. The baptister}* 
at Pistoja (S. Giovanni Battista) was erected by Cellino di Nese in 1339, 
and in 1340 Niccol6 di Cecco built the campanile of the cathedral at Prato. 
To the second half of the fourteenth and to the fifteenth centur\' belongs 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. 

The Duomo at Milan was founded by Gian Galeazzo \'isconti in 1386, 
and was under the direction of several foreign architects, especially of 
Heinrich von Gmiind, who began it in 13S6, and of Johann von Gratz, 
who continued it at a later date. The nave has five aisles, the transept 
three, the choir three with an aisle around the apse and chapels of two 






Italian.] GOTHIC. 233 

bays each outside the outermost aisle. The ground-plan {pi. 38, fig. i) 
brings to mind Northern edifices rather than Italian ones, yet the great 
dimensions and the want of a tower betray the nationality. The super- 
structure has, indeed, its traceried windows; the pinnacles, the pen- 
dants, and the Northern ground-plan cannot be denied; yet the but- 
tresses have not the importance they assume in the North, and the slight 
pitch of the roof, the trifling difference between the height of the central 
and that of the side aisle, and lastly the details, which are often bizarre 
and always mistakenly applied, prove that the influence of the German 
masters did not penetrate deeply. 

Notwithstanding the caricaturing of the Northern system and the verg- 
ing upon barbaric misunderstanding of the details, this building produces 
a more than picturesquely beautiful impression through its noble material, 
its careful workmanship, its vast dimensions, its good proportions, and the 
richness and elegance of its parts. Aside from the things which have no 
influence on the arrangement as a whole, nobility and a fine artistic sense 
are so imprinted upon the grouping of the structure that it is not without 
admiration that one for the first time sees these pure white masses with 
their beautifully-varying shadows rise against the deep-blue Italian sky 

{fig^ 2). 

S. Petronio at Bologna, — One of the most grandly-conceived churches 
of Italy, though one which is not entirely finished, is S. Petronio at 
Bologna, begun in 1390 by Antonio of Vicenza. This has a magnificent 
octangular cupola surrounded by four massive three-aisled halls, each 
with an elevated middle aisle. A row of chapels is added on each side, and 
the vaulting is so arranged that that of the middle aisle is square, while 
that of the side-aisles is oblong and pf half the span. Each bay of the 
side-aisles has two chapels lower than the side-aisles, to the upper part of 
which light is admitted by a small round window above the chapels, while 
a similar round window lights the middle aisle. 

Cerlosa di Pazna. — The saine Gian Galeazzo Visconti that founded the 
Cathedral of Milan founded in 1396 the magnificent Certosa at Pavia, 
which was finished in the course of the fifteenth century. The round 
arch was again introduced, and to a great extent recalls the later Roman- 
esque structures of the North, but the arrangement of the spaces follows 
the system of S. Petronio at Bologna; the middle aisle has but little 
advantage in height over the side-aisles, and rows of lower chapels adjoin 
the latter. The late Romanesque of the North is recalled chiefly by the 
clustered pillars and the hexapartite vaulting of the middle aisle. The 
exterior has Romanesque galleries. 

Como Cathedral was also commenced in 1396. Continued in the fif- 
teenth century, this edifice passes into the Renaissance. Sta. Maria del 
Carmine at Piacenza follows a system similar to that of the Certosa at 
Pavia, while the nave of Sta. Maria delle Grazie at Milan has not such 
widely-spaced pillars; so that the vaulting of the side-aisles is nearly 
square, and only one square chapel corresponds to a single bay. 



2J4 ARCHITECTURE. [Italian. 

Gothic in Sicily. — Moorish reminiscences predominated in Sicily during 
:he Gothic period, as in the Cathedral of Palermo, which during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries received various additions. Sta. Maria 
de^li Angeli at Palermo, begun in 1430, has the semicircular arch 
throughout In general, the Gothic style lasted longer in Sicily than in 
the rest of Italy, since it continued into the sixteenth centur>\ 

Decorative Works of Art. — The great churches of Italy are filled with 
decorative works of all kinds — altars, pulpits, tombs, credences, and 
stalls — which exhibit the decorative style of Italian architecture still 
more charmingly than it is evidenced by the large edifices. The pulpits 
of Pisa (1260), Siena (1266), and Pistoja (1301) bear yet a Romanesque 
character. The tomb of Pope Benedict XL, at Perugia, has the pointed 
arch; others exhibit the round arch. We have already spoken (p. 232) of 
the altar of Or San Xlichele (//. 38, yf^. 6). The tombs of the Scaligers 
at Verona, which fonn a group in an open square, have a most fanciful 
effect. The richest of this group, a hexagonal edifice, is shown in 
Figure 7. 

Secular Buildings. — The Italian cities have a great number of secular 
buildings which testify to the might and importance of these republics as 
well as to the wealth and fine taste of their inhabitants, and also, espe- 
cially in early times, to their defiant character and to the wars between 
the cities. Until the thirteenth centurj' every house was a strong castle 
calculated for defence against a threatened assault; at the close of the 
thirteenth and in the fourteenth centur\' battlements ever>'where remain 
as reminders; and whenever colonnades and rows of windows open out- 
wardly, the battlements of the edifice assume a castellated character. 

Palaces and Castles. — Among the oldest secular Gothic structures are 
the Palazzo Pubblico at Cremona, commenced in 1245, ^^^ ^'^^ Palazzo 
Guinigi at Lucca. Perugia has a decoratively adorned fountain of 1280 
and a Palazzo Comunale begun in 1281. The Palazzo Comunale at 
Piacenza (//. 39, /k^. 2) was also commenced in 1281; the Palazzo dei 
Giureconsulti, at Cremona, in 1292; the Broletto at Monza in 1293; ^^ 
probably about the same date the Broletto at Como and the palace of the 
podestA at Orvieto; while the Palazzo Comunale of Pistoja was begun in 
1295. Arnolfo, the architect of the Duomo, commenced the Palazzo Vec- 
chio at Florence in 1298, and proved himself a master in secular as well 
as in ecclesiastical art, producing a work the defiant severity of which, 
as well as the boldness of the construction, is at once imposing and 
surprising {Jig. i). The Palazzo Pubblico at Siena and the Palazzo 
Buonsignori {fig. 3) show a related style. Some fountain-porticoes at 
Siena have also great interest. The construction of the Loggia dei Osii 
at Milan was begun in 1316. 

The castle of the Visconti at Pavia belongs to the beginning of the 
fourteenth centur\-, as do also that at Mantua and that of the Scaligers at 
Verona; the Palazzo della Ragione at Ferrara was built in 1326. The 
Palazzo della Ragione at Padua is remarkable for the vast size of its tun- 




ITAUAN.] GOTHIC. 235 

nel-vaulted halls, yet, notwithstanding its Romanesque features, it is a 
work of this period. The Broletto at Bergamo and the Loggia dei Mer- 
canti at Bologna bear the character of the fourteenth century. 

Public Buildings, — The Town-hall of Gubbio dates from 1 342-1 346; in 
1345, Agnolo Gaddi commenced the erection of the Bargello, the palace 
of the podestd, at Florence; Orcagna began the Loggia dei Lanzi at 
Florence in 1376; an imitation of it at Siena called the Loggia degli 
Uffidali dates from 141 7. The Ospedale Maggiore, at Milan, begun in 
1456, exhibits in the rich decoration even of its oldest parts many resem- 
blances to Renaissance motives, as is also the case with the Albergo del 
Orso at Rome. 

Venetian Palaces, — An entirely peculiar and fancifully Oriental grace- 
fulness is exhibited by the palazzi of Venice. Here no reminiscences of 
fortress-construction had to be overcome. The republic had no parties, 
nor did it tolerate the opposition of individuals within it. All the citizens 
were compelled to live in peace and obedience to the government, every 
house must be always open, and the government must know what might 
be seen and done in each. On the absolute power of the government 
depended the greatness of the state and the riches and fortunate con- 
ditions of the individuals the splendor of whose surroundings and the 
frankness of whose lives are displayed in the architecture of Venice. 
Open halls and loggias in the various storeys mirror themselves in the 
canals — even in the earlier period this system had developed, though with 
greater simplicity and massiveness — and now it unfolded itself with a 
splendor which was possible only under the force of the continuous 
impressions brought about by uninterrupted relations with the Orient and 
its fantastic magnificence. 

The Palazzo Ducale, — The Doge's Palace, the arcades of which, in 
two superimposed storeys, belong to the fourteenth century, is the grand- 
est work in this direction. These arcades extend along the west and 
south sides of the palace, and are composed of a series of richly-decorated 
columns (thirty-six below and seventy-one above) with pointed vaulting. 
A later addition is the massive wall borne above the arcades. This 
portion is enlivened by patterns in marbles of various colors, yet it 
severely burdens the slender columns below (//. 39, Jig, 5). Other pal- 
aces, most of them of the fifteenth century, are the Giovannelli {Jig. 4), 
Foscari, Pisani, C^ d'Oro, etc. Similar buildings were also erected in the 
portions of the coast subject to the Republic. 

Fountains, — Peculiar interest attaches to the fountains of Venice — 
wells in w^hich the rain-water was collected. While in the previous 
period these had almost the character of a font (Jig, 8), in this they have 
that of the capital of a column, and here and tliere may be seen such 
capitals altered for the purpose, while certain others {Jigs, 9 10), were 
I made in this fonn; these, in connection with the capitals {Jigs. 7, 11, 12), 

\ oflFer speaking examples of the methods of ornamentation displayed by 

the late Italian Gothic. 




236 ARCHITECTURE. [Itauan. 

VI. RENAISSANX^E ARCHITFXTURE. 

I. Italian Renaissance. 

When French Gothic had reached its highest development; when 
Gennany no longer borrowed, altered, and worked single elements into 
her native art, but adopted the foreign forms in their entirety and treated 
them as necessity required, — then the outward form ceased to be regarded 
as an essential practical result of the impulse and sway of the inward 
forces, and was considered as entirely independent, as modelled purely 
after an outward foreign ideal. It was not only in the domain of Archi- 
tecture that this was the case: it was also evident in all departments of 
life. The empire had lost its importance, and had become a form for 
which the outward scheme alone was definitely established: feudalism had 
lost its significance: it was no longer based on unlimited fealty and devo- 
tion the recompense for which was the possession of a fief, but the vassals 
considered their fiefs as a property loaded with burdens. They longed for 
the diminution of these burdens, and in an order of things arranged 
according to the most precise fonnulas regarded the outward forms alone, 
since all things must have their forms. 

Chivalry and the chivalric spirit, which once permeated all conditions 
of life and ever)* where moulded those conditions as the inward impulse 
gave them shape, had itself become a mere formalism which had estab- 
lished a conventional scheme and developed it to an artistic height — 
wliich retained all imaginable excrescences, but which had nothing in 
common with the original spirit. Since all that appeared outwardly 
had thus become mere form and was only respected and retained power as 
such, it necessarily depended upon the will of the influential classes to 
choose what fonns should be established, what thev should allow to be 
considered an authoritv. 

m 

The expression that the fonn was no longer the result of the inwardly- 
impelling forces must not be misunderstood. How the phrase should be 
taken is shown by the history of development before given, and by the 
reflections connected therewith (p. 194). It was no longer the inward- 
working physical forces that detennined the form, but abstract considera- 
tions lying in popular ideas, which under the guidance of the sense of 
outward beauty gave an ideal differing from that which was the outcome 
of construction and of the display of the forces at work in construction. 
This direct influence of popular ideas upon the development of forms had 
firmly woven each Gothic fonn-system into a scholastic harmony, and 
had, as the influence of the popular spirit proceeded no longer from indi- 
vidual classes, but from all grades, directly wrought out that mannerism 
— in a sense, realistic — which gave to the later Gennan Gothic so entirely 
the character of the Gennan bourgeoisie^ and to the English that of the 
English people. 

As in Italv the wav had been led toward the search for a form-svstem 
which should correspond with popular taste, the general environment 




Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 237 

there was of a nature to lead the thought in the direction of the antique 
classical period. In Italy mankind lived among the works of a grand 
past, and in their contemplation imbibed that freedom of ideas which was 
sought by the popular spirit, but which was not founded upon a sentiment 
of the purest intimacy with and deepest piety toward the traditions and 
decrees of the Church, as was the case in the North, and especially in 
Germany. In all directions Italy had made the spirit of classical 
antiquity its own. As far as was possible under the circumstances the 
philosophers, poets, and prose-writers of the olde* time formed the read- 
ing and ruled the productions of the literature both in spirit and in form. 
The Italians had the opportunity, when the creations of their writers 
were not consonant with the buildings of antiquity, to examine the 
numerous extant antique edifices still more or less intact. The equals of 
these structures had been destroyed in the earlier centuries, because by 
this means only could convenient columns and other adaptable portions 
of buildings be procured for the construction of new edifices, and thus 
the practice of Architecture had remained in steadfast relationship to 
the antique. 

That which in Germany and the rest of the North led to the vagaries 
of Late Gothic led in Italy to the conscious re-adoption of antique forms, 
since the Italian people readily took up the antique spirit. Not, indeed, 
the entire people, for a culture which depends upon elements that can be 
transmitted only through knowledge can never reach the entire people 
directly; as soon as learning attains to actual importance in the culture- 
life of a people, that people no longer stand on a common level of culture, 
and the feelings and tastes which are active in the circle into which learn- 
ing penetrates are not identical with those which are active in the circle 
from which it is absent. 

Inception of the Neiu Style, — It may have been hard to point out in the 
chain of French architectural development the first link that can be 
called *' Gothic," while its predecessor must be styled '* Romanesque ; " 
but it is as impossible to designate the first '* Renaissance" structure in 
Italian architectural development. Survivals of the antique had always 
remained in Italian architecture, brought about by the employment of 
antique fragments and by the direct impressiveness of the grand art- 
monuments that still remained. We can therefore only say that at the 
commencement of the fifteenth century the eye turned in a most compre- 
hensive manner to the remains of the antique. 

Works of Briinelleschi: Florence Cathedral, — The Florentine Filippo 
Brunelleschi has been designated the founder of the new style, since he 
first systematically labored to understand the Roman structures and con- 
sciously applied his studies. The cathedral at Florence had remained 
uncompleted until 1420, when Brunelleschi was entrusted with the execu- 
tion of the dome according to a new design by which he proved himself a 
skilful constructor, even though the groundwork of the new style does 
not appear very distinctly in this part of his work. Brunelleschi had to 




2;S ARCHITECTURE. [Italian. 

adapt his project to the existing part of the work, and this he did in such 
a manner that the cnpola towers in harmonious proportions out of the 
cross (//. 41, fij^, ij; but tlie decoration of the exterior, and also the 
lantern, were after his death completed by Giuliano da Majano in 1461. 
Apart from the technical idea of the construction — which, in fact, is ex- 
tremely ingenious — it was only the artistic idea of Brunelleschi to allow 
the vaulted form of the dome to appear externally, thus going back to 
such ancient models as the Pantheon and Sta. Sophia, that could have dis- 
tinguished his project from the unknown projects of Arnolfo and Giotto. 

The Do))t(\ — Orcagna had already made use of the dome in the altar 
of Or vSan Michele; and in the wall-paintings and miniatures of the Mid- 
dle Ages, even in the North, the display of cui^la-shaped roofs is not 
infrequent and baldachins of stone had brought this form into application. 
St. Mark's at Venice, S. Antonio at Padua, the baptister}' at Pisa (the 
upper part of which is adorned with Gothic ornament), the cupola of 
Siena Cathedral, etc., show that this idea was not absent from the medi- 
aeval architecture of Italy — that probably Arnolfo had already prepared 
something similar, but that when the time for execution came BnmcIIeschi 
was a man who technically as well as artistically could put it into practice. 
In 1425, Hrunelleschi built vS. Lorenzo at Florence, a columned basilica 
with groined side-aisles and niche-like chajx?ls. Here a decoration in 
anii(iue fashion, with pilasters and cornices, is employed, and the antique 
fragment of an entablature is again set uix)n the columns; a cupola rises 
over the intersection and the choir has a square end. S. Spirito is built 
similarly after Brunelleschi's plans; here the side-aisles with their rows 
of chajK-ls are continued around the transept and .square-ended choir. The 
small Capj)ellade' Pazzi, in the Convent of Sta. Croce — a Greek cross with 
barrelled vaults and a cupola, the walls adorned with Corinthian pilasters 
— goes still farther back toward an antique model (SS. Nazario e Celso 
at Ravenna). 

The Abbey of Fiesolc, which Cosimode' Medici commissioned Bninelles- 
chi to build, has the same arrangement in its church. The open loggia 
in the i)leasant court, the refectory, etc., form a picture which presents 
the greatest possible contrast to the Gennan conventual stnictures of the 
same date, but bears a close resemblance to those of Italy, though it 
allows the conscious borrowing from antique elements to be more con- 
spicuous than ihey are in allied structures of the same date; yet it does 
not fully corresix)nd in its entire design to the antique spirit, nor do its 
ornate details aspire to the grand solemnity of the antique. 

It is the pleasure-loving Italian of the fifteenth century, not the proud, 
world-ruling Roman, that we now encounter. There is of the ecclesi- 
astical spirit only so much as is necessary to satisfx- ecclesiastical demands 
and to give the i)retext for a building which must be used as a place of 
devotion; all besides breathes of free, joyous life and worldly pleasure. 
The portico of the foundling hospital near the Annunziata at Florence is a 
work of the same master; here the arches rise from stout Corinthian col- 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 239 

limns without an entablature, while the spandrels are adorned with medal- 
lions containing figures of infants. An upper storey has small windows 
surmounted by gablets. 

Palazzo Piiti, — The magnificent Palazzo Pitti, erected by Brunelleschi, 
has the severe castellated character of the mediaeval Italian palaces, with- 
out any reminiscences of military art. It has attained this result through 
the severity of its proportions — its great wall-masses and their treatment 
with bosses of unhewn stone. During the Middle Ages many works 
whose severe significance excluded decoration — or, at least, made it super- 
fluous — had their masonry carefully worked upon the angles only, wliile 
the surfaces were left as they came from the quarr>', or, at most, were 
superficially dressed, by which means the severity of aspect was consider- 
ably increased. Brunelleschi, wishi^ng to profit by this impression, by 
regular workmanship fonned this mode of treatment into an artistic sys- 
tem. Thus the Pitti Palace rises almost without adornment; the ground- 
floor has, besides the grand portals, only small rectangular windows, placed 
high up, while the two upper storeys have windows 3^ metres (11 feet) 
in width and 6 metres (20 feet) in height. Subsequently two lower side- 
wings were built; the court was added by Bartolommeo Ammanati almost 
one hundred years later. 

Palazzo Quaratesu — In the Palazzo Quaratesi, Brunelleschi has di- 
vided his arched windows by a central column and two small arches, 
and has adorned the spandrel under the great arch with medallions; he 
has thus shown that he did not disdain mediaeval motifs when they 
seemed appropriate to produce the designed artistic impression. How- 
ever great a technician he may have been, he yet aimed at outward effect 
in his structures; but the constructive element asserts itself more exter- 
nally than in the Gothic decorative structures of Italy, and the adoption 
of antique decorative forms contributed not unessentially to this end, 
since they, as he employed them, enlivened the masses, but were 
nowhere so prominent as to dominate the character of the building. 
He also knew how in the most delicate manner to dispose the dimen- 
sions and proportions of the decorations to the entire edifice, to moderate 
the heaviness prevalent in the period of the Roman Empire, and partic- 
ularly to give delicacy and refinement to the ornament. 

Brunelleschi School of Architecture, — Brunelleschi formed in Flor- 
ence a school to which we are indebted for a number of palaces, porticos, 
cloisters, and chapels. A chief characteristic of this school is the treat- 
ment of the Corinthian capitals, which are adorned with dolphins above 
the acanthus-leaves in place of the volutes, the rolled-up tails supporting the 
angles of the abacus. Other masters took up and disseminated the new 
style; thus, in 1443, the Milanese Pietro di Martino employed it in the 
construction of the triumphal Arch of King Alfonso at Naples. 

Works of Alberti. — After Brunelleschi* s death the next worker in his 
style at Florence was Leon Battista Alberti. He restored the Gothic inte- 
rior of S. Francesco at Rimini in 1447-1450, rebuilt the end of the choir 



\ 



240 ARCHITECTURE, [Italian. 

of Sla. Annnii/iata at Fk»rciice in 1451, and in 1460 erected the Palazzo 
Rucxllai, haviui^ three storeys decorated with pilasters, between which 
tlicre are rusticated wall-surfaces, while the arched windows of the two 
upiH-T storeys are divided by columns with remains of Gothic tracer}* 
above them. 

The InjIiuUiC of the Florentine School extended beyond the walls of 
the city and filled all Tuscany. In 1460, Francesco di Giorgio began at 
Siena the TaKizzo !*icco!omini, one of the most splendid to be found in 
Tuscany, that land so rich in palaces; the Piccolomini is nearly allied to 
the newer Palazzo Slrozzi at Florence, soon to be mentioned. About the 
>amc period a series of buildings were erected by Florentine masters at 
rienza, which was founded by Pope Pius II. in 1460. Among these were 
the calhfdral — a Ilaiii nkirche with three equal aisles and vaults resting 
on clustered pillars, a {X)lygonal choir-end, and a gable-facade, completely 
according to ancient ecclesiastical architectural traditions — the Palazzo 
Pubblico, and the Palazzo Piccolomini, built for the pope himself, and 
closely related to the pattern of the Palazzo Rucellai at Florence. 

In 1461, Agostino di Guccio erected the Oratorio S. Bernardino at 
Periii^ia. In i45t), Filarete commenced the hospital (Ospedale Maggiorc) 
.it Milan, in which the rich decoration of the Renaissance is woven into 
tile Gothic svstem; vet the elements of the two distinct stvles stand out 
:n striking contrast. In the same year Michelozzo executed the adom- 
meiit of a juiace in Milan which Francesco Sforza had presented to 
Cosiino de' Medici; in 1462 he erected the Cappella Portinari in S. Eus- 
tor^io after the pattern of Brunelleschi's Cappella de' Pazzi at Florence, 
and also the choir, chapter-house, and sacristy of S. Pietro in Gessate. 
He also built the Palazzo Riccardi at F^lorence. 

The ducal j^ilace at Urbino was commenced in 1468 by Luciano 
Laurano, and Baccio Pintelli superintended it from 1484 to 1491. In 
1472, Alberti built the hn;ade of Sta. Maria Xovella at Florence, and in 
the same year he commenced the erection of the magnificent Church of 
S. Andrea at Mantua. The Palazzi S})anuochi and Xerucci at Siena arc 
ascrilx.'d to Francesco di Ciiorgio. 

The Sistine Chapel in the \'atican at Rome, known rather from its 
p.iiKiin;^s than from its simple architecture, was built in 1473 ^y Baccio 
Pintelli for Po}h? Sixtus IV. 

c'l r;.->.i ti! /\k id. — In the same year Anibrogio Borgognone began the 
fa^Muc o{ the Ccrtosa at Pavia, in which the greatest richness of forms is 
combi::ed with a wealth of sculptured figuR*s and ornamental car\'ing; 
>o that the entire work, executed in white marble, makes a most striking 
iinpre»ioii, altliouiih the upj>er termination ot ll:e fa^de is wanting. 
Tile c'.*»isier< a!>o. which surround the court as light, open porticoes, arc 
filietl :o ove:r.ow:uL: with charminj» omanie!its i//. 40, /r^j. i, 2, 3, 8). 

.V.7. .\/.::.7 :n .'.;;'. at I-'errara, a coiumned basilica, was begun in 
147; 1>\ r^ntoliMnuKv^ Tristano. The nave and tran^ents of this church 
have a f:a; roe:", while the Mde-aisle> and the cliapcL of the transepts have 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 241 

groined vaulting, and a rather flat dome rises over the intersection. Biagio 
Rosetti finished the structure. 

The grand tomb of the doge Andrea Vendramin (//. 40, fig. 7) is in 
the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. This ornamental struc- 
ture covers an extensive surface, and may be reckoned one of the most 
beautiful examples of the tombs of the period. Adjoining the church is 
the rich facade (1485) of the Scuola di S. Marco {pi. 42, fig. 3). The 
fagade of the Cappella Colleoni at Bergamo belongs to the year 1476. 

Bramante. — About this period Donato Lazzari, called **Bramanteof 
Urbino,*' came to Milan, where he remained until the close of the cen- 
tury, and soon became known as one of the first masters of the time. 
One of his oldest works is the choir of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, of whose 
nave — a simple Gothic work — we have already spoken (p. 233). The 
charming cupola^ the diameter of which is equal to the width of the three 
aisles, does not seem adapted to the original plan {fig^ i). 

About this time the Renaissance also forced its way into Venice. S. 
Zaccaria was commenced in 1457, but its system is entirely mediaeval, 
while its Renaissance fcnns are rather exaggerated; so that their work- 
manship may well be of a later date, since the building was completed in 
1515, but the fagade (//. 40, fig. 6) may perhaps belong to the eighth or 
ninth decade of the fifteenth centur>^ In 1477 the court of the Palazzo 
Ducale was begun by Antonio Bregno, who in one storey combined the 
pointed arch with the Renaissance constructional forms and mouldings 
{fig- 10). The staircase {pL \2^ fig. 2) belongs to this part of the structure. 

About 1480 a Tuscan architect built the arcades of the old Procurazie 
at Venice, and in 1481 Pietro Lombardo erected the Palazzo Vendramin- 
Calergi {fig- 5). In the same year this master built the Church of 
Sta. Maria de' Miracoli, whose nave has a coffered wooden tunnel-vault. 
The covering of marble slabs which characterizes Venetian architecture 
generally is displayed with great elegance in the fagade of this church. 
About 1483, Moro Lombardo and Sebastiano da Lugano directed the con- 
struction of the domed Church of S. Giovanni Crisostomo, which is 
nearly square and has the lower portions round the dome tunnel-vaulted. 
In 1484, Giuliano da Majano built the Porta Capuana at Naples. In 1485- 
1491, Giuliano di Sangallo erected the Church of the Madonna delle Car- 
ceri at Prato, and in 1490 the Palazzo Gondi at Florence. 

The cathedral at Pavia was commenced in 1490 according to Bra- 
mante' s plans. The great Palazzo ScrofFa at Ferrara, whose unfinished 
court may be numbered among the noblest productions of the early 
Renaissance, is but little later. One of the most prominent of Florentine 
palaces is the Palazzo Strozzi (//. A^\yfigs. 2, 3), begun by Benedetto da 
Majano in 1489; its storeys are about 10 metres (33 feet) high. The court, 
with its colonnades, is the work of Cronaca, and is topped off by a mas- 
sive and far-projecting cornice. The latter master also built at Florence 
the charming Palazzo Guadagni, of modest dimensions; this palazzo has 
a ground-floor with rustications and rectangular windows like the 

Vol. IV.— 16 



■I 



ARCHITECTURE. [Italian. 



.»iu»/./i Talacc, two upper storeys with decorated surfaces adorned 
with paiiiliiij;, and an upper floor with an open colonnade below the 
tit pioivclinj; cornice which crowiLs the edifice. Near the Pavia Catlie- 
ili.il, P.ianiante began, in 1492, the Church of S. Maria Incoronata di 
C\uu|»an<)va, a dome-roofed octagon towering lightly above a square to 
i»ur oi" whose sides is attached an octangular choir covered by a small 
I'Upol.i. Sta. Maria dclla Croce near Crema is octangular within, but 
louiid externally, and has an almost mediaeval aspect. It was erected 
In-twccn 1490 and 1500, and has a cui)ola and a niachicolatcd roof. 

riie Ideal in Church-archittcture, — The existing edifices as a rule 
show us that the Italian masters were well aware that an ideal instead of 
a material expression was essential in a church, and to realize this expres- 
sion they employed ingeniously-combined spaces of the most varjing cou- 
formation, constructing, according to their individuality, lofty, broad, 
dome-covered spaces or long-drawn-out perspectives. During the medi- 
aeval ages, especially in the (iothic period, a certain practical ideal was 
aimed at, and each single school reached the mark not only ideally, but 
in the later jjeriod also believed that it had discovered a church equally 
corresponding to practical needs. 

In the same manner it rested with each individual master to discover 
a new ideal — not for a practical church-building, but for an artistic and 
ideal space in which (}od could be worshipix?d. The various combina- 
tions recall the animated movement in the period of classical Christian 
antiquity when mankind strove to attain an ideal for a Christian church. 
That which they had in common, besides the individual freedom, was the 
living taste for a truly simple yet vigorous grouping; for the attainment 
of vistas from darkness into light, from narrow itito broader and from 
lower into higher spaces; for contrasts of lighting, and for the apposition 
of straight and curved surfaces, and the play of contour arising therefrom. 
What both periods had in common was the love for a light and judicious 
construction. Such constniction as the Italian architects of the close of 
the fifteenth century- employeil is commonly denominated **bold." This 
expression is entirely false, and would be doubtful praise. Against a bold 
construction — that is, one approaching danger even in the slightest degree 
— any builder might reasonably guard himself, and the architect attempt- 
ing it would show unpardonable recklessness; but it is otherwise with a 
construction of intelligent lightness in which the master employs the 
minimum of the necessary masses and gives the construction strength 
only where it is really needed; and this w;ui the case with the masters of 
this i>erio<l. 

Palaces, — We have still to mention a series of conspicuous buildings 
without noticing the less important or even exhausting the important 
— the Palazzi Cerchi, Casamurata, Incontri, Giugni-Carigiani, and Ma- 
gnani in Florence; the archbishop's palace, with its porticoes, at Pisa; 
the Palazzo del Magnifico, the Palazzo Ciaga, and the Loggia del Papa 
at Siena; the Palazzi Pava, Cualaiiti, Uevilacqua, and that of the 



-Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 243 

podest^ at Bologna; the Palazzo Roverella, the Palazzo de' Diamanti 
.(1492), with its ashlar-work ornamented with facettes, as well as the 
Palazzi de' Leoni, Schifanoja, Pevilacqua, and Rondinelli at Ferrara; the 
Palazzo del Consiglio of Fra Giocondo at Verona; the Palazzo Schio 
and the rear-elevation of the Palazzo Tiene at Vicenza; the great and 
small Venetian palaces at Rome; the ducal palaces at Urbino, Gubbio, 
and Pesaro (//. 42, Jig. 6); the court of the Palazzo Buonsignori at 
Orvieto; and the Palazzo Gravina of Gabriele d*Agnolo at Naples. 

Churches. — Among the churches we must name the fagade of Madonna 
delle Nevi, the oratory of Sta. Catarina, and the Fontegiusta Church at 
Sienna, the last the work of Francesco Fedeli of Como; the sacristy of the 
Madonna di S. Satiro, Sta. Maria presso S. Celso, by Bramante, at Milan; 
the Churches of Madonna di Campagna, S. Sepolcro, and S. Sisto at Pia- 
cenza; S. Giovanni Evangelista and Madonna della Steccata at Parma; 
S. Francesco (1495), S. Benedetto (1500), added to in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and S. Cristoforo (1498) at Ferrara; the choir of the cathedral 
(1499), a work of Biagio Rosetti, the campanile of the same (1505), S. 
Giovanni Battista, S. Spirito (151 2), and the facade of S. Pietro at 
Modena; Sta. Maria del Carmine at Padua; S. Maurizio at Milan (1497) '^y 
Dolcebuono; S. Felice and S. Salvatore at Venice; Sta. Maria de' Miracoli 
at Brescia; S. Agostino and Sta. Maria del Popolo at Rome; S. Pietro and 
Sta, Maria della Pace at Montorio; and the churches of Madonna della 
Catena and Madonna di Porto Salvo at Palenno. All these structures dis- 
play a great freedom of design, a suitable variety, a delicacy and refinement 
•of taste, a wonderful naivete in the imitation of antique forms, a subordi- 
nation of the details to the whole, which cause the translation of antique 
forms to appear somewhat as a foreign element, since they stand in varied 
relations and are made to serve new purposes. 

Structures of the Sixteenth Century. — The beginning of the sixteenth 
century also presents us with some edifices in which the mouldings are 
but little prominent and refinement of taste and delicacy of ornamentation 
are most conspicuous, as in the cr>'pt of the Cathedral of Naples, built by 
Tommaso Malvito of Como in 1504; S. Benedetto at Ferrara, of which 
Giambattista and Alberto Tristani were appointed architects in 1553, but 
which was commenced in 1500; the Church of S. Giovanni Battista, built 
by Francesco Marighella, in the same city; S. Felice, S. Fantino, S. Sal- 
vatore, and the Fondaco de' Tedeschi at Venice, all dating from about 
1506, and the last built by a German architect entirely in the Italian 
style; the Palazzo Comunale at Brescia, built in 1508 by Formentone, 
with later additions by Palladio and Sansovino; the octangular Church of 
Madonna dell' Umiltd at Pistoja, built by Ventura Vitoni in 1509, with a 
cupola erected by Vasari; and S. Spirito at Ferrara, founded by Alfonso 
II. in.1512. Surpassing all in nobility and elegance are the choir and 
transept of Como Cathedral, commenced in 1513 by Tommaso Rodari; the 
Scuola di San Rocco, commenced in 1517, but not finished until some 
time after; the porticoes of the Fabbriche Vecchi, finished in 1522 by 



242 .\rS, [Italian. 

Strozzi l\\] A ^ iighi, built in 1525 by Guglielmo 

with \KrA\' ■ 

far-i'!"- !::iNhcd in a vear, nianv of those men- 

"r''*' ■ :vi \vc cannot fix upon any precise year 

^'■^''' '. Kcling: for delicacy of form was more 

'^•'•' . ^.i ii century advanced, that a more litend 

^ " ;'.ic elemenls soon became j^eneral, and that 

, xivtail of tliC time of the Roman Empire, 

'•:»vTlance and detenniiied li:e entire character 

.i'.i.mte, when he worked at Rome, about 1500, 

. . X iK> the antique, yet without permitting the detail 

. . li^r works a certain romantic spirit — evident in the 

.X. .'Ill of the entire comixjsition — reij^ns over the whole, a 

\.w remains of the Roman Empire afterward brou;^ht 

. . . ■ Ni'tiplieity and massiveness of the entire desi^Mi. Charac- 

. i' '.Li'/o della Cancellaria (/>/. 43, .AV- ,^), which is set beliind 

,• s\ mmetrically-desiiLjned fa<;ade of SS. Lorenzo e Daiuaso 

.-wiiiu 'luv outward mark of the union to be seen. Tlic entire 

, Lii its massive simplicity recalls t lie ;^ran(leur of the structures 

. n' l\>?ue. The Palazzo Ciiraud shows an almost similar system. A 

I m .uviiiieet constructed the (ierman national church at Rome (Sta. 

XI ,1 lUii' Anima) under Hramante's inlluence; and perhaps also the 

,1, .. II i.[ the Casa Santa at Loretto comes from Bramante (]x:-rhaps from 

,"^,111 .i\jui'i. The desig!is for St. Peter's were made under Hramante's 

iiiil.i. Ill 1-; he himself prepared one showing a Greek cross, and according 

1^1 II l>r).',.iu the colossal structure. 

f\ni /. — I»ra:nante\s artistic successor after his death, in 1514, may 
In- t uu-*ider;-il to be Baldassare Peruzzi, who built the Villa P\'irnesina at 
Unme in iy>-) for the rich merchant and art-patron Agostino Chigi. 
lV!u/zi*s Massimo Palace adajHs itself to an irregular ^^pace and follows 
I hi- er.rve of the street, yet has some extraordinarily picturesque parts. 
The small palace shown in Figure 4 proves that Ptruzzi was a follower 
of Mramante. 

Sijf/ff/!Wit'/i. — At the period v.hen Rramante commenced work at Rome, 
Michele Sanmicheli, then twentv vears old, came there also, but aften\-ard 
we!it to Montefiascone, where he erected the Church of Madonna dcllc 
(irazie. PVom Montefiascone he went to Orvieto, where he became archi- 
tect of the cathedral. Pojx? Clement allied him with Antonio di Sangallo 
tor the reparation and strengthenini^ of the fortifications throughout the 
Papal States, and still later he worked at \'enice and Verona; of which 
more anon. 

Raphael Siiftzio. — The Palazzo Pizzardi at Rologna, in whose magnifi- 
cent columned court ancient brick-construction achieved a new triumph, 
iM-longs to the commencement of the sixteenth centur>'. Under Bra- 
mante's influence the fimious Raphael Sanzio, who had devoted a full year 



iTALUN.] RENAISSANCE. 245 

of his life to the study of antique structures, was appointed architect. As 
a fruit of his study a still greater massiveness of the details is conspicuous. 
The windows, as in many late classical edifices, compose a temple-fa9ade 
with alternating inclined and curved pediments, as in the Sun-temple at 
Baalbec, and in the Pantheon and many late buildings at Rome. The 
cornice, archaeologically correct, imitated the antique, yet the rustications 
remained in their rich formal entirety. 

The next application of this system may without doubt be attributed 
to Baccio d'Agnolo, who applied it to the Palazzo Bartolini-Salimbeni at 
Florence. Whether, in fact, this building antedates Raphael's is of little 
importance, since it does not detract from the fame of the men who took 
these motives from the ancients. At any rate, Raphael employed it on a 
grand scale, as he designed the plans for the Palazzo Pandolfini at Flor- 
ence, which after his death was finished in accordance with his directions. 
Raphael's works in Rome are the Palazzi Uguccioni and Vidoni and the 
superintendence of St. Peter's. 

After the death of Raphael, Peruzzi undertook the superintendence of 
the construction of St. Peter's, but after the taking of the city by the 
Germans, in 1527, he fled to his native city of Siena, where he worked 
upon the cathedral and built the Church of the Servi, and where many 
structures preserve his memory. 

The construction of S. Antonio at Padua, with its cupolas, as well as 
its model, St. Mark's at Venice, was still powerful in its influence at this 
period, and Andrea Riccio, or Briosco, began in 1520 the magnificent 
Church of S. Giustina at Padua after the same prototype, with cupola 
after cupola. Soon afterward Andrea della Valle and Agostino Righetto 
built the cathedral of the same city according to the same system. 

Giovanni Maria Falconetto of Verona worked at Padua from 1513 to 
1534, and in 1524 built the Palazzo Giustiniani, also many of the city 
gates, as those of S. Giovanni and the Porta Savonarola. 

Sangallo, — At the same time that Raphael worked at Rome, Antonio 
di Sangallo the elder was active at Montepulciano. In 1518 he built the 
Church of the Madonna di S. Biagio, in 1519 the Palazzo del Monte and 
that of Tarugi, and the construction of the strong Civita Castellana is 
ascribed to him. 

Giulio Romano^ Raphael's friend and pupil, built the Villa Madama at 
Rome for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, afterward (between 1523 and 1534) 
Pope Clement VII.; in 1526 he erected in Mantua the Palazzo del T^, as 
well as many other buildings, through which he impressed upon the entire 
city such an aspect that the grand duke Federigo Gonzaga declared that 
it was not* his city, but Giulio Romano's. The same master afterward 
built S. Benedetto, south of Mantua. In this church he employed the me- 
diaeval ground-plan of a three-aisled nave, one-aisled transept, and choir 
with aisle and chapels; yet not only does the construction deviate from 
the mediaeval pattern in its comparative lowness, but the nave is entirely 
separated from the side-aisles by the singular arrangement of the piers, and 



246 ARCHITECTURE. [Itauak. 

the apse is divided from the aisle around it by a wall; so that in planning 
the spaces the architect seems to have had no other aim than to produce 
some picturesque perspectives. At this period Michelangelo Buonarotti 
worked at Florence, and in 1520 erected the tombs of the Medici in the 
sacristy of S. Lorenzo. 

Jacopo Sansovino was the architect of a series of palaces in Venice 
in the fourth decade of the sixteenth century — in 1532 the Palazzo 
Comer della C^ Grande, in 1536 the Zecca (mint) and the Library of SL 
Mark's (pL ^2, Jig. 4), and in 1538 the Church of S. Giorgio dei Greci. 

Baccio d\'ignolo was active at Florence until his death, in 1543- 
Though the results are not ver\' magnificent, he had the opportunity to 
distinguish himself as architect of a series of palaces, including, besides 
those already mentioned, the Palazzi Serristori, Levi, Roselli del Turco, 
etc. 

Antonio di Sangallo the younger meanwhile went to Rome and directed 
the constniction of St. Peter's until his death, in 1546. At the same 
period he built the churches of S. Spirito, Our Lady of Loreto (Sta. Maria 
di Loreto), and the Palazzo Faniese at Rome (//. 43, Jig. 5), to which 
Michelangelo afterward added the grand crowning cornice. The Pa- 
lazzo Buoncompagni at Bologna arose in the year 1545. 

Michelangelo. — After the death of Sangallo, Michelangelo under- 
took the continuation of St. Peter's at Rome {Jigs, i, 2), on which he 
worked without remuneration for the good of his soul from 1546 until his 
death, in 1564. He transformed the entire structure. Bramante had com- 
menced it as a Greek cross; Raphael would have made it a Latin one. 
Michelangelo went back to the idea of a Greek cross, which Penizzi 
had already continued with four small domes set around the principal 
dome; Antonio di Sangallo's design returned to the Latin cross. 
According to Michelangelo's plan, the grand dome would dominate the 
facade as well as the transepts. It was he who gave to the dome its mag- 
nificent dimensions and beautiful profile, and he arranged the spacing of 
the pilasters of the interior as they appear to-day. Doubtless he laid out 
the immense attic — that new storey above the principal cornice — ^and thus 
attained for the whole a harmony of proportion which was admirable, but 
which was destroyed afterward by the addition of the nave. His design, 
which he was not pennitted to carry out entirely, was continued after his 
death, but in 1605 Carlo Madema altered the plan to a Latin cross. Other 
works of Michelangelo at Rome are the design of the Capitol, the con- 
stniction of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, and, in the last days of his life, the 
Porta Pia. 

After the death of its former architect the Palazzo Famese at Rome 
was undertaken by Michelangelo, who erected the upper part of the facade 
and employed in the columned arcades of the court the antique pillar- 
system with attached half-colunms, which he executed in two store>*s. In 
later times the harmony of this massively-impressive design has been in- 
jured by the addition of a third storey. 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 247 

In Florence, Baccio d'Agnolo's son Domenico was active in construct- 
ing the Palazzo Nicolina (now Buturlino); in the same city Giovanni 
Antonio Dosio bui\t the Palazzo Larderel, and Bernardo Tasso (1547) 
erected the arcades of the Mercato Nuovo. 

In 1549, Palladio obtained the commission to rebuild the mediaeval 
town-hall of Vicenza, and executed it by erecting a basilica of pure mar- 
ble which shows two storeys of arched windows. 

The palace of Admiral Andrea Doria was built about the middle of 
the sixteenth century at Genoa, and in 1550 the Palazzo Ducale (now 
the Palazzo della Prefettura), the former by the Florentine master Fra 
Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli, the latter by Rocco Penuone. 

Gicuomo Barozzi Vignola has had considerable influence upon the 
development of Architecture by the work he wrote upon the orders of 
columns. In this work he gave even the minutest proportions of the 
columns, pillars, arches, and entablatures of the antique monuments of 
the later epochs, as well as of the works of his contemporaries, and above 
all his own compositions, and so established rules which exercised a pow- 
erful influence not only on buildings, but also on all other arts and 
industries, and was also instrumental in spreading the Italian style in 
other lands. Although afterward taste altered, although many of his 
followers employed other orders, yet his system retained its power in all 
periods. Among his edifices erected about the middle of the century must 
be particularly named the Castle of Caprarola, between Rome and Viterbo 
^P^* ^Z^ fiS* 6), as well as the Villa of Pope Julius III., which he and 
Vasari built at Rome in 1550-1555. 

Andrea Marchesi built the Palace of Malvezzi-Campeggi, with its 
exquisite court, and also the Palazzo Fantuzzi at Bologna. The Palazzo 
Bolognetti, of which the lower part is older, was completed in 1551. 
Annibale Lippi erected the Villa Medici at Rome about 1551, and in 
1552 Sansovino built the Fabbriche Nuove at Venice. Between 1555 and 
1559, Pirro Ligorio built the Villa Pia in the Vatican garden. The UflSzi 
at Florence was built by Vasari in 1560. 

Galeazzo Alessi was a leading master of the second half of the six- 
teenth century. He worked chiefly in Genoa, and constructed a number 
of considerable palaces and villas, among which are the Palazzi Lercari, 
Spinola, and Sauli (1553), the beautiful court of the last-named of which 
is shown on Plate 41 {Jig. 4). He also constructed the famous Sta. Maria 
da Carignano, in which he approached St. Peter's, which at that time was 
under the direction of Michelangelo, and in the interior he attained a par- 
ticularly harmonious effect. 

Bartolonimeo Ammanati^ a pupil of Sansovino, was at work during the 
second half of the sixteenth centur>' principally in Florence, where he 
built many private houses, the courts of which are adorned with porti- 
coesi His chief works are the Great Santa Trinity bridge over the Amo 
and the court of the Palazzo Pitti. 

The small Palazzo Riccardi at Florence, built in 1565, is a work of 



24S ARCHITECTURE. [Italian. 

Bernardo Hiionlalenti, who also erected the entrance-hall of the hospital 
(O.si)cdalc Sta. Maria Xuova; in that city. 

Chunh <if II (resii. — Anionj^ the most conspicuous churches at Rome 
built in the second half of the sixteenth century is that of II Gesii, 
erected by Vij^nola in 1568. This has a tunnel-vaulted nave with a 
row of cliai>els on each side, a cupola, and tunnel-vaulted transepts and 
clioir endinj^ in an apse — an arrangement which henceforth, particularly 
with a fa4;ade having two towers, was for a long time predominant, and 
which to a certiyn extent put a stop to the individual endeavors of the 
masters of the Renaissance to work out a suitable form of church. It 
was, in fact, a new ideal for the Church, corresponding with the taste 
of the times. It does not differ very widely from that of the Middle 
Ages. 

Though these churches were not carried so high as the French cathe- 
drals of the mediaeval times, the massive pilasters gave them an aspiring 
effect. The ample space of the nave formed a fit place for the reception 
of a great assemblage in front of the pulpit, where each could see the Host 
as it was brought to the altar. In the side-chapels individuals could carr>' 
on their devotions undisturbed or several priests could read mass at the 
same time. The light falling from the cupola and the lighting of the 
separate chapels, as well as of the principal aisle, transepts, and choir, are 
extraordinarily effective — almost theatrical. The arrangement, which 
would be sober for simple forms, could by pompous stucco-ornamenta- 
tion, such as was executed at a later date, be caused to make a bewil- 
dering impression. 

But this almost theatrical pomp is expressed in the entire spirit of the 
following ixrriod. Not simple earnestness, not modest dignity, but great 
expenditure, was what dazzled and fascinated, which in union with the 
mystical effects induced by the mode of lighting captivated the eyes and 
hearts of the peoi>le. The sombre nave led the eye upward to the light 
of the cupola, where the sculptured and painted heavenly choir seemed to 
move to and fro and to join in the hymn of jubilant praise whose clear 
notes were intoned rapturously through the halls while the clouds of 
incense arose on high. It was, in fact, the taste of the period which 
found expression in that church-arrangement with which Vignola in the 
Church II (fcsu closed tiie attempts of individual arti.sts. 

Audna Palladio was active in \'icenza at the same time with Vignola. 
In his lifetime he was but little distinguished above his contcniporaries, 
but, like Vignola, he exercised great influence through the preparation of 
a sysicin of the orders. He endeavored to give his structures an imposing 
effect b\' grand proportions and colossal ranges of pilasters, which rose 
throui;li several storeys. He proiluced his effects exclusively, not by 
expres>ing the interior arrangements, but by the importance of the parts. 
He had to erect his buildings of brick, but he covered them with stucco 
to form massive-looking rustications, and constnicted colonnades whose 
entablatures he formed of wood in classic form. The Palazzo Tiene of 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 249 

1556-1558 is partly under the influence of Giulio Romano's works at Man- 
tua. The Palazzo Chieregati (1566; now the Museo Civico) has two 
ranges of half-columns, which are continued at the sides as open halls. 
In the Palazzo Valmarano (1566) there is a reminiscence of the antique 
temple-pediment in the form of six great pilasters, rising through two 
storeys, placed in front of the facade, whose entablature is broken around 
them. The meaning of this arrangement is not clear to the unarchitec- 
tural eye, as the fagade is only one bay longer on each side and the want 
of the great pilasters at the angles is greatly felt. Only an antiquary can 
tell what the artist intended. An attic affords a third storey. 

The Palazzo Barbarano (1570) at Vicenza is richly decorated, as is also 
the Palazzo Prefettizio, or Loggia del Delegato. The Teatro Olimpico 
was built in 1584 according to Palladio's designs, and is an imitation of 
an antique theatre. S. Giorgio Maggiore was built in 1560, and the 
Church of the Redeemer at Venice in 1576 {pL 40, fig. 5). The fa9ade 
of the latter reminds us of the ancient temple-fagade, which is completely 
realized in the villa shown on Plate 43 {fig. 7). 

Pellegrino Tibaldi built the court of the archbishop's palace as well as 
the Palazzo Magnani at Bologna and the court of the archbishop's palace 
at Milan, and he also added to the facade of the cathedral at Milan the por- 
tal and the magnificent windows, which, however, mar the harmony of the 
arrangement. The Villa Medici, erected by Annibale Lippi on the Monte 
Pincio at Rome, has open arcades between tower-like, elevated angle-build- 
ings and rich plastic adornments. In 1582, Scamozzi commenced the 
Procurazie Nuove (now the Palazzo Reale) at Venice. 

The form-development of the Renaissance, that second birth of antique 
art, had made a long stride forward. From a refined delicacy of detail it 
had passed on to an exuberance of strength which was perhaps more an- 
tique than that delicacy, but only in the sense of the last period of the 
antique — that of its decadence. From a characterization of the whole 
which permitted the meaning of each part to be expressed, it had led to 
the ensemble in which each characteristic of the several parts was hidden 
behind an empty screen of forms. The attempt to gain effect through 
imposing masses had given rise to a confusion of conventionalisms which 
was augmented through the attempt of each master to surpass all others. 
Michelangelo had already shown the way to this through the excess of his 
originality, and after his death two decades had scarcely passed before a 
deeper decadence set in, the beginning of complete degeneracy. Before 
we can follow architectural development farther in this direction we must 
cast a glance over other countries. 

Italy had in the course of the fifteenth century become practically the 
centre of intelligence, and exercised a powerful influence on all other na- 
tions through the flourishing condition of its sciences. The cultivation 
of classical literature, the desire to create a new literature founded upon 
the genius and the forms of the ancient, were everywhere more or less 
progressive. Young men ardent for knowledge flocked from all nations 



I 



248 ARCHITECTURE. 

Bernardo Buontalenti, who also creeled the eutraiice-hall of tl 
(Ospedale Sta. Maria Nuova) in that city. 

Church of II Gcsti, — Among the most conspicuous church< 
built in the second half of the sixteenth century is that o 
erected by Vignola in 1568. This has a tunnel-vaulted na 
row of chapels on each side, a cupola, and tunnel-vaulted tra 
choir ending in an apse — an arrangement which henceforth, p 
with a facade having two towers, was for a long time predou: 
which to a certiyn extent put a stop to the individual endea^ 
masters of the Renaissance to work out a suitable form of c 
was, in fact, a new ideal for the Church, corresponding witl 
of the times. It does not differ very widely from that of t 
Ages. 

Though these churches were not carried so high as the Fre 
drals of the mediaeval times, the massive pilasters gave them i 
effect. The ample space of the nave formed a fit place for th< 
of a great assemblage in front of the pulpit, where each could se 
as it was brought to the altar. In the side-chapels individuals c 
on their devotions undisturbed or several priests could read 1 
same time. The light falling from the cupola and the lighl 
separate chapels, as well as of the principal aisle, transepts, anc 
extraordinarily effective — almost theatrical. The arrangemc 
would be sober for simple forms, could by pompous stucco-< 
tion, such as was executed at a later date, be caused to mak 
dering impression. 

But this almost theatrical pomp is expressed in the entire sj 
following period. Not simple earnestness, not modest dignity 
expenditure, was what dazzled and fascinated, which in unioi 
mystical effects induced by the mode of lighting captivated th 
hearts of the people. The sombre nave led the eye upward t 
of the cupola, where the sculptured and painted heavenly choii 
move to and fro and to join in the hymn of jubilant praise a\ 
notes were intoned rapturously through the halls while the 
incense arose on high. It was, in fact, the taste of the per 
found expression in that church-arrangement with which Vigi 
Church II Gesu closed the attempts of individual artists. 

Andrea Palladia was active in Vicenza at the same time wit 
In his lifetime he was but little distinguished above his conte 
but, like Vignola, he exercised great influence through the pre] 
a system of the orders. He endeavored to give his structures ai 
effect by grand proix)rtions and colossal ranges of pilasters, \ 
through several storeys. He produced his effects exclusive! 
expressing the interior arrangements, but by the imix)rtance of 
He had to erect his buildings of brick, but he covered them v 
to form massive-looking rustications, and constructed colonnn 
entablatures he formed of wood in classic form. The Palazzc 



IM 



. «' 



.1 



250 ARCHITECTURE. [Spanish. 

to the Italian universities, and, while in earlier times only campaigns or 
pilgrimages brought the natives of other countries into Italy, now they 
came to see the land whose nature was considered marvellous — the land 
that was the home and the theatre of that wondrous ancient world and 
its grand deeds, the land that had given a new culture to mankind 
The renovated, the resurrected old captivated the eyes, and the fame 
of the art-supremacy of the Italians was not less tlian their scientific 
celebrity; so that the fonner soon extended its influence to other lands, 
as had been the case with the latter. 

2. Spanish Renaissance. 

Spain was the first countr\' into which the new style penetrated. En- 
rique de Egas built in 1480 the College of Sta. Cruz at Valladolidy and 
in the same city, in 1488, there followed the Colegio S. Gregorio, which 
is particularly charming from the richness of its detail. In these struc- 
tures we find only certain antique details mixed with Gothic and Mo- 
resque elements. In 1504 the same master constructed the portal of the 
foundling hospital at Toledo, which has a tympanum richly adorned with 
sculptures and enclosed in a round arch. In 1521, Ibarra built the Co- 
legio Mayor at Salamanca, and at the same period the Casa de los Muertos 
and the Palace of the Marquesa de las Naves were erected in the same 
citv. 

m 

In 1526, Charles V. pennitted a portion of the Alhambra, at Granada, 
to be taken down that a palace might be executed after the plans of Ma- 
chuca. In this structure the classical style already appears in tolerable 
purity. The principal portion is a circular range of Doric columns, with 
an Ionic one above, surrounding a court. (See ground-plan,//. 2i^fig, 6.) 

In 1529, Diego de Siloe began the Cathedral of Granada in strict classi- 
cal style; that of Malaga is also ascribed to the same master. The chap* 
ter-house of Seville Cathedral, built by Diego Rano in 1530, shows also a 
classical construction, while the royal chapel built in 1531 by Alonsode 
Covarnibias in the Cathedral of Toledo has indeed the principal details 
antique, but among them the varied forms of the Christian mediaeval 
period are brought in with exuberant splendor. 

The sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (1533) and the city-hall 
(ayuntamiento) of the same city also allow this mixture of forms to appear 
in the most elegant manner, while the archbishop's palace at Alcald de 
Henares, built (1534) by the above-mentioned Alonso, shows a pleasant 
court similar to those of Florence, with Corinthian-like capitals and 
round arches with antique profiles, having above them a second storey of 
similar columns, the latter surrounded bv an architrave which carries a 
roof. The court of the Convent of Luziana is similar; this is surrounded 
by four storeys of colonnades of considerable dimensions, some united by 
round arches, others by trefoil arches, while still others carrj' an architrave. 
The collegiate church at Osuna lias a magnificent portal of the year 1554. 
The Alcazar of Toledo (1537) recalls the facade of the Pamese Palace at 



French.] RENAISSANCE. 251 

Rome, and it may therefore be asked whether a later alteration has not 
intruded into the work of Alonso de Covarrubias. The fine cloister built 
(1546) by the same master at S. Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia is, how- 
ever, still intact. 

The fagade of the Convent of S. Marcos at Leon is in the full bloom 
of the early Renaissance, as is also the richly-adorned cloister of S. Ziol at 
Carrion, both works of Juan de Badajos. The severe and inharmonious 
triumphal arch erected by Charles V. at Burgos in honor of Feman Gon- 
zalez, and the Cathedral of Jaen, built by Pedro de Valdelvira, are works 
of the classical style. Less strictly so are the Colegio S. Nicolas, the tran- 
sept of the cathedral, and the Casa del Cordon at Burgos, the famous 
Chapel de los Beneventes at Medina de Rio Seco, and the Carcel del Corte 
at Baeza. 

With even greater coldness the classical style is displayed at the Con- 
vent S. Lorenzo of the Escorial, begun in 1563 by Philip II. accord- 
ing to the plans of Juan of Toledo, who died in 1567, leaving its comple- 
tion to his pupil Juan de Herrera. The Cathedral of Valladolid, the south 
side of the Alcazar of Toledo, the Bolsa (Exchange), the palace at Aranjuez, 
and the Casa de Oficios at Seville, are all the works of Herrera. In these 
Palladio's influence is manifest, as it is also in the works of Herrera's 
contemporaries and immediate successors. 

3. French Renaissance. 

Italian masters were summoned to the court of France as early as 
the reigns of Charles VIII. (1483-1498) and Louis XII. (1498-1515), but it 
was chiefly Francis I. (1515-1547) who by his zealous advocacy brought 
about a reformation in Architecture and won France over to the Renais- 
sance. Since there were summoned to France such prominent Italian 
masters as Leonardo da Vinci, Benvenuto Cellini, Serlio, Primaticcio, 
etc., it is indeed surprising that only certain Italian forms and motives 
obtained acceptance, that the entire arrangement of the structures followed 
the traditions of-the fifteenth century, and that the new art-speech found 
application itL.outwaid ornamentation only. Without doubt these mas- 
ters worked more in the line of other arts than directly in Architecture, 
and it may be that some of their works — in which the Italian manner 
appeared conspicuously — have disappeared; but the conditions of life in 
France as a whole differed from those of Italy, and the French Late Gothic, 
which had found an entirely characteristic expression, was too powerful 
to permit the new style to predominate except in the decorative arts. 
Thus the ensemble of the edifices is that of the Late Gothic works. 

The striving after high and wide spaces became even less than in the 
earlier period; the high, broad hall in which the feudal lord assembled his 
retainers diminished in importance, while the small dwelling-rooms gained, 
for a dwelling needs only moderate height. Nobility of proportions had 
iiot belonged to the French Late Gothic, and in the French Renaissance 
also we find bizarre rather than noble proportions. 



23-5 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

The Cuurciu's — which were only of subordinate importance, as the 
works of the thirteenth century still sufficed for the requirements, since 
even tlitir completion, after the eye for hundreds of years had been ac- 
customed to see tlicm as incomplete as a torso, was not taken to heart — 
wcic built according; to the mediccval system, which was so firmly estab- 
lislicil that no one imaj^ined it possible to erect a church according to any 
other plan. Therefore only purely external classical fonns were used as 
an outward decoration. 

Sintcturts of the Sixteenth Century, — Xo works of the fifteenth cen- 
tury which had their external decoration in the new style are extant — or, 
at least, are known; therefore the new forms begin with the sixteenth 
century. The Chateau Gaillon (1^02-1510) is indeed destroyed, yet a 
remnant rebuilt in the court of the Ecole* dcs Beaux-Arts at Paris shows 
low storeys in which semicircular arches are not yet employed; so that the 
low reversed curved arch, which is common also in the Late Gothic of 
I'lance ( /*/. 37, fii^s. 1, 6\ appears amonj^ the new forms. The Palais de 
Justice at Dijon belongs to the same early period, and has also a mixture 
of o!d anil new forms, as is likewise the case in the Chateau Cheuonceaux 

The ChMe.iu Pur\\ also begun in 1515 (//. 44, fig, 8), has the ancient 
ror.ud towers of tlie previous period. These, however, no longer sen'C 
simply for defence, but have great windows in the fashion of the time 
an.l are prepared for habitation. Tlie entire main building no longer 
recalls tho castle, but has high roots, gables, and windows reaching to the 
cvv.uice, aixne which are dormers enriched with fanciful gabled decora- 
tioi!, jus: as in the palace of Late Gothic times. 

The Ch,:u\::i Tlois, begun in 1516, allows the mixed architecture to 
ap'jVar >:i!l more plainly in a pleasing want of harmony — pleasing because 
the naivete of the mixture, the richness and the ornamentation of the 
details, completely dis^irm criticism, and almost make up for the absence 
of what theory may consider correct. How can the sloping lines of the 
staircase i/r^;. M be in harmony with the pilaster architecture? How 
can the tiotiiic recurved arches, the baldachins, the gargoyles^ be in har- 
mony with the purely decorative elements o{ the pilaster ornamenta- 
tion ? The mxssive ct-^rnice — p.irt]y a reminiscence of the projecting 
wa'.er-table — weis^hs uixmi the light pilasters and entablature most inhar- 
mouiously, ar.d yet how channing is the effect, since it is so characteristic' 
and shows us how i:;c old and the now were cv^mmingled at the court of 
Francis 1. ! 

The blending of antique and nuxlern elements is effected in the most 
hivjhlv-oriijiual manner in the ChAteau St, Gonuain, which Francis L 
ca',:se\i 10 Ix* rebuil:, retainiui: a: tl'.e s.nue time a jx-^rtion of the mediaeval 
wv^rk. Here massive buttresses of brick tonn the frame in the court, and 
'.HTtween t!:ese tl:e aioadcs .;!o ius<*rtcvl. Goihic elements come out- 
>::oui:'.v al>o in the choii of S;. Ktierue du Miv:t at Paris, built in 1517- 
IN41. v^r/»\ isolate^: RcuaiNS^iucc elements arc minglevi here, but in the 



Frenxh.] renaissance. 253 

remainder of the structure these come out more strongly, and in the tol- 
erably late facade (including also the yet later additions, pL 45, fig. 6) are 
completely predominant. 

Tomb of Louis A//.— Soon after the death of Louis XII. his succes- 
sor, Francis I., had a magnificent tomb erected for the former. Jean 
Juste was the sculptor of this work, which was set up at St. Denis in 1518 
{fig. 8). The figures of the apostles below are additions of a later time. 
In the architecture the master has evidently held closely to Italian art, 
and the Renaissance is here brought into play without admixture with 
mediaeval elements. 

The H6tel d'Anjou at Arigers exhibits an elegant Early Renaissance 
of about the date 1520. The chllteaux at Azay-le-Rideau, on the Indre, 
B^n^hart, Lude, St. Amand, and Perch^ are distinguished by the rich 
architecture of the roof-gables and dormers. The last has Gothic gables 
with pinnacles and grotesques, but it is also provided with Corinthian 
pilasters. The chdteaux ChSteaubriant and Nantouillet {pi. 44, fig. 5) 
show the mixture of both series of forms. The choir of St. Peter's at 
Caen {pi. ^^^fig- i), begun in 1521, has an entirely Gothic system of con- 
struction, but in its decoration it is as completely Renaissance. Among 
the charming works into which Gothic decoration — or, at least, a remi- 
niscence of it — enters more or less among the Gothic constructional forms, 
we may mention the Chateau of Sandifer, with its four round angle- 
towers, its pilaster-adorned windows, each with a mullion and transom, 
and its richly-decorated roof-balcony as a finish to the walls; the Chateau 
Rocher de M^sanger, with flat arches in the arcade of the court and fan- 
cifully-terminated balcony; and, lastly, the ducal palace at Angers. 

Chdieau Chambord. — In 1523, Francis I. began the erection of the 
ChSteau Chambord, the main building of which is shown on Plate 44 
{fig* 2). Pierre Nepveu, called Trinqueau, superintended its construction. 
The entire design both of this principal building, which was enclosed by 
a rectangular court, and of the wings enclosing this court and flanked on 
their angles with round towers, recalls the mediaeval arrangement. The 
low storeys and the lofty roofs with their gables and chimneys belong to 
the older period, but the fonn-system of the decoration is entirely new 
and shows how exquisitely this new system can be adapted to the roman- 
tic older ground-plan. The lantern over the staircase, which occupies 
the centre of the main building {fig* 10), is especially charming, as are 
also the chimneys, which are decorated with tabernacle-shaped niches 
and every conceivable ornament. The roof — or, properly, the roofs — rise 
independently in the interior above a terrace which extends around the 
entire building — a survival from the strong castle of mediaeval ages. 

Among the churches of this period is St. Pantaloon at Troyes (1524), 
whose columns are Corinthian, while the vaulting is Gothic. St. Michael's 
at Dijon exhibits a complete facade of this epoch, with three round-arched 
portals and a lofty gable between two towers. St. Nicolas' s at Troyes 
(1526) has Gothic radiating vaulting, which is in part adorned with free 



254 ARCHITECTURE. [Fmkch. 

tracery pendent below it; here Gothic construction predominates. In 
other cases, as in the Palais de Justice at Orleans (//. 45, fig. 7) and that 
of Beaugency (pL 44, fig. 3), Gothic motives intrude even into the deco- 
ration of secular structures. The mediaeval window-arrangement with 
narrow lights, stone nuillions, and transoms endured longest, as in the 
so-called '* House of Francis I." at Fontainebleau, which, with some 
alterations, has lately been removed to Paris {fig. 9). 

Chdieau Madrid, — Gothic motives occur also at the Chflteau Madrid, 
which Francis I. had erected in 1526 in the Bois de Boulogne near Paris, 
and which, though unfortunately destroyed during the Revolution, is 
known, from drawings still preserved, to have been devoid of mediaeval 
character except in that high roof of the North which France even later 
would not give up {fig. i). The arcades — two storeys of which sur- 
round the edifice — show clearly the Italian influence, as does also the 
height of the storeys, which is about 7 metres (23 feet). The architects, 
Pierre Gadier and (iratien Francois, the latter of whom carried on the 
building after Gadier's death, in 1531, were, however, both Frenchmen. 

The Chateau of Fontainebleau, also a work of Francis I., exhibits more 
completely the fonns of the Renaissance, though, indeed, that naivete is 
absent which seems so pleasing to us in the works of the mixed styles. 
The small Chateau of Sansac, near Loches, belongs to the year 1529. On 
a corner of the Rue du Palais de Justice at Troyes there is a house built 
in 1531 which has a channing oriel and an elegant courtyard. Orleans 
and Blois show many examples of similar houses. 

The Church of St. Eustache at Paris was begun in 1532. Its arrange- 
ment is completely Gothic, with the entire apparatus of buttresses and 
flying-buttresses clothed in the wire-drawn proportions of ultra-artificial 
Renaissance forms as in an unsuitable vestment, although some of the 
details are ver>' charming. The impression made by the wild forms of a 
degenerate tracery which fills the round-arched windows is very dis- 
pleasing. 

Hotel de Ville. — Most attractive, on the contrar>', is the architecture of 
the Hotel de Ville at Paris, which was begun in 1533, but on which work 
was afterward suspended until 1549, when it was resumed by the Italian 
Domenico Boccardo after a plan of his own. Notwithstanding the foreign 
birth of its architect, it exhibits entirely French peculiarities. The edi- 
fice had, indeed, a long histor>' down to its completion in 184 1 and to its 
redestniction in 187 1; and when examining the view on Plate 45 {fig. 2), 
we must not forget that there have been many changes in various parts of 
Boccardo* s plan. 

The Hotel Ecoville^ at Caen (1535), may be cited as in many respects 
one of the most channing works of the early French Renaissance. Nobil- 
ity in the projH^rtions of the details here reached its highest point; forms 
foreign to the Reuaiss;ince are already eliminated, and all that remains 
from the older period is that which can be readily assimilated and worked 
into a harmonious whole ^pl. Wyfig^ 4). Two examples of the ornament 



French.] RENAISSANCE. 255 

of that date {pL ^^figs. 11, 12) exhibit, the first the specifically French 
manner, the second a nearer approach to the Italian. 

About the middle of the century the poetry gradually disappeared from 
the French Renaissance, and the so-called '* House of Agnes Sorel,'' at 
Orleans, shows the prosaic nature which characterized the French boiir- 
geoisie of that period, while the bishop's palace at Sens exhibits the some- 
what grander proportions aimed at by the clerical dignitaries of France. 

At that period the display of a more strict classicality was attempted in 
the grand palaces. This induced, on the one hand, freer proportions; on 
the other, a magnificent but purely external artistic development of the 
&9ade. The ideal was like that at which Italian architects had aimed at 
the beginning of the century. It was not, indeed, so magnificent, nor was 
there so much striving after massiveness and simplicity of outline: there 
was only an endeavor to remove the last old survivals, while there was 
still an adherence to the custom of breaking the great masses into smaller 
portions. French edifices of this date present a central building with 
higher and lower wings, a sky-line enlivened by varied forms of gables, 
and finally, drawn over the whole, a screen of architectural forms simply 
decorative and calculated to produce an impression of richness and ele- 
gance. 

TTie Louvre, — This new purpose found expression in the construction 
of the Louvre, which Francis I. began in 1528 in the place of the medi- 
aeval castle which then occupied the site. Pierre Lescot superintended 
the construction after 1546; this older portion is shown on Plate 45 {Jig. 
3). On the river side Lescot built the so-called ''Small Gallery," over 
which was the Galerie d'Apollon, and he also commenced the Long Gal- 
lery, which is more than 400 metres (1322 feet) in length. This palace, 
like other great buildings, has had manifold vicissitudes, and was not 
entirely finished until very recently; so that we have shown the united 
Louvre and Tuileries on Plate 50 {Jig* 6) as a building of the present 
period. While it is clear from the above-mentioned characteristics, and 
can be seen in the illustration, that the poetic glamour of the earlier de- 
cades no longer surrounds, the structures of this period, yet the Chateau 
d'Ecouen (1541; pL ^^Jig. 7) exhibits a positive severity and an applica- 
tion of strictly classical motifs which can have resulted only from a study 
of ancient art in Italy. 

A prominent architect of his day, Philibert de TOrme, built (after 
1552) the Chateau Anet for Diana of Poitiers {pL ^^^Jig* 9); in this also 
the severe classical element prevails. 

The Tuileries. — De POrme commenced (about 1564) the construction 
of the Tuileries, a magnificent palatial design surrounding one large and 
four small courts, yet it was incomplete in execution, and was subse- 
quently remodelled. The system {Jig. 5) used by him exhibits in the ar- 
cades of the lower portion a relationship with the Italian order, but in 
the preservation of the transoms and mullions of the windows, as well 
as in the varied arrangement of the sky-line, it evinces French taste. 



246 ARCHITECTL ^RE. [Italiasi. 

the apse is divided from the aisle around it by a wall; so that in planning 
the spaces the architect seems to have had no other aim than to produce 
some pictures<juc i>erspectives. At this period Michelangelo Buonarotti 
worked at Florence, and in 1520 erected the tombs of the Medici in the 
sacristv of S. Lorenzo. 

Jacopo Sansovino was the architect of a series of palaces in Venice 
in the fourth decade of the sixteenth century — in 1532 the Palazzo 
Corner della CA Grande, in 1536 the Zecca (mint) and the Librar>' of St 
Mark's (pi, ^2,Ji(^, 4), and in 1538 the Church of S. Giorgio dei Greci. 

Baciio d'Aj^pioio was active at Florence until his death, in 1543. 
Though the results are not very magnificent, he had the opportunity to 
distinguish himself as architect of a series of palaces, including, besides 
those already mentioned, the Palazzi Serristori, Levi, Roselli del Turco, 
etc. 

Antouio di Sauj^allo the younger meanwhile went to Rome and directed 
the construction of St. Peter's until his death, in 1546. At the same 
period he built the churches of S. Spirito, Our Lady of Loreto (Sta, Maria 
di Loreto), and the Palazzo Faniese at Rome (//. 43, fig, 5), to which 
Michelangelo afterward added the grand crowning cornice. The Pa- 
lazzo Ruoncompagni at Bologna arose in the year 1545. 

Michclaugelo, — After the death of Sangallo, Michelangelo under- 
took the continuation of St. Peter's at Rome {figs, i, 2), on which he 
worked without remuneration for the good of his soul from 1546 until his 
death, in 1564. He transformed the entire stnicture. Bramante had com- 
menced it as a Greek cross; Raphael would have made it a Latin one 
Michelangelo went back to the idea of a Greek cross, which Peruzzi 
had already continued with four small domes set around the principal 
dome; Antonio di Sangallo's design returned to the Latin cross. 
According to Michelangelo's plan, the grand dome would dominate the 
facade as well as the transepts. It was he who gave to the dome its mag- 
nificent dimensions and beautiful profile, and he arranged the spacing of 
the pilasters of the interior as they appear to-day. Doubtless he laid out 
the immense attic — that new storey above the principal cornice — and thus 
attained for the whole a harmony of proportion which was admirable, but 
which was destroyed afterward by the addition of the nave. His design, 
which he was not permitted to carry out entirely, was continued after his 
death, but in 1605 Carlo Madenia altered the plan to a Latin cross. Other 
works of Michelangelo at Rome are the design of the Capitol, the con- 
struction of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, and, in the last days of his life, the 
Porta Pia. 

After the death of its former architect the Palazzo Famese at Rome 
was undertaken by Michelangelo, who erected the upper part of the facade 
and employed in the columne<l arcades of the court the antique pillar- 
system with attached half-columns, which he executed in two storej'S. In 
later times the hannony of this massively-impressive design has been in- 
jured by the addition of a third storey. 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 247 

In Florence, Baccio d'Agnolo's son Domenico was active in construct- 
ing the Palazzo Nicolina (now Buturlino); in the same city Giovanni 
Antonio Dosio bui^t the Palazzo Larderel, and Bernardo Tasso (1547) 
erected the arcades of the Mercato Nuovo. 

In 1549, Palladio obtained the commission to rebuild the mediaeval 
town-hall of Vicenza, and executed it by erecting a basilica of pure mar- 
ble which shows two storeys of arched windows. 

The palace of Admiral Andrea Doria was built about the middle of 
the sixteenth century at Genoa, and in 1550 the Palazzo Ducale (now 
the Palazzo della Prefettura), the former by the Florentine master Fra 
Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli, the latter by Rocco Pennone. 

Giacamo Barozzi Vignola has had considerable influence upon the 
development of Architecture by the work he wrote upon the orders of 
columns. In this work he gave even the minutest proportions of the 
columns, pillars, arches, and entablatures of the antique monuments of 
the later epochs, as well as of the works of his contemporaries, and above 
all his own compositions, and so established rules which exercised a pow- 
erful influence not only on buildings, but also on all other arts and 
industries, and was also instrumental in spreading the Italian style in 
other lands. Although afterward taste altered, although many of his 
followers employed other orders, yet his system retained its power in all 
periods. Among his edifices erected about the middle of the century must 
be particularly named the Castle of Caprarola, between Rome and Viterbo 
(pL 43, fig. 6), as well as the Villa of Pope Julius III., which he and 
Vasari built at Rome in 1 550-1 555. 

Andrea Marchesi built the Palace of Malvezzi-Campeggi, with its 
exquisite court, and also the Palazzo Fantuzzi at Bologna. The Palazzo 
Bolognetti, of which the lower part is older, was completed in 1551. 
Annibale Lippi erected the Villa Medici at Rome about 1551, and in 
1552 Sansovino built the Fabbriche Nuove at Venice. Between 1555 and 
1559, Pirro Ligorio built the Villa Pia in the Vatican garden. The Uffizi 
at Florence was built by Vasari in 1560. 

Galeazzo Alessi was a leading master of the second half of the six- 
teenth centur>'. He worked chiefly in Genoa, and constructed a number 
of considerable palaces and villas, among which are the Palazzi Lercari, 
Spinola, and Sauli (1553), the beautiful court of the last-named of which 
is shown on Plate 41 {fig- 4). He also constructed the famous Sta. Maria 
da Carignano, in which he approached St. Peter's, which at that time was 
under the direction of Michelangelo, and in the interior he attained a par- 
ticularly harmonious effect. 

Bartolommco Ammanaii\ a pupil of Sansovino, was at work during the 
second half of the sixteenth centur>' principally in Florence, where he 
built many private houses, the courts of which are adorned with porti- 
coesi His chief works are the Great Santa Triniti bridge over the Amo 
and the court of the Palazzo Pitti. 

The small Palazzo Riccardi at Florence, built in 1565, is a work of 



24S ARCniTECrURE. [Italian. 

Bernardo HiioiUalcnti, who also erected the entrance-hall of the hospital 
(Osi)edale Sta. Maria Nuovaj in that city. 

Clutrch i)f 11 (tcsu. — Anionj^ the most conspicuous churches at Rome 
built in the second half of the sixteenth century is that of II Gcsu, 
erected by Vij^nola in 1568. This has a tunnel- vaulted nave with a 
row of chapels on each side, a cujMjla, and tunnel-vaulted transepts and 
clioir ending in an apse — an arrangement which henceforth, particularly 
with a fa<;a(le havin*; two towers, was for a \o\\*^ time predominant, and 
which to a cert^yn extent put a stop to the individual endeavors of the 
masters of the Renaissance to work out a suitable form of church. It 
was, in fact, a new ideal for the Church, corresponding with the taste 
of the times. It does not differ verv widelv from that of the Middle 
Ages. 

Though these churches were not carried so high as the French cathe- 
drals of the mediaeval times, the massive pilasters gave them an aspiring 
effect. The ample space of the nave formed a fit place for the reception 
of a great assemblage in front of the pulpit, where each could see the Host 
as it was brought to the altar. In the side-chapels individuals could cam' 
on their devotions undisturbed or several priests could read mass at the 
same time. The light falling from the cupola and the lighting of the 
scj)arate chapels, as well as of the principal aisle, transepts, and choir, are 
extraordinarily effective — almost theatrical. The arrangement, which 
would be sober for simple forms, could by pompous stucco-ornamenta- 
tion, siiCh as was executed at a later date, be caused to make a bewil- 
dering impression. 

lint this almost theatrical pomp is expressed in the entire spirit of the 
following peritKl. Not simple earnestness, not modest dignity, but great 
expenditure, was what dazzled and fascinated, which in union with the 
mystical effects induced by the mode of lighting captivated the eyes and 
hearts of the ih!oi)1c. The sombre nave led the eye upward to the light 
of the cupola, where the sculptured and painted heavenly choir seemed to 
move to and fro and to join in the hymn of jubilant praise whose clear 
notes were intoned rapturously through the halls while the clouds of 
incense arose on high. It was, in fact, the taste of the period wliicli 
found expression in that church-arrangement with which Vignola in the 
Church II ( icsu closetl liie attempts of individual artists. 

- Indrra Pailadio was active in \'icenza at the same time with Vignola. 
In his lifetime he was but little distinguished above his contemporaries, 
but, like Vignola, he exercised great influence through the preparation of 
a system of llie orders. He endeavored to give his structures an imposing 
effect by grand i)roportions and colossal ranges of pilasters, which rose 
throuL;h several storeys. He produced his effects exclusively, not by 
exj^rtssing the interior arrangements, but by the im]X)rtance of the parts. 
He had to erect his buildings of brick, but he covered them with stucco 
t(» form massive-looking rustications, and constnicted colonnades whose 
entablatures he formed of wood in classic form. The Palazzo Tiene of 



Italian.] RENAISSANCE. 249 

1556-1558 is partly under the influence of Giulio Romano's works at Man- 
tua. The Palazzo Chieregati (1566; now the Museo Civico) has two 
ranges of half-columns, which are continued at the sides as open halls. 
In the Palazzo Valmarano (1566) there is a reminiscence of the antique 
temple-pediment in the form of six great pilasters, rising through two 
storeys, placed in front of the facade, whose entablature is broken around 
them. The meaning of this arrangement is not clear to the unarchitec- 
tural eye, as the fa5ade is only one bay longer on each side and the want 
of the great pilasters at the angles is greatly felt. Only an antiquary can 
tell what the artist intended. An attic affords a third storey. 

The Palazzo Barbarano (1570) at Vicenza is richly decorated, as is also 
the Palazzo Prefettizio, or Loggia del Delegato. The Teatro Olimpico 
was built in 1584 according to Palladio^s designs, and is an imitation of 
an antique theatre. S. Giorgio Maggiore was built in 1560, and the 
Church of the Redeemer at Venice in 1576 {pi, 40, fig. 5). The fa9ade 
of the latter reminds us of the ancient temple-fagade, which is completely 
realized in the villa shown on Plate 43 {fig. 7). 

Pellegrino Tibaldi built the court of the archbishop's palace as well as 
the Palazzo Magnani at Bologna and the court of the archbishop's palace 
at Milan, and he also added to the facade of the cathedral at Milan the por- 
tal and the magnificent windows, which, however, mar the harmony of the 
arrangement. The Villa Medici, erected by Annibale Lippi on the Monte 
Pincio at Rome, has open arcades between tower-like, elevated angle-build- 
ings and rich plastic adornments. In 1582, Scamozzi commenced the 
Procurazie Nuove (now the Palazzo Reale) at Venice. 

The form-development of the Renaissance, that second birth of antique 
art, had made a long stride forward. From a refined delicacy of detail it 
had passed on to an exuberance of strength which was perhaps more an- 
tique than that delicacy, but only in the sense of the last period of the 
antique — that of its decadence. From a characterization of the whole 
which permitted the meaning of each part to be expressed, it had led to 
the ensemble in which each characteristic of the several parts was hidden 
behind an empty screen of forms. The attempt to gain effect through 
imposing masses had given rise to a confusion of conventionalisms which 
was augmented through the attempt of each master to surpass all others. 
Michelangelo had already shown the way to this through the excess of his 
originality, and after his death two decades had scarcely passed before a 
deeper decadence set in, the beginning of complete degeneracy. Before 
we can follow architectural development farther in this direction we must 
cast a glance over other countries. 

Italy had in the course of the fifteenth centur>' become practically the 
centre of intelligence, and exercised a powerful influence on all other na- 
tions through the flourishing condition of its sciences. The cultivation 
of classical literature, the desire to create a new literature founded upon 
the genius and the forms of the ancient, were ever\'where more or less 
progressive. Young men ardent for knowledge flocked from all nations 



250 ARCHITECTURE. [Spawish. 

to the Italian universities, and, while in earlier times only campaigns or 
pilj^rinia^cs brought the natives of other countries into Italy, now they 
came to see the land whose nature was considered marvellous — the land 
I ha: w:is the home and the theatre of that wondrous ancient world and 
its ^rand deeds, the laud that had given a new culture to mankind. 
The renovated, the resurrected old captivated the eyes, and the fame 
of the art-supremacy of the Italians was not less than their scientific 
celebrity; so that the former soon extended its influence to other lands, 
as had been the case with the latter. 

2. Spanish Renaissance. 

Spain was the first country- into which the new style penetrated. En- 
ri(|ue dc IC<^:us built in 14S0 the College of Sta. Cruz at Valladolid, and 
in the same city, in 1488, there followed the Colegio S. Gregorio, which 
is particularly channing from the richness of its detail. In these struc- 
tures we find only certain antique details mixed with Gothic and Mo- 
rcsijue elements. In 1504 the same master constructed the portal of the 
foundling hospital at Toledo, which has a tympanum richly adorned with 
sculi)tures and enclosed in a round arch. In 1521, Ibarra built the Co- 
legio Mayor at Salamanca, and at the same period the Casa de los Muertos 
and the Palace of the Marquesa de las Naves were erected in the same 
citv. 

In 1526, Charles V. permitted a portion of the Alhambra, at Granada, 
to be taken down that a piilace might be executed after the plans of Ma- 
chuca. In this structure the classical style already appears in tolerable 
purity. The principal portion is a circular range of Doric columns, with 
an Ionic one above, surrounding a court. (See ground-plan,//. 2i^fig, 6.) 

In 1529, Diego de Siloe began the Cathedral of Granada in strict classi- 
cal style; that of Malaga is also ascribed to the same master. The chap* 
tcr-iiouse of Seville Calhetlral, built by Diego Rauo in 1530, shows also a 
classical construction, while the royal chapel built in 1531 by Alonso de 
Covarrubias in the Cathetlral of Toledo has indeed the principal details 
.unique, but among them the varied forms of the Christian mediaeval 
jKTi\.Hl are brought in with exuberant splendor. 

The s;icrisly <A the Cathedral of Seville (1533) and the city-hall 
\iiy:tN!aniu'9ttiA of the same city alsi> allow this mixture of forms to appear 
in the most elegant manner, while the archbishop's palace at Alcali de 
Ilcnaros, built U554^ hy the above-mentioned Alonso, shows a pleasant 
court similar to those of Florence, with Corinthian-like capitals and 
:onud aiohcs witli auliquo profiles, haviui; alxne them a second storey of 
similar oo!u!nus, the lailer surroundeil by an architrave which carries a 
:oi>f. The ooun of the Couvoui yA Luziana is similar; this is surrounded 
l^v four >iou\s \>\ \.vlv»nuaik's of considerable dimensions, some united by 
iou!ul aichos, others bv iivumI arches, wliilo siili others carr>- an architrave. 
The oollc'^iaie cb.tircli ai 0>uua -la^i a maiinificeui jxutal of the year 1534. 
The AlkTa.-ar of Toledo ^ 1537) recalls ihc fasMdc of the Fomcse Palace at 



French.] RENAISSANCE. 251 

Rome, and it may therefore be asked whether a later alteration has not 
intruded into the work of Alonso de Covarrubias. The fine cloister built 
(1546) by the same master at S. Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia is, how- 
ever, still intact 

The faQade of the Convent of S. Marcos at Leon is in the full bloom 
of the early Renaissance, as is also the richly-adorned cloister of S. Ziol at 
Carrion, both works of Juan de Badajos. The severe and inharmonious 
triumphal arch erected by Charles V. at Burgos in honor of Fernan Gon- 
zalez, and the Cathedral of Jaen, built by Pedro de Valdelvira, are works 
of the classical style. Less strictly so are the Colegio S. Nicolas, the tran- 
sept of the cathedral, and the Casa del Cordon at Burgos, the famous 
Chapel de los Beneventes at Medina de Rio Seco, and the Carcel del Corte 
at Baeza. 

With even greater coldness the classical style is displayed at the Con- 
vent S. Lorenzo of the Escorial, begun in 1563 by Philip II. accord- 
ing to the plans of Juan of Toledo, who died in 1567, leaving its comple- 
tion to his pupil Juan de Herrera. The Cathedral of Valladolid, the south 
side of the Alcazar of Toledo, the Bolsa (Exchange), the palace at Aranjuez, 
and the Casa de Oficios at Seville, are all the works of Herrera. In these 
Palladio's influence is manifest, as it is also in the works of Herrera' s 
contemporaries and immediate successors. 

3. French Renaissance. 

Italian masters were summoned to the court of France as early as 
the reigns of Charles VIII. (1483-1498) and Louis XII. (1498-1515), but it 
was chiefly Francis I. (151 5-1547) who by his zealous advocacy brought 
about a reformation in Architecture and won France over to the Renais- 
sance. Since there were summoned to France such prominent Italian 
masters as Leonardo da Vinci, Benvenuto Cellini, Serlio, Primaticcio, 
etc., it is indeed surprising that only certain Italian forms and motives 
obtained acceptance, that the entire arrangement of the structures followed 
the traditions of ^he fifteenth century, and that the new art-speech found 
application ia^utwajd ornamentation only. Without doubt these mas- 
ters worked more in the line of other arts than directly in Architecture, 
and it may be that some of their works — in which the Italian manner 
appeared conspicuously — ^liave disappeared; but the conditions of life in 
France as a whole differed from those of Italy, and the French Late Gothic, 
which had found an entirely characteristic expression, was too powerful 
to permit the new style to predominate except in the decorative arts. 
Thus the enseynble of the edifices is that of the Late Gothic works. 

The striving after high and wide spaces became even less than in the 
earlier period; the high, broad hall in which the feudal lord assembled his 
retainers diminished in importance, while the small dwelling-rooms gained, 
for a dwelling needs only moderate height. Nobility of proportions had 
■ftot belonged to the French Late Gothic, and in the French Renaissance 
also we find bizarre rather than noble proportions. 



252 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

The ChitroK's — whicli were only of subordinate importance, as the 
works of the thirteenth century still sufficed for the requirements, since 
even their completion, after the eye for hundreds of years had been ac- 
customed to see them as incomplete as a torso, was not taken to heart — 
were built according' to the mediccval system, which was so firmly estab- 
lished that no one imagined it possible to erect a church according to any 
other plan. Therefore only purely external classical forms were used as 
an outward decoration. 

S/n/i/inrs of the Sixtecuth Century, — Xo works of the fifteenth cen- 
tury which had their external decoration in the new style are extant — or, 
at least, are known; therefore the new forms begin with the sixteenth 
century. The Chateau Gaillon (1502-1510) is indeed destroyed, yet a 
remnant rebuilt in the court of the Ecole- des Beaux-Arts at Paris shows 
low storeys in which semicircular arches are not yet employed; so that the 
low reversed curved arch, which is common also in the Late Gothic of 
iM'ance (//. 37, fij^s. i, 6), appears among the new forms. The Palais de 
Justice at Dijon belongs to tlie same early period, and has also a mixture 
of old and new forms, as is likewise the case in the ChSteau Chenonceaux 

The Chdteau Bury, also begun in 151 5 (//. 44, /ig, 8), has the ancient 
round towers of the previous period. These, however, no longer ser\'e 
simply for defence, but have great windows in the fashion of the time 
and are prepared for habitation. The entire main building no longer 
recalls the castle, but has high roofs, gables, and windows reaching to the 
cornice, alx>ve which are dormers enriched with fanciful gabled decora- 
tion, just as in the palace of Late Gothic times. 

The Chditeau lUois, begun in 15 16, allows the mixed architecture to 
ap})ear still more plainly in a pleasing want of harmony — pleasing because 
the naivete of the mixture, the richness and the ornamentation of the 
details, completely disarm criticism, and almost make up for the absence 
of what theory may consider correct. How can the sloping lines of the 
staircase {^fig- 6) be in harmony with the pilaster architecture? How 
can the Gothic recurved arches, the baldachins, the gargoyles, be in har- 
mony with the purely decorative elements of the pilaster ornamenta- 
tion? The massive cornice — partly a reminiscence of the projecting 
water-table — weighs upon the light pilasters and entablature most inhar- 
moniously, and yet how channing is the effect, since it is so characteristic* 
and shows us how the old and the new were commingled at the court of 
Francis I. ! 

The blending of antique and modern elements is effected in the most 
highly-original manner in the Chdteau St. (Jermain, which Francis L 
caused to be rebuilt, retaining at the same time a portion of the medixval 
work. Here massive buttresses of brick fonn the frame in the court, and 
l)etween these the arcades are inserted. Gothic elements cotne out^ 
Strongly also in the choir of St. Ktienne du Mont at Paris, built in 1517- 
154 1. Only isolated Renaissance elements are mingled here, but in the 



French.] RENAISSANCE. 253 

remainder of the structure these come out more strongly, and in the tol- 
erably late fagade (including also the yet later additions, pL 45, Jig, 6) are 
completely predominant. 

Tomb 0/ Louis A//.— Soon after the death of Louis XII. his succes- 
sor, Francis I., had a magnificent tomb erected for the former. Jean 
Juste was the sculptor of this work, which was set up at St. Denis in 1518 
{fig. 8). The figures of the apostles below are additions of a later time. 
In the architecture the master has evidently held closely to Italian art, 
and the Renaissance is here brought into play without admixture with 
mediaeval elements. 

The H6tel d'Anjou at Arigers exhibits an elegant Early Renaissance 
of about the date 1520. The chateaux at Azay-le-Rideau, on the Indre, 
B^n^hart, Lude, St. Amand, and Perch^ are distinguished by the rich 
architecture of the roof-gables and dormers. The last has Gothic gables 
with pinnacles and grotesques, but it is also provided with Corinthian 
pilasters. The chateaux Chdteaubriant and Nantouillet {pi. 44, fig. 5) 
show the mixture of both series of forms. The choir of St. Peter's at 
Caen {pL 45^ fig- i), begun in 1521, has an entirely Gothic system of con- 
struction, but in its decoration it is as completely Renaissance. Among 
the charming works into which Gothic decoration — or, at least, a remi- 
niscence of it — enters more or less among the Gothic constructional forms, 
we may mention the Chateau of Sandifer, with its four round angle- 
towers, its pilaster-adorned windows, each with a mullion and transom, 
and its richly-decorated roof- balcony as a finish to the walls; the Chdteau 
Rocher de M^sanger, with flat arches in the arcade of the court and fan- 
cifully-terminated balcony; and, lastly, the ducal palace at Angers. 

Chdteau Chambord. — In 1523, Francis I. began the erection of the 
Chdteau Chambord, the main building of which is shown on Plate 44 
{fig- 2). Pierre Nepveu, called Trinqueau, superintended its construction. 
The entire design both of this principal building, which was enclosed by 
a rectangular court, and of the wings enclosing this court and flanked on 
their angles with round towers, recalls the mediaeval arrangement. The 
low storeys and the lofty roofs with their gables and chimneys belong to 
the older period, but the fonn-system of the decoration is entirely new 
and shows how exquisitely this new system can be adapted to the roman- 
tic older ground-plan. The lantern over the staircase, which occupies 
the centre of the main building {fig, 10), is especially charming, as are 
also the chimneys, which are decorated with tabernacle-shaped niches 
and every conceivable ornament. The roof — or, properly, the roofs — rise 
independently in the interior above a terrace which extends around the 
entire building — a survival from the strong castle of mediaeval ages. 

Among the churches of this period is St. Pantaloon at Troyes (1524), 
whose columns are Corinthian, while the vaulting is Gothic. St. Michael's 
at Dijon exhibits a complete facade of this epoch, with three round-arched 
portals and a lofty gable between two towers. St. Nicolas's at Troyes 
(1526) has Gothic radiating vaulting, which is in part adorned with free 



254 ARCHITECTURE. [French. 

tracery pendent, below it; here (iotliic constniction predominates. In 
otlicr cases, as in the Palais de Justice at Orleans (//. 45, fig, 7) and that 
of Beau<^cncy (//. 44, fi\^, 3), (lothic motives intnide even into the deco- 
ration of secular structures. Tlie niedireval window-arrangement with 
narrow lights, stone nmllions, and transoms endured longest, as in the 
so-called ** House of I'Vancis I.'' at Fontainebleau, which, with some 
alterations, has lately been removed to Paris {fig, 9). 

Chattau Madrid. — Ciothic motives occur also at the Chdteaii Madrid, 
which Francis I. had erected in 1526 in the Bois de Boulogne near Paris, 
and which, though unfortunately destroyed during the Revolution, Ls 
known, from drawings still preserved, to have been devoid of mediaeval 
character except in that high roof of the North which France even later 
would not give up (fig. i). The arcades — two storeys of which sur- 
round the edifice — show clearly the Italian influence, as does also the 
height of the storeys, which is about 7 metres (23 feet). The architects, 
Pierre Gadier and Ciraticn Francois, the latter of whom carried on the 
building after (radier's death, in 1531, were, however, both Frenchmen. 

The Chateau of Fontainebleau, also a work of Francis I., exhibits more 
completely the forms of the Renaissance, though, indeed, that naivet^ is 
absent which seems so pleasing to us in the works of the mixed styles. 
The small Chdteau of Sansac, near Loches, belongs to the year 1529. On 
a corner of the Rue du Palais de Justice at Troyes there is a house built 
in 1531 which has a charming oriel and an elegant courtyard. Orleans 
and Blois show many examples of similar houses. 

The Church of St, Eustache at Paris was begun in 1532. Its arrange- 
ment is completely Gothic, with the entire apparatus of buttresses and 
flying-buttresses clothed in the wire-drawn proportions of ultra-artificial 
Renaissance forms as in an unsuitable vestment, although some of the 
details are very charming. The impression made by the wild forms of a 
degenerate tracery which fills the round-arched windows is ver>' dis- 
pleasing. 

Hotel de I We, — Most attractive, on the contrary*, is the architecttire of 
the Hotel de Ville at Paris, which was begun in 1533, but on which work 
was afterward suspended until 1549, when it was resumed by the Italian 
Domenico Boccardo after a plan of his own. Notwithstanding the foreign 
birth of its architect, it exhibits entirely French peculiarities. The edi- 
fice had, indeed, a long histor>' down to its completion in 1841 and to its 
rcdestruction in 1S71; and when examining the view on Plate 45 {fig* 2\ 
we mtist not forget that there have been many changes in various parts of 
Boccardo' s plan. 

The Hotel Ecovilh\ at Caen (i535\ may be cited as in many respects 
one of the most channing works of the early French Renaissance. Nobil- 
ity in the proportions of the details here reached its highest point; fonns 
foreign to the Renaissance are already eliminated, and all that remains 
from the older jhm ind is that which can be readily assimilated and worked 
into a hannonious whole (//. 44, yf^. 4). Two examples of the ornament 



French.] RENAISSANCE. 255 

of that date (//. 44, y??*^. 11, 12) exhibit, the first the specifically French 
manner, the second a nearer approach to the Italian. 

About the middle of the century the poetry gradually disappeared from 
the French Renaissance, and the so-called '* House of Agnes Sorel," at 
Orleans, shows the prosaic nature which characterized the French bour- 
geoisie of that period, while the bishop's palace at Sens exhibits the some- 
what grander proportions aimed at by the clerical dignitaries of France. 

At that period the display of a more strict classicality was attempted in 
the grand palaces. This induced, on the one hand, freer proportions; on 
the other, a magnificent but purely external artistic development of the 
fagade. The ideal was like that at which Italian architects had aimed at 
the beginning of the century. It was not, indeed, so magnificent, nor was 
there so much striving after massiveness and simplicity of outline: there 
was only an endeavor to remove the last old survivals, while there was 
still an adherence to the custom of breaking the great masses into smaller 
portions. French edifices of this date present a central building with 
higher and lower wings, a sky-line enlivened by varied forms of gables, 
and finally, drawn over the whole, a screen of architectural forms simply 
decorative and calculated to produce an impression of richness and ele- 
gance. 

The Louvre. — ^This new purpose found expression in the construction 
of the Louvre, which Francis I. began in 1528 in the place of the medi- 
aeval castle which then occupied the site. Pierre Lescot superintended 
the construction after 1546; this older portion is shown on Plate 45 {Jig. 
3). On the river side Lescot built the so-called ''Small Gallery," over 
which was the Galerie d'Apollon, and he also commenced the Long Gal- 
lery, which is more than 400 metres (1322 feet) in length. This palace, 
like other great buildings, has had manifold vicissitudes, and was not 
entirely finished until very recently; so that we have shown the united 
Louvre and Tuileries on Plate 50 {Jig. 6) as a building of the present 
period. While it is clear from the above-mentioned characteristics, and 
can be seen in the illustration, that the poetic glamour of the earlier de- 
cades no longer surrounds, the structures of this period, yet the Chdteau 
d'Ecouen (1541; //. 44,y?f. 7) exhibits a positive severity and an applica- 
tion of strictly classical motifs which can have resulted only from a study 
of ancient art in Italy. 

A prominent architect of his day, Philibert de POrme, built (after 
1552) the Chiteau Anet for Diana of Poitiers {pi. ^S^fig> 9); in this also 
the severe classical element prevails. 

TTie Tuileries. — De I'Orme commenced (about 1564) the construction 
of the Tuileries, a magnificent palatial design surrounding one large and 
four small courts, yet it was incomplete in execution, and was subse- 
quently remodelled. The system {J^g. 5) used by him exhibits in the ar- 
cades of the lower portion a relationship with the Italian order, but in 
the preservation of the transoms and mullions of the windows, as well 
as in the varied arrangement of the sky-line, it evinces French taste* 



256 ARCHITECTL 'RE. [Glrman. 

Elco^ance of form and ricliness of details are characteristic of the lower 
lx)rtion, and, in so far as this deviates from both the Italian and the 
antique, Dc TOrme was justifiable in designating the system hi vented by 
him as ** the French order/' 

Characteristic of this rVench order is the treatment of the shafts of tlic 
columns {pi. 45, //^^ 10), that have their unity destroyed by projectin*^ 
blocks which run through both piers and columns, yet which were 
meant as a membcring and decoration of the piers following naturally 
upon his mode of treatment, to which even the pilaster was necessarily 
forced to submit. The Italians had, indeed, already employed such 
blocking-courses in the treatment of both columns and pilasters (Palazzo 
Hevilacqua), but the perfecting of the details was reserved for the French. 
The ancients had used caryatides only exceptionally; the French idea was 
to emj>loy them even more frequently than Michelangelo and his imitators 
had done, and to ur.ite them in picturesque groups, as in the pavilion of 
the Louvre, or to employ in their stead the Hermes with a base narrower 
tlian the upper jKirt (even at the Chateau Chenonccaux, where they are 
perhaps a later addition). De TOrme's successor at the Tuileries was the 
before-mentioned Hullant. 

Jacijues Andiv)uct and his brother Baptiste du Cerceau had previously 
gained celebrity through their publications. The son of the latter was Lcs- 
cot's successor at the Louvre, and erected, under commission from Henr}' 
IV., a part of the gallery which bears that king's name. "Wliile in the 
eastern part (//;'-. 4) he followed the system adopted in the Louvre, the 
western jxirt has pilasters that run through two storeys, somewhat as they 
were applied by the Italians, who added an en4rcso! in the height of a 
pilaster, or, as at St. Peter's, used a single pilaster — which actually corre- 
six)nds to a single storey — through two rows of windows, which gave the 
aspect of two storeys, until finally Palladio provided two complete storeys 
with only one pilaster. 

4. Gkrman Renaiss.vnce. 

In Germany no court was powerful enough to introduce the new 
style. Isolated instances were not wanting, but its general adoption 
could have proceeded only from the heart of the people, who, howe\'er, 
clung tenaciously to old traditions, and whose peculiarities had found 
definite expression in the Late Gothic; so that they could neither comprcs 
hend the new style nor warmly welcome it. Purely artistic though the 
Late Gothic in many respects undoubtedly is, it yet was not evolved out 
of the intention to attain artistic beauty in an ideal sense. 

The genius of the Gennans was not so ideally constituted: quaintncss 
satisfied their wants, and they accepted naturally as quaintness the bizarre 
ornamentation with which the master played who found its emplo}anent 
quite natural because he had so learned it in his workshop. But what- 
ever was in this manner given and accepted as quaint must have always 



German.] RENAISSANCE. 257 

sprung from the essence of the national genius. The contrast between 
the Germans and the Italians is thus anew brought clearly before the eye. 

The influence of classical studies — which tended to revive the genius 
and sense of the ancient paganism that had been subverted by Christianity 
— was, whether consciously or unconsciously, the antithesis of the teach- 
ings of Christianity, and was the sole cause which led Italy to take up 
again the classical art-fonns; and it followed as a necessary consequence 
that their entire restoration, so far as outward circumstances and the 
genius of the people would permit, must be the result. 

This spirit had taken hold of a great part of the people of Italy. A 
gulf had long separated the views of the higher classes, ecclesiastical as 
well as secular, from those of the great mass of the people: a '* cultured " 
class, in the modem sense, had been developed that had increased in 
Italy and had embraced all the higher ranks. Not so in Germany, where 
even the higher classes had remained true to the forms and beliefs of the 
people — where even the refinements which were proper to each form of 
culture according to the degree of its development were at home not only 
iri the ranks of the great, but also in those of the bourgeoisie^ who were 
equally conspicuous in all the good and inferior qualities of conser\- atism. 

Restricted Acceptance of the Renaissajtce, — Thus in Germany only 
isolated elements tended toward that new style which had developed quite 
independently among the neighboring people — that new style which had 
been evolved calmly and without effort into a national peculiarity of the 
Italians, but which in consequence of the different climate and genius of 
the Germans had been viewed by the latter without the inclination to 
give up the accustomed style. Still, those classes who were in positive 
contact with the Italians were compelled to receive impressions from their 
neighbors. The imperial court was one. It was not accidental that the 
emperor Maximilian had an intelligent love for the beautiful, and that he 
cherished it for its own sake: this was through the influence of Italy and 
Burgundy. It was not chance that the artists in the perfection of whose 
skill he was interested experienced an ardent desire to see Italy and its 
works of art. German artists were not accustomed to visit Italy; and if 
any had previously been led thither on the pilgrimage usual to the guilds 
of all the trades, they had brought back no definite impression. But the 
power of the imperial court was small in Germany, and its influence was 
still smaller; the emperor himself was therefore compelled to follow the 
bent of the German burghers, and could not wander into ways he would 
certainly have taken had not he and his followers become possessed of 
the prevalent German conservatism. 

On the confines of Germany and Italy, in the Tyrol, the new style 
naturally exercised a deep influence at an early date, but this is so natural 
that this offshoot of Italian art is of little importance, since even the boun- 
daries of the language are so variously intermixed that the termination of 
the Italian elements can scarcely be fixed. 

As immediate eastern neighbors the Polish and Silesian kingdoms not 
Vol. iv.—n 



258 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

only had maintained their independence, but also had developed powerful 
j^overning dynasties. The German bourgeoisie which filled all Poland, 
which gave to the state a solid centre, had never enjoyed political influ- 
ence, and at about the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries stood 
in abrupt contrast to the Polish national genius, at the head of which 
appeared the kings, especially Sigismund I., who forced Italian influence 
into the foreground in opix)sition to Gennan ideas, which he strove to 
bear down or to ** Polonize.'' 

In the introduction of Italians and Italian ideas Sigismund saw the 
only way to set up a Polish genius distinct from the Gennan, and thus to 
give to Poland an apparently national expression. Silesia was but a more 
Germanized part of Poland, and its dukes, descended from the same race 
as the Polish kings, were their vassals in a moral if not in a political 
sense. Many Polish elements still existed in Silesia; so that the new 
ideas brought into Poland and developed there found a certain echo in 
Silesia also, and thus an entrance was secured for Italian art. But, while 
there were German artists who derived from Italy the incitement to spread 
widely the forms of Italian art in Germany, in Poland, where previously 
ail artistic and industrial activity had been in German hands, masters 
were brought from Italy and placed in opposition to the German, and 
Silesia followed this example. 

Earliest Renaissanee Forms, — The oldest presentation of actual Renais- 
sance fonns in Gennany may perhaps be found in Wladislaw's Hall in the 
Im}>crial Castle of Prague. The wonderful Late Gothic vaulting of this 
hall stands in direct contrast with the great windows, which have deci- 
dedly Italian fonns and bear the date 1493. Whether Master Benedict of 
Lann himself inserted these, or whether it was done by an Italian in his 
employ, rnist remain undetennined. The stone crosses made by mullions 
and transou'.s indicate the Bohemian master rather than the Italian. Aus- 
tria presents another work of the fifteenth centur>- in a portal at the so- 
called ** Federlhof '' at Vienna, bearing the date 1497. Breslau contains, 
lK*sidcs I^te Gothic works, a number of smaller monuments that exhibit 
Renaissance forms, particularly mortuary memorials of the close of the 
fifteenth and first years of the sixteenth cenlur>'. 

•^V-v/.V-vfr, wherever it rose above mere mechanical skill, soon adopted 
the new fonns. Thus the famous tomb of St. Sebald at Nuremberg (1508- 
I^lo\ bv Peter Vischer, has onlv the traces of the decoratix-e finish of the 
Gc^thic, while the characteristics of the Renaissance appear in o\-erflowing 
fulness and arc empiovevl with a hannony, a delicacy, and an attractiveness 
wliich not only pune the talented artist, but also speak of earnest studies 
in Italy. In the altar-piece also which Albrecht Diirer designed as a frame 
:V>r his tamous pictUK' of the Trinity for the I*;indau Convent at Nureni- 
^^"r>J O51K the design was mavle in 1n<V>^ the Renaissance has^ with the 
exception oi soxwc slight traces oveqx>wered the Gothic. 

:\^:*:f:*:^, — l^ut it was chiotlv the ^xiin'ers who in their pictures and 
engravings bivught the new style into repute in the first years of the six- 



\ 



German.] RENAISSANCE. 259 

teenth century wherever Architecture or the industrial arts presented 
materials. Thus, Renaissance forms occur in the works of the painter 
Burgkmair as early as 1502 -1507. Diirer and others about the imperial 
court employed these forms very early; Hans Holbein the younger also 
exhibits from the beginning his preference for the forms of the new style. 

We should certainly guard against seeking, in the occurrence of each 
individual form-;;/^/^ like those we meet in Italy, the existing variance 
between the older and the more recent currents of art, since Late Gothic 
art could assimilate many elements without discordance, and its entire 
development was only the continual reception of isolated elements whose 
origin may be traced to various regions. Here, however, where a com- 
plete contrast between the two form-cycles existed, only that must influ- 
ence our judgment which is expressed in those characteristic forms that 
g^ve definite expression to this contrast. We cannot here consider forms 
as conclusive, but only architectural arrangement and ornament, because 
in form-styles the tendency toward naturalism, toward greater freedom of 
conception, manifests itself throughout the whole of the fifteenth century 
— a development which under any circumstances must finally have led to 
similar results. 

In decorative design and arrangement various directions are manifest 
in Germany from the beginning. Now an Italian is the architect, now a 
prominent German master who had studied in Italy, or again a German 
who, familiar only indirectly with the new style, had adopted certain 
peculiarities. The last class of masters desired to show their ability by 
exaggeration, and the greater or lesser delicacy of the candelabra-like 
columns is certainly a test of the extent of their skill. 

The escutcheon with Renaissance framework, for example, bearing the 
date of 1509, which was set up at the Castle of Johannisberg, in Silesia, 
belongs to the province of the lesser works of art, and shows the hand of 
a German who brought out and greatly exaggerated the fantastic elements 
^which still existed to some extent in the Italian Renaissance of the fif- 
teenth century. 

The upper part of the tower of the Church of St. Kilian at Heilbronn 
(1513-1529), built by Hans Schweiner of Weinsberg, is the first great 
monumental work in Germany, outside Austria, in which the new style 
was actually practised, while in Poland an Italian architect had already 
(1512) been summoned to finish the castle at Cracow. But the forms 
which Master Schweiner employed are very wild and confused, and show 
in their gross fantasticality no trace of that delicacy of form that distin- 
guished the Italian edifices which he may have studied to some extent 
But the portal of the Chapel of St. Salvator at Vienna (1515), with its 
candelabra- like columns, appears by its harmony of forms and the elegance 
of many details to be, if not the work of an Italian — of whom many can 
be authenticated as active in Austria — the work of a German who had 
obtained his inspiration from original sources. 

The Renaissance was first brought into Switzerland by painters who 



26o ARCHITECTURE. [Goiiian. 

adorned the fa(;ade.s with their brilliant colors, and who thus often worked 
in contrast to the intentions of the Gothic architect. Among the earliest 
of these paintin<>^sniust be reckoned those which Hans Holbein executed in 
15 16 in the Hertenstein House at Lucerne; of the same year are the wall- 
paintings with many Renaissance motifs at Stein, in Switzerland. A por- 
tal in Renaissance style leading to the sacristy from the aisle around the 
apse of the cathedral at Brcslau bears the date 151 7. At the Town-hall 
of Freiburj; in Hrcisgau the date 151 8 occurs on a Renaissance shield, so 
that the various Renaissance elements which mingle with the Gothic 
belong to that date. 

A larger structure in the new style is the parish church at Ratisbon, 
erected between 15 19 and 1538 by the Augsburg master Hans Hiber. Only 
the choir, with the two towers, was executed, while a magnificent polygonal 
structure which would have formed the church proper was never finished. 
Also the windows of the cloisters of the cathedral — perhaps a work of 
Wolfgang Roritzer — show in their framework the fantastic candelabra- 
like cohnnns of the Italian Renaissance with measureless exaggeration, 
Tlie Renaissance reached Wiirzburg in the tomb of Bishop Lorenz von 
Bibra (151 9), constructed by Tilman Riemenschneider. The episcopal 
residence at Freising, built in 1520, is exteriorly quite simple and un- 
adorned, since the fa(;ade was intended to Ijc covered throughout with 
wall-paintings. In the court is a gallery in which Gothic and Renais- 
sance are mingled. The Jagellon chajx^l at the Cathedral of Cracow was» 
however, erected by the Florentine master Bartolommeo in the noblest 
fonns of the Italian Renaissance; a round dome with a lantern above a 
square space bears the date 1520. The Tucher Monument, in the Cathe- 
dral of Ratisbon, executed in 1521 in Peter Vischer's foundry at Xurein- 
berg, shows decided and pure Renaissance forms. Gothic elements 
mingled with some of the Renaissance are exhibited in the Leinwand- 
liaus at Breslau; the Renaissance brings to mind Venetian models. The 
beautiful portal of the arsenal built by Ferdinand I. at Vienna-Nenstadt 
(1524) is probably the work of an Italian. 

spread of the Renaissance, — The new style now continually widened 
its boundaries and became more and more generally accepted. In almost 
all parts of Germany church dignitaries and chapters were henceforward 
in unison with the Italians. 

The oldest Renaissance-work on the Rhine is probably the lectern of 
St. Maria in Capitulo, which was executed at Mechlin in 1521, and set up 
at Cologne. A decided promoter of the new style was Albrecht of Bran- 
denburg, archbishop of Mayence, who in 1525 had caused the erection for 
himself of a sepulchral monument in the collegiate church at Aschaflfen- 
burg; Peter Vischer was employed to execute the work. The beautiful 
Judenbrunnen (** Jew's Fountain •') which he constnicted at Mayence in 
memor\' of the battle of Pavia dates from 1526, and of the same date is 
the pulpit which he placed in the collegiate church at Halle, where in 
1529 he began the old episcopal residence. 



i 



\ 



k. 

i 



Okrman.] renaissance. 261 

The monument of Frederick the Wise at Wittenberg (1527) indicates 
the extension of the style. The chapter-house at Breslau dates from 
1527; the construction of the castle at Liegnitz was begun between 1527 
and 1529, and its portal bears the date 1533. The town-hall at Breslau 
and the interesting house **Zur Krone" in the same city date from 1528. 

The Landhaus (council-hall of estates) at Gratz belongs to the first 
decade of the sixteenth century; it is decidedly Italian, the facade recall- 
ing the older Italian period, while the court is allied to the Italian works 
of the sixteenth century. The Castle Porzia (formerly Ortenberg) at 
Spital, in Carinthia, is also an Italian structure. 

The Castle of Dresden was commenced in 1530, and the *' House of 
the Golden Tree'' at Breslau — of the older decoration of which only a 
Telief is now left — ^was built in 1532. The Castle Hertenfels at Torgau 
was, according to its inscriptions, built between 1532 and 1544. 

The beautiful tomb which Stanislaus Sauer caused to be erected for 
himself in the southern transept of the Church of the Holy Cross at 
Breslau dates from 1533, and that which the imperial counsellor Rybisch 
built in St. Elizabeth at Breslau belongs to the following year. 

Tucher Villa, — From the same two years date the first great monu- 
mental structures which were erected at Nuremberg in the Renaissance 
style. One of these is the Tucher Villa (1533), in which forms almost 
Gothic still prevail, while only a few, but pure and charming. Renais- 
sance elements occur — asr, among others, the beautiful oriel on the street 
side, which is executed entirely in Italian forms, although in general the 
oriel is a German feature not known in Italy. The Hirschvogelhaus, 
with its beautiful architecture (1534), must certainly have been executed 
under Italian influence. 

The Belvedere^ a villa which Ferdinand I. commenced at Prague, is 
the work of the Italian master Paolo della Stella. It consists of a ground- 
floor surrounded by vaulted arches on Ionic columns, and a great hall on 
the first floor with an open gallery around it above the arcades. The 
grandeur and nobility of the proportions of this edifice, particularly of the 
porticoes, make it appear worthy of mention by the side of the noblest 
Italian works of the fifteenth century. The details, particularly the 
mouldings and roofs of the upper windows, are to some extent original, 
to some extent founded on Bramante's architecture, and prove that the 
master took that artist in a degree as his model. The structure must have 
been discontinued in 1541, and could not have been resumed until 1556; 
it was roofed in 1568. The interior decoration was finished about 1589, 
though probably what now remains is not of that date, since in its orig- 
inal condition it appeared unsatisfactory to the art-loving Rudolf II. 

Some charming works date from the years 1534-1537, particularly the 
open staircase, with its portal, and the court of the town-hall at Gorlitz. 
The older portions of the town-hall at Heilbronn date from 1535, and the 
works at the Castle Trausnitz, near Landshut, are of the same date; also 
the castle at Tubingen, v/hich the duke Ulrich had commenced in the old 



\ 

\ 



262 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

style in 1507. During the troubles of his reig^ the works were discon- 
tinued, but in 1535 were resumed and zealously prosecuted; so that by 
1540 over sixty-four thousand florins had been expended, and yet the suc- 
ceeding dukes found sufficient work to do. 

Albrecht of Brandenburg (1536) erected the majestic baldachin over 
the tomb of St. Margaret in the collegiate church at Aschaffenburg, one 
of the most prominent works of Peter Vischer's foundry. The palace at 
Landshut was erected by Italian masters (1536-1543) in the Italian Renais- 
sance verging on harocco^ which was then current in Italy. The pilasters 
nm through two storeys, and the rustications of the ground-floor, with the 
alternating curved and straight-lined gables, are such as were employed 
by Raphael and Giulio Romano, from whose schools the masters had 
come. A comer house on the principal street of Old Colmar bears the 
date 1538; it has an oriel on the angle, a widely-projecting woodwork 
gallery in front of the uppennost storey, and paintings on the facade, with 
many mediaeval traces among the Renaissance forms. The castle at Ncu- 
burg, on the Danube, bears on diflerent parts the dates 1538, 1541, and 
1545, which thus show the time of their erection. The town-hall at 
Leitmeritz dates from 1539. 

This series of the oldest Renaissance buildings of Germany is not com* 
plete, but even the complete series is not large, since so many purely dec- 
orative works must be enumerated to show the naturalization of the 
Renaissance. Though some larger castles are included, these are de\'oid 
of the importance of the French works of that date. It is to be noticed 
that many works were executed directly by Italians, and, above all, it 
must not be forgotten that the Gothic style held its sway almost unchanged 
and unrctrenched. The imperial court and the artists favored by it, some 
cathedral chapters and ecclesiastical dignitaries, some secular princes 
whose policy and religious views were leagued with Italy, were the chief 
supporters of the new style; some commercial cities having direct rela- 
tions with Italy followed next; but it was with difficulty that it found 
entrance among the circles which were distinguished as supporters of the 
truly Gennan genius. 

The Reformatiim. — At that time, also, the great stniggle had broken 
out which placed Gennany and the German burgher-spirit in opposition 
to Italy — namely, the Refonnation, to which the development of Italian 
art had indirectly given the impetus, (icnuan money procured from the 
sale of indulgences helped to build St. Peter's at Rome. Albert of Bran- 
denburg, archbishop of Mayence, was the principal collector; he sent out 
Tetzel, who roused Luther's anger and provoked him to the contest The 
greater gayety of the Italians, which was shared even by the highest dig- 
nitaries of the Church, the ideas bordering on frivolity which were cur- 
rent in these circles, were what first brought discord into Germany and 
occasioned the earnest, inwardly-pious Gennans to clamor for a complete 

* Ilic (icrinan Bircvk c<>rrcs)KinJN to the Loui!» (^uaturze st}lc, the word "rococo** bcin^ 
rc*er>-ed for that of I,oui- XV. — Ed. 



German.] RENAISSANCE. 263 

reform of the Church from head to members. The clamor rang unheard 
in the ears of those church dignitaries for whom religion was an empty 
outward form, whose scepticism had led them to adopt the views of clas- 
sical paganism. Against them and their world rose the German spirit, 
which strove to preserve and to purify Christianity and longed to extirpate 
as corruption the external pagan forms which the Renaissance had estab- 
lished in the guiding circles of the Church. The spirit that longed to do 
all this could not accept the series of forms that seemed to be the most 
vivid expression of that against which it fought. 

Effect of the Reformation. — It is not our task to describe the work of 
the Reformation nor to recount how an intended purification of the 
Church resulted in a separation from it; how classical studies were not 
ignored by the Reformers, but were even cultivated by them; how they 
contributed gradually to spread these studies over a wider range; how it 
was precisely the educated princely class and the ecclesiastical party which 
adhered to the Reformation — those who by their power helped the Reforma- 
tion into authority, who brought their intellect and interest to bear in 
spreading the outward education and refinement of the Italians; how in 
Germany also the educated class increased, and how their journeys into 
Italy brought both the spirit and the art of the Italians nearer to those 
who declared themselves independent of the Catholic Church. 

But even the eyes of the people became gradually accustomed to the 
originally foreign forms which soon underwent a transformation, bringing 
them nearer to German tastes. They became even more decorative, and 
so could better adapt themselves to the old methods of construction, which 
still gave expression to the slightly-changed needs. 

Palace-construction, — The construction of churches was first suspended; 
in isolated cases only it became necessary to build a modest town-church. 
The reverse was the case with the burghers' dwellings, and still more 
so with the erection of castles. Soon there was developed in Ger- 
many a palace-architecture proper for which isolated Italian stniotures in 
Germany, especially the Castle of Landshut, formed the basis. We may 
first mention the Rybisch House at Breslau (1540), the property of the 
same imperial counsellor Heinrich Rybisch who had erected for himself 
a splendid tomb during his lifetime (p. 261), also the Collegium Saxoni- 
cum, at Erfurt, founded in 1521, and having an escutcheon with the date 
1542; and the old Hall of Justice at Stuttgart (1543). 

At the Castle of Heidelberg, Frederick II. (1544-1556) executed a 
large building which exhibits many Gothic features, but for whose inner 
decoration stucco-workers were brought from Wiirtemberg, from which it 
resulted that the finish and decoration belong entirely to the spirit of 
the new style. He also caused to be executed in the older portions of 
the edifice chimney-pieces and other decorative features which display 
the Renaissance in its most brilliant aspect; such a chimney-piece 
in the Ruprechtsbau at Heidelberg bears the date 1545. To this year 
belongs also the Schwarzenberg Palace at Prague, whose facade is adorned 



^04 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

with .::';-!?//.'/ 'onianieiits. Tho ornate kctcrn in Hildesheim Cathedral dates 
fru:ii 1546, the Piasteiischloss at Bricg from 1547, the house of the Teu- 
tonic Order at Heilbronu from 154S. The hall of the Rathhaus at Poscn 
\va< biiiil in 1550, the small older jx^rtion of the Ilofburg at Vienna in 1552, 
and in the same year part of the university at Freiburg in Breisgau, and 
the town-hall at Miilhausen, in Alsace. In all these Gothic features 
alnio.-til preijonderate, and it is only through the rich picturesque decora- 
tion that the new style produces most impression. 

In 1553 the architect Abertin Treltsch be^an the erection of the now- 
old castle at Stuttgart — one of the most prominent works of the Gennan 
Renaissance. In the same year the prince's palace at Wismar was com- 
menced. A characteristic brick structure after the Italian model, this 
palace continues the traditions of the Gothic brick-construction. The old 
castie at Schwerin, which has recently been rebuilt with great splendor, 
dates from 1555; the massive round towers of the Nuremberg fortifica- 
tions were built between 1555 and 1568, the town-hall at Lcipsic in 1556, 
tlie Castle of Heldburg in 1558, and the Castle of Giistrow between 1558 
and is^>^. 

Ottn Iliinrichsban, — But the most brilliant work of tliis period is Otto 
Heinrichsbau ( 1556), at the Castle of Heidelberg, whose elegant architec- 
ture recalls the ornate works of the early Renaissance. Three storeys, 
ench (^ metres (nearly 20 feet) high — an exceptional height for Gennaay — 
rise above a hi;^h basement. The windows are regularly spaced, two in 
each of the compartments, which are separated by pila.sters, while com- 
plete entablatures divide the storeys. In the uppermost floor Corinthian 
half-columns take the place of the pilasters; between each two windows 
there is a niche with a figure, and above each niche a console bearing the 
entablature. The windows have stone mullions decorated with figures of 
Hermes, while pilasters and half-columns form the lateral framework and 
bear above the windows an entablature which is also decorated with an oma* 
mental termination. The windows of the lower storeys have pediments, 
and have also what appears to be a later lengthening, obtained at the bot- 
tom below the former sill — probably because their position in the rooms 
was found to be too high for the purposes of a dwelling. 

In its entire arrangement this structure recalls the Palas of the 
great (icrman castles of the twelfth centurj* — an impression that is 
increased by the i^rand staircase leading up to the principal entrance, 
wliich, emphasized with splendid decoration and borne on four car>'atides, 
adai)ts itself strictly to the system of the whole and with all its magnif- 
icence is devoid of exaggeration. Thus the pre-eminence of the entire 
creation, which mav Ix? called the noblest work of the Renaissance in 
Germany, dejK*nds ujXDU skilful and nobly-artistic proportions and upon a 
wise rlisi>osition of the rich details. This noble artistic refinement — 
which, it is true, docs not approach that of the older Italians, but which 
is not to be found in other German edifices of the same period — ^would 
suggest the opinion that in Otto Ileiurich's building we have to admire 



German.] RENAISSANCE. 265 

the work of a later Italian who yet clung to the older traditions, or that 
the workmen were Italians, did not the lofty German gables which this 
structure {pi. 46, Jig. 2) formerly bore prove the contrary. 

Decadence of German Renaissance. — Farther on in the century this 
correctness of proportion diminished more and more in Germany; as the 
style became more general, the more mechanically was it executed. The 
mouldings became ruder, the elements more baroque^ the distribution of 
the ornaments less intelligible, the ornament itself more mannered. 
Again that conservatism which formerly characterized the Germans 
appears in their architecture. But the honest citizen simplicity, the quiet 
homeliness, which is expressed in the great majority of the burghers' 
dwellings has something which so breathes of home that we willingly 
forgive the German bourgeoisie that they have erected these buildings 
not with the intention of making works of art, but to provide themselves 
with cherished homes suitable to their wants, and that only a few of the 
rich and the highly educated were acquainted with the more splendid 
sides of the style. 

Of the many works belonging to the close of the century' which fill all 
the German cities, we will name only a few. The tall spire which was 
added in 1 559-1 561 to the tower of the town-hall of the Altstadt of Dant- 
zic may be mentioned as a particularly original work. The castle at Oels 
(1559-1616) and the original tomb of Edo Wiemken (1561-1564), in the 
church at Jever, may also be named. The latter is a great polygonal 
baldachin under which stands the sarcophagus, richly adorned with varied 
sculptures, among which are God the Father, and Christ on the cross, in 
company with Jupiter, Venus, Minerva, and other gods, and with allegor- 
ical figures of the Christian virtues. 

The erection of the grand Castle Plassenburg lasted from 1561 to 1599; 
several German and some Italian architects who had come over from 
Ansbach were engaged in its construction. About 1563 important build- 
ings were added to the Castle Ambras, near Innsbruck; the Castle Offen- 
bach near Frankfort was built between 1564 and 1572, that at Baden- 
Baden in 1569, the Heiligenberg on the Lake of Constance between 
1569 and 1587, in 1570 the beautiful porticoes of the town-hall at Lii- 
beck, that of Schweinfurt {Jig. 6) in the same year, and in 1569 the en- 
trance-portico to the Rathhaus at Cologne, whose perfectly-systematic 
Renaissance architecture has yet the foreign element of pointed arches 
{fig. 4), while the Gothic lead-work of the roof does not at all disturb 
the harmonv. 

Such isolated Gothic elements are scarcely ever lacking in structures 
of this period. Thus the Rathhaus at Schweinfurt has an open-work 
gallery round the roof, the Castle Heiligenberg has radiating vaulting in 
its chapel, and other buildings have other Gothic features. We have also, 
again with the same naivete, the characteristics of the interior expressed 
externally; for after the German bourgeoisie had taken hold of and assim- 
ilated the Renaissance they again departed from strict symmetry', and went 



\ 



2t6 ARCHITECTURE. [German. 

b.ick without scruple to those greater and lesser irregularities which were 
?u::cd to their wants. Even Gothic cannot go farther than to cut oblique 
•.vindows in the walls just where a staircase had to be lighted, as is done 
in the Rathhaus at Schwcinfurt and in so many other buildings. The 
town-hall at Rothenburg was built in 1572, that of Gotha in 1574, and 
the ori<^inal and important Rathhaus of Emden in the same year. The 
last has a gallery in front of the uppermost storey and a clock and bell- 
tower rising out of the roof. 

The Lusthaus at Stuttgart, which Georg Beer and other masters built 
between 1575 and 1593, is one of the most original of buildings. The 
architect has set before himself the same task as at the Belvedere at 
Prague. There is a ground-floor surrounded by a portico, above which an 
open terrace surrounds the great hall on the first floor. Four low round 
towers with pointed, tent-like roofs, upon the four angles of the portico, 
may be cited as a reminiscence of the old military construction, and may 
add to the originality, but not to the classical nobility, of the ensemble, 
liic^^ant cabinets and pavilions were in this age formed of the towers once 
intended for defensive purposes. Above all, it is the high German roof, 
with its richly-ornamented gables at the ends, that stamps the structure as 
specially German, and w^hen compared with the Belvedere at Prague 
shows how far the (ierman taste was from desiring to produce a structure 
which should be a fully-rounded classical work of art. At Prague we meet 
classical nobility; at Stuttgart picturesque and characteristic originality 
without noble proportions of the whole. Yet the detail of the structure, 
especially of the porticoes around it, must be esteemed pure and noble. 
Unfortunately, in the middle of the present century the unwarrantable 
barbarity of destroying the original structure was perpetrated. 

The Marburg at Munich and the Geltenzimft House at Basel date from 
1578, and both have regular palatial facades. The magnificent Church of 
St. Michael at Munich was built between 1582 and 1597; its immense 
tunnel-vaulted nave with a row of chapels on each side produces an 
impression of grandeur scarcely attained by any mediaeval church, yet, 
notwithstanding the magnificence and the skilful effects of the lighting. 
does not present that special church-like appearance which characterizes 
the Gothic structures. The lofty gate of Dantzic and the small Castle of 
Gottesau, near Carlsruhe, with its five towers, belong to the year 1588. 
Tlie charming Topler House at Nuremberg, in which the fantasy of the 
mediccval ages again appears, except in some tracery which assumes 
wildly classical forms, belongs to the year 1590. The Gewandhaus at 
Hrunswick (1590) returns entirely to the design of the mediaeval gable- 
house with manv low storcvs thicklv covered with Renaissance oniamen- 
lation (pi, 46, JifT, 3). 

The Knight's House at Hcidellx^rg (/?^. i) also shows in the fan- 
tastic contours of the gables and in many details vagaries going e\Tn 
beyond the privileges of fancy, as is also the case with the gables and 
windows of the university at Helmstadt, constructed 1593-1613. The 



German.] RENAISSANCE. 267 

New Church at Wiirzburg (1591) has departed from mediaeval church- 
traditions in every important respect, yet has preserved many traces of 
them. After the pattern of the Rialto at Venice is the Fleischbriicke at 
Nuremberg, with its one mighty arch, erected between 1596 and 1598 by 
the architects linger and Stromer, and exhibiting a work of public utility 
essentially remodelled with the special aim of producing a work of art. 
The church at Freudenstadt (1599) is original in the highest degree, but 
proves in its beautiful Gothic netted vaulting and a number of other parts 
that at that time Gothic was not by any means extinct. 

Works of the Seventeenth Century, — Among the works, which carry 
this older style into the seventeenth century, albeit with many baroque 
details, some following more the palace style, others, again, perpetuating 
the old German gabled house, we may mention the Neue Ban at Stuttgart 
(1600-1609), which is four storeys high and at the angles and in the centre 
of the sides has towers a storey higher, adorned with many balconies. In 
the eighteenth century this edifice was unfortunately burned, and was 
afterward demolished. The royal palace at Munich, erected between. 
1600 and 1616, follows even more the Italian style of Bernini's time, 
especially in the marble decorations, while the architecture of the facade, 
entirely painted on smooth ornamented surfaces, and the pilasters runnings 
through several storeys, recall Palladian motifs without obtaining their 
severity. 

Tlie Friedrichsbau at the Castle of Heidelberg, with its two lofty 
gables — which our view of the court (//. 46, fig, 2) shows exactly oppo- 
site, adjoining the porticoed structure of Frederick I. — continues, indeed, 
the system of the Otto Heinrichsbau, but is more massive and allows the 
details, especially the entablatures, which are broken around the pilasters, 
so to stand out that they entirely dominate the impression of the ensemble. 
Yet many details are very clever, as the manner in which the vertical 
membering of the pilasters and that of the figure-niches blend with each 
other, and in the piers between the windows, which, after a projection, 
under the capitals corresponding to the heads of the Hermes figures, widen 
out into breaiSts and shoulders, and thence, mummy-like, narrow downward 
to the feet, which are again allowed to project uncovered. The pilasters — 
those which have Hermes figures, as well as the others — are overlaid with 
rich ornament. The massive projecting cornice, as well as the exuber- 
ance of the ornamentation, gives to the entire structure an extremely pic- 
turesque effect. This structure of the year 1601 shows no longer Italian 
gayety, but German gravity. The aspect of the Spiesshof at Basel is more 
Italian, and it was probably finished a little earlier, since its interior finish 
bears the dates 1601 and 1607. 

Arsenal at Dantsic, — A varied fantasy similar to that which is appa- 
rent in the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Castle is also displayed by 
the much more simple forms at the arsenal at Dantzic (1605), in which, as 
in many buildings of the Netherlands, a more vivid effect is produced by 
the use of light-colored stones whose clear tint shows boldly out from the 



268 . ARCHITECTURE. [English and 

dark red-brick walls in which they are inserted according to a definite 
svsteni. 

The Pclhrhaus at Nuremberg (1605) is equally fanciful in its gable and 
is almost overwhelmed with mouldings and ornament, but the details are 
smaller, corresponding to the smaller dimensions; so that the effect of the 
ensimbic is not destroyed by the burden of the ornament The court (//. 
47, fi^a;, I ), with its porticoes, balconies, and terraces, has all the romance 
of the Middle Ages notwithstanding its baroque details; Gothic motives 
are still present in the fan-groining, in the execution of the spiral stair- 
cases, in the open-work of the parapets, and, indeed, in so many ways 
that the late date is but another, and yet not the final, proof of how deeply 
the Gothic style had jx^rmeated the Gennan spirit. 

The Church of St. Mary at Wolfenbiittel, begim in 1608 and finished 
in 1660, is another proof of this. It has narrow pointed windows filled 
with remarkable reproductions of Gothic tracer)', lighting three aisles of 
equal height separated by octangular pillars and ceiled with Gothic vault- 
ing, though ever>' portion of the moulding exhibits the wildest forms of 
the latest Renaissance. 

The Toxcn-hall at Bremen {pi, 46, y?^. 5) was restored in 1612. The 
older Gothic part was preser\'ed, and the newer portion shows baroque 
elements. 

The Castle of Aschajfeuburg^ erected by Georg Ridinger of Strasburg 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century- and finished in 1613, exhibits 
the palace §tyle in tolerably simple but solid forms, and is dominated by 
massive towers in which the old castellated character is still displayed. 

The House of Liebpiitc, at Hanover, belongs also to the seventeenth 
centur>-, and shows how this picturesque Gothic style, which corresponds 
so well to Gennan taste, long held its own in isolated works. Indeed, the 
German gabled house, with low storeys and its fantastic decoration of 
curved gable lines, remained predominant throughout the seventeenth 
centur\' in most Gennan cities, not onlv after a new direction had been 
given to art, but also after all the details had been completely changed. 
In many cities it continued in use throughout the entire eighteenth 
centurv. 

5. English and Scaxdixavian Renaissance. 

The popular taste of Scandinavia and England accepted the Renais- 
sance even less promptly than Germany. There was, besides the national, 
a farther-reaching Protestant trait in the efforts made against the art-direc^ 
tion so zealously cherished by the Catholic Church. England scarcely ac- 
cepted the Renaissance proi>er, though, like Germany, she could not 
entirely reject it. Individual Italian artists executed isolated works there; 
thus, Pietro Torrigiani constructed in the Chapel of Henr>' VII., in West- 
minster Abbey, in 1519, the Tomb of Henr>' VII. and of his spouse, 
Klizal)etlK ns also that of his mother, Margaret of Richmond. It is in 
Caius College, at Cambridge (,1565-1574), that we first find a large build- 



Scandinavian.] RENAISSANCE. 269 

ing in the new style; it was the work of a German architect, Theodore 
Have of Cleves, and exhibits fantastic but picturesque English-Gothic 
elements mingled with the antique. 

Longieat House was built between 1567 and 1579 by an Italian archi- 
tect, Giovanni of Padua. This is a stately castle forming a great rect- 
angle enclosing two courts separated by an intermediate building. It has 
three orders of pilasters with Gothic mullioued windows between them, 
and is varied by great bay-windows from top to bottom. The Italian 
must have accommodated himself to English customs and ideas. 

Wollaion House ^ begun in 1580, has a high central structure with arched 
windows and four projecting angle-towers at the top. The central structure 
is flat-roofed, has a thoroughly mediaeval character, and is surrounded by 
fantastically-shaped two-storey structures with three-storey angle-towers 
decorated with pilasters and entablatures and pierced by great rectangular 
windows with mullions and transoms. The architecture of these wings 
is baroque and wanting in repose, while the massive central structure 
rises solemnly above them. 

The Castle Nykiobing^ on the island of Falster (Denmark), built in 
1589, consists of four wings surrounding an irregular court; it is sur- 
mounted by a square principal tower and decorated with polygonal stair- 
case-towers. The chapel is still essentially Gothic. 

Burleigh House (1577), with its numerous towers; Longford Castle 
(1591), triangular in plan, with great round towers at the angles and 
pointed arches borne on Doric pilasters; Hardwicke Hall (1597); Temple 
Newsam (161 2); Audley End (1616), and others, may be mentioned as 
being almost Gothic castles. Holland House, erected in 1607, claims par- 
ticular notice on account of the noble proportions of its round-arched 
arcades, numerous simply-curved gables, and Gothic windows. 

Castle Rosenborgs at Copenhagen, built in 1604, consists of a single 
wing with two salient towers at the ends and an octangular staircase in 
the centre, behind which, on the rear facade of the building, rises a 
massive tower. The whole is decorated with oriels and gables which 
appertain to that fantastic manner which was developed during the six- 
teenth century in the North, but the details are somewhat baroque. 

Tlie Castle Frederiksborg^ near Copenhagen, in the midst of a beautiful 
country, exhibits the degenerated German Renaissance with oriels, high- 
curved gables, and slender towers. The fantastic impression is heightened 
by the variously-colored materials. The portal bears the date 1609. 

At Neville's Court, in Trinity College, Cambridge (1615), there are 
colonnades on the ground-floor, but the windows are mullioned. The 
entrance of Oxford University^ (1612) unites an order of columns with 
pinnacled architecture. To the same period belongs Blickling Hall, 
with four angle-towers, a large square tower with an octangular upper 

* Our author must allude to the School's Tower, which is Late Gothic in general design, but is 
ornamented with clustered columns of the five orders of Roman architecture and a sculptured figure 
of James I. The architect was Thomas Holt. — Ed. 



270 ARCHITECTURE, [Lati Renaissaxce: 

portion in the centre of the facade, and many bays with Gothic windows; 
the entrance, with its rich Renaissance detail, bears the date 1620. St. 
John's College at Oxford (1631), the chapel of St. Peter's College at Cam- 
bridj^e, and Clare Collej^e at the latter place, with its picturesque court, 
are still replete with niedia,*val forms exhibiting a mixed style with the 
Renaissance. 

The Exchaugc at Copenhagen (1624-1640) is a stately structure dis- 
playing its length l^tween two canals. It has a high roof ending in a 
tall gable on the ends facing the canals; under these gables stately flights 
of steps lead up to marble portals. The side has a great gable with a 
central tower, the summit of which is composed of four dragons with 
intertwined tails. Numerous donners with fantastic gables diversify the 
roof, and the walls are rich with Hermes figures and other adornments. 
The hall is embellished with paintings from the history of Denmark. 

The Castk of Kroiibitfy;^ near Helsingor (1629), is a square edifice sur- 
rounding a rectangular court, and is decorated with towers and high 
gabies like Frederiksborg. 

The Ileriot Hospital^ at Edinburgh, erected 1628-1660, has four tower- 
like pavilions at the angles; it has scarcely any Gothic in its details, but 
exhibits the classical forms, which are adopted in the most baroque and 
misapplied manner, built up into a whole which is without grandeur, but 
so much the more picturesque. 

Late Renaissance: Baroque Style, — Thus the entire North accepted 
the Italian Renaissance, but only to a certain extent as a predominant 
factor in the details and in some peculiarities of the plan. Its introduc- 
tion was in the face of great opposition. In the second half of the six- 
teenth centur>' France followed Italy for the most part — at least, in the 
adoption of the palatial, symmetrical, regularly-planned edifice, which in 
Germany was carried out only occasionally, chiefly in great palaces for the 
constniction of which masters were imported from Italy when secular or 
clerical princes, by adopting Italian art, and following their Catholic tend- 
encies, desired to knit themselves more closely to the land which was at 
once the centre of the Church and of culture. Even in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century Italy was still the centre of culture, and still 
more the centre of all art-aspirations. Thither every master, in whate\-cr 
land he might work, must repair to gain inspiration in his art; there he 
must seek his motifs. 

We have before stated (p. 237) that in Italy the main impression of the 
edifices was produced by the massive strength of the details, and that cha- 
racterization was scarcely thought of, pomp being chiefly relied upon to 
produce a grand effect; this character of pompous ostentation came more 
and more into the foreground. Since the internal tectonic needs had for 
so long a period had no share in the formation of the members of a build- 
ing and had so long worn a foreign garment, men no longer saw any 
reason why they should continue to reverence the ancient historic form 
of the details; if they could invent somethiug that was to some extent a 



Baroque Style.] RENAISSANCE. 271 

novelty, they could not understand why they should for ever continue to 
use the same well-known pilasters and entablatures. 

Yet the palaces of Filippo Durazzi and Balbi, the Palazzo Reale, and 
that of Tursi Doria (now del Municipio) at Genoa — the latter, commenced 
in 1590, being the work of Rocco Lurago — are somewhat severe in 
appearance. The fag^de of the Doria palace has two series of pilasters, 
each corresponding to a principal and a mezzanine storey. The windows 
have framelike architraves partly of very flowing forms. Among the 
more rigorous works is the Palazzo Borghese, the court of which (^/. 41, 
Jig, 5) is surrounded by massive colonnades. 

At the end of the sixteenth centur>', and until 1604, Giacomo della 
Porta, a pupil of Michelangelo and Vignola, was active at Rome. After 
the death of Michelangelo he finished the dome of St. Peter's according 
to the master's designs and completed the Capitol. He also built the 
Corte della Sapienza and the palazzi Niccolini, Godofredi, Marescoti, and 
Marchetti, as well as the Villa Aldobrandini near Frascati. At the same 
period Domenico Fontana built the Lateran Palace and the Piazza del 
Monte Cayallo, and also began the royal palate at Naples, with its great 
three-storey facade. Carlo Maderno built the Barberini and Mattei 
palaces, and after 1605 added the nave to St. Peter's. Flaminio Ponzio 
bnilt the Palazzo Sciarra and the Quirinal. The Villa Borghese, erected 
by Fiammingo, is in plan like the Villa Medici. 

Classic ReirivaL — That dominance over the minds of the Northern 
nations which the Church, as such, had failed to attain was at last 
acquired by a spirit which, though emanating from within the Church, 
•did not arise from its teachings: this spirit was that which had become 
saturated with classical ideas — that humanism of the Renaissance with its 
science and its art, which attained domination only after shedding its gay 
and specifically Italian elegance, only after Palladio and his successors 
by the hollow and imposing pomp which they introduced rendered pos- 
sible a new style. This new style was no longer Italian, but became 
universal, just as the general culture had become universal and was no 
longer Italian. Italy had indeed remained the centre of this culture until 
toward the end of the seventeenth century, and then only abdicated a 
portion of its dominance to France, which had regained under Louis 
XIV. that European preponderance which it had enjoyed during the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. But France, like Italy, was only a 
central point: the whole of Western Europe was the realm out of whose 
broad area all forces worked toward the same end — the diminution of 
national differences and the advancement of sentiments and interests 
which swayed all countries alike. 

France was the first country which at the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century directly adopted the symmetrical palatial architecture that 
proceeded from Italy, and the latest French works of the sixteenth cen- 
tury noticeably tended toward this end. In 161 1, Jacques de Brosse 
built the Luxembourg Palace at Paris for Maria de' Medici; this struc- 



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